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Learning Strategies

Anadolu Üniversitesi E.L.T. Autonomy Learning Class

Fazilet Taşkın

on 14 April 2015

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Transcript of Learning Strategies

Definition: A deliberate, goal-directed attempt to manage and control efforts to learn a foreign or second language.

Learning style refers to a person's geneal approach to learning.
Learning strategy refers to actions and behaviours which a person uses to learn and includes the ways in which they learn and remember information.
Contribute to the main goal
Allow learners to become more self-directed
Expand the role of the teacher
Are problem-oriented
Are not always observable
Can be taught
Are flexible
Support learning both directly and indirectly
Involves direct mental processing of the language

Cognitive Strategies

Indirect strategies work together with the direct strategies. They help learner
regulate the learning process. These strategies support and manage language learning without direct
engagement and therefore called indirect strategies.
Metacognitive strategies go beyond the cognitive mechanism and give learners to coordinate
their learning. This helps them to plan language learning in an efficient way. When new vocabulary, rules, and writing system confuse the learner, these strategies become vital for successful language
Centering Your Learning
Arranging and Planning Your Learning
Evaluating Your Learning
The aim of centering learning is to
give a focus to the learner so that the attention could be directed toward certain language activities or skills.
Arranging and planning learning help learners to organize so they may get maximum benefit from their energy and effort.
Evaluating learning helps learners with problems like monitoring
errors and evaluation of progress.
The learner can look
up the words related to the topics before listening to the news.
Refers to emotions, attitudes, motivations and values.

1. Lowering your anxiety
2. Encouraging yourself
3. Taking your emotional temprature

Lowering your anxiety
Too much anxiety has the opposite effect where it hinders language learning.
1.Using progressive relaxation, deep breathing, meditation or prayer.
2.Using music
3.Using laughter
Encouraging yourself
1.Making positive statements

2.Taking risks wisely
3.Rewarding yourself
4.Taking your emotional temperature
1.Listening to your body
2.Using a checklist
3.Writing a language learning diary
4.Discussing your feelings with someone

Social strategies are very important in learning a language because language is used in communication
and communication occurs between people.

1.Asking questions
2.Cooperating with others
3.Emphathizing with others

Asking questions

Asking for clarification
Would you please repeat that ?
Please speak more slowly.
I am sorry, I don’t understand.

2.Asking for correction
This strategy is used in speaking and writing.
Cooperating with others
Cooperation with others eliminates competition and in its place brings group spirit. Studies show that cooperative learning results in higher self-esteem, increased confidence, and rapid achievement.
Empathizing with others
Empathy is very important in communication. Empathy means to put oneself in someone elses
situation to understand that person’s point of view.
Receiving and Sending Messages
Analyzing and Reasoning
Creating Structure for Input and Output
a. Repeating
b. Formally practicing with sounds and writing systems
c. Recognizing and using formulas and patterns
d. Recombining
e. Practicing naturalistically
Saying or doing something over and over. Listening to something several times; rehearsing; imitating a native speaker.
Formally Practicing with Sounds and Writing Systems


Julia listens to different words containing the letters "ough", a combination that sounds different in various words: through, though, tough and trough. Then she creates her own phonetic spelling of these words to understand them better.( throo, thow, tuff, troff)

Combining known elements in ways to produce a longer sentence.
Rosie knows three expressions: "weather is fine", "I think I'd like ...", and "take a walk". In practicing her speaking, she creates a new sentence with some additional words: The weather is fine today, so I think I'd like to take a walk.
Practicing Naturalistically
This strategy centers on using the language for actual communication.
2. Receiving and Sending Messages
1. Getting te idea quickly
2. Using resources for receiving and sending messages
3.Analyzing and Reasoning
These strategies help the learner to use logical thinking to understand and use the grammar rules and vocabulary of the new language.


1.Reasoning deductively
2. Analyzing expressions
3. Analyzing contrastively
4. Transferring
5. Translating
Guessing at the meaning of what is heard by means of general rules the learner already knows.

June knows the sentence, "Would you like to go to the library?"is a question because he recognizes that part of the verb comes before the subject (a general rule he has learned).
This involved breaking down a new word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph into its individual components.
EXAMPLE: Mary does not understand the phrase "premeditated crime". Then she breaks down the phrase into its parts.
(bad act),
(think about),
(before). So she then figures out the phrase; a bad act that is planned in advance.
Most students use this one naturally. It involves analyzing elements(sounds, words, syntax) of the new language to determine likeness and differences in comparison with one's own native language.
Example: The English word "papa" sounds close to the Korean word "appa". Both mean father. This strategy is used a lot with western language such as English and French that have a lot of very similar words
(English: cream, French: creme) .
This involves transferring linguistic knowledge from the L1 to the L2. This can sometimes be a problem as language elements in the L1 and L2 that are often different , so be careful!
EXAMPLE: Concerning about the days of the week. Stephen knows that each Korean word for day ends with "il". This is like the English equivelant where each weekday ends with "day"( Monday, Tuesday,..).
Incorrect Application : Sun Joon says "Teacher I bathroom go." He incorrectly places the verb at the end of the sentence via grammar transferring from the L1.
Most effective in early language learning. Uses the L1 as the basis for understanding the L2.
However, a word for word translation can become problematic and provide incorrect interpretations (Google translate :D)
In Spanish, it is appropriate to say "No comprendo." However, when this is translated in English it says, "no understand" which is technically correct yet primitive. The proper translation is, "I don't understand.".
4.Creating Structure for Input and Output
1. Taking notes
2. Summarizing
3. Highlighting
Taking Notes
The focus on note taking should be on understanding, not writing. Key points can be written in the L1 at first then in the L2 as the student progresses.

: Peter, who is learning English, knows some terms for everyday tasks: "going to the store", "washing clothes", "getting some gas" and "going to the library". He writes a short story about a man who does all these things in one afternoon.
Strategies Under Microscope
The first section covers four skills.
The second section covers more general strategies.

A. Listening
1-Identify the type of listening text
2-Recognising the topic
3-Prediction on the basis knowledge
4-Prepare yourself to listen
5-Focus on what is being said

B. Reading
1- Ask yourself what and why you are reading
2-Scan the text and make sensible guesses
3- Use a glassory
4- Determine place and time
C. Speaking
1- Firstly keep it simple
2-Describe unknown words
3- Give yourself time
D. Writing
1- Pre-writing
2- Writing
Monitoring your own progress becomes part of planning what you need to do next and how to go about it.
-How to handle a task and decide what to concentrated on.
Study Skills
-Use dictionary and books.
-Note important points
-Work with friends
Why Teach Learning Strategies?
1- To learn easier, better and faster.
2- Knowing how to learn new knowledge.
3- Having self-confidence
4- Learning different ways.
5- Developing communication skills

How to Teach Learning Strategies?
1- Awareness Raising
2- Modelling
3- Action Planning
4- Extensive Practise
5- Fading out Reminders

Awareness Raising
-To make learners more aware of language.

-Useful for mixed-ability classes
-Teacher models each strategy.
-Making it clear
Action Planning
-Help students to reach their objectives.

Extensive Practice
Practice, practice and practise...
Fading out Reminders
It is necessary to establish if new strategies have been assimilated.
Cycle in Action
From "basic" strategies to more complex ones.
-Identify what has been successfully grasped
-Identify one's ability to perform a task
-Identify one's overall execution of the task
Monitoring Language Use
Module: Dates:
I want to improve...

my pronounciation

I have selected the following strategies
(listening to tap).

I will know ı have improved because...
I will sound more..
Full transcript