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Transcript of Persian Empire
AKA: BEST EMPIRE
Located in present-day Iraq
Stretched from Egypt to India
Rich resources of water, fertile farmland, and gold
About 3,088,817 square miles
More than 1,550 miles long!
Great for mail and trading
Built by King Darius
Went from Sardis to Susa, the empire's capital
Many bodies of water:
Known as a Absolute Monarchy
Persian Kings claimed the title, "King of Kings"
Adopted rules from territories they conquered
The Empire was divided into 20 provinces
Nobody was too powerful
Ruled by a governor
Governors of Provinces
Enforced law and order, and collected taxes and tributes
Worked with Army Commanders
Could not be trusted by the King so the King would hire...
Formally known as, "The King's eyes and ears"
Made sure the Satraps were not stealing
Uniform coinage of gold and silver
Elite was known as the "Persian Immortals"
10,000 Immortals equipped with a bow, sword, and spear
Used horses, elephants and chariots
Battle of Marathon
Persia conquered Greek Territories and the Greeks revolted
But, Perisa over took them
Darius the Great was mad that Greek would invade Persia so he invaded Greece.
They sailed to the Bay of Marathon, and were defeated
Greek beat the Persians, but the Persians were still better
Battle of Salamis
September 0f 480 BCE
The Persian army traveled to Athens to find no one there
They then found the Athenian Fleet waiting on the coast
The Greeks put their fleet at the island of Salamis
The Persians came in with their large fleet
The Greeks rammed Persian ships and won
But Persia is still better!
"Persian Empire." Persian Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2014.
"Ancient Persian Social Hierarchy." Hierarchy. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2014.
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.
"Human Rights and Rise of the Achaemenid Empire: Forgotten Lessons from a Forgotten Era - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)©." Human Rights and Rise of the Achaemenid Empire: Forgotten Lessons from a Forgotten Era - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)©. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.
"Persian Empire Social Structure." Persian Empire Social Structure. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.
"What Was The World Like 3000 Years Ago? - Daily Life in the Persian Empire." Bright Hub Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.
King- Most power and included family.
Priests- Could question or interfere with the kings decisions.
Aristocracy- Famous citizens that helped king make decisions.
Military- Honor to be apart of.
Traders- Middle level with rights more than some but less than others.
Craftsmen- Skilled workers.
Peasants- Belonged to traditional class of farmers.
Slaves- Captured from other conquered civilizations. No rights of their own.
Scott Skage- Social
Ryan Kainz- Economic
Ryan Sullivan- Culture
Cameron Stake- Political
Men V.S. Women
Men and women were mainly treated equal.
They could have equal professions.
They were paid the same as skilled workers.
Many factories and royal workshops were run by women.
Men could even work under the supervision of a women.
Women usually didn't travel long distances for work.
Women could take a leave of absence when they are pregnant and return to work later.
A boy was preferred so that they can carry the name.
Women cared for the house.
Zoroastrian beliefs might have influenced this equality between men and women.
Equality between men and women was uncommon which is one reason why the Persian Empire was so great.
Father had most of the power in the family.
The children were treated as slaves.
The children had to obey the father and do what he says.
The more children the better.
Men practiced polygamy in order to have more children.
Marriage was a formal affair.
Incest was illegal.
Divorce was almost unheard of.
Several families make a clan and several clans make a tribe.
Intermarriage went on with families in the same clan.
Clan was the basic unit of identification.
Approximately 50 million people by 480 B.C.E.
About 44% of the worlds populations at its peak.
Most an empire has had.
Very diverse people.
Many different languages and cultures were present.
Due to the vast amount of land it conquered. (Will show map next slide).
You were basically either a peasant or part of the royalty.
Most citizens were Pagan, Zoroastrian, or part of the Muslim community.
Some residents were nomads while others lived in the city.
If you were not part of the royalty you were paid in rations based on your skill level.
Wealthy and powerful empire.
The immortals was what their soldiers were known as.
Type of Economic System/ Capital
Specialization of Labor or Artisans
Persian Battleships are
so much more sleek
Greek Battleships are
not good at all
"Two of the Best"
Cyrus The Great (580-530 BCE)
Also known as "King Cyrus" and "Cyrus the Elder"
Founder of the Achaemenid Empire
Reign (559-530 BCE)
Originally was the King of Anshan then took over the Median Empire and became "King of Persia"
Conquered the Babylons and Lydians
He now had a massive Persian Empire
Treated people equally
Helped the Jews escape captivity
Darius The Great (550-486 BCE)
Formally known as "Darius I"
Ruled the Persian Empire at its peak
Reign (522-486 BCE)
Expanded his territory by conquering Egypt and Indus Valley
Became one of the largest empires in the world
Took part in invading Greece
Constructed huge palaces in Susa and Persepolis
Built a canal in Egypt from the Nile to the Red Sea
In charge of building the famous Royal Road
Helped boost the speed of messaging with his elaborate road systems
By: Cameron Stake
Darius the Great
Cyrus the Great
You know Persia's awesome when their leaders are known as "________ the Great"
Dispersed in every Province
Rendered Justice easy
Had a Supreme Court
Law was 1/3 of the Nasks, or Holy Books
The Books of Law dealt with:
Court and Magisterial Law
Law of Accusations
Law for Injuries to Person and Property
Laws pertaining to Theft
Misappropriation and Cruelty to Animals
Laws applying to Soldiers and Military Organizations
Church Law, Family Law and Law of Pedigree and Descent
Law applying to Medical Practice
Law of Business Transactions
Trade Goods/ Trade Networks
Dramatic agricultural changes to create a superior empire early on...
Began with herding due to the poor fertility of the land
Was known to be a very tough/ meager lifestyle
Conquered the Median Empire, Lydia, Babylon, Egypt, and part of India
These areas are very rich agricultural lands that included waterways, fertile farmland, and metal deposits, especially gold
Acquisition of these new fertile lands made Persia very powerful and successful
Persia had a money based economy that relied heavily upon trade (emphasis on international trade)
King Darius revolutionized the economic system by placing it on a uniform gold and silver coinage system throughout the entire empire
Only the king was able to mint gold coins, but important generals and satraps (provincial Persian governors) were able to mint silver coins
Collected taxes and tributes
Taxes on land, livestock, and marketplace
Satraps paid tribute to the central Persian government
Tributes from satraps made in silver were measured with the Babylonian talent, and tributes made in gold were measured with the Euboic talent
The total of the tribute would be less than 15,000 silver talents
The treasurer, Darius, was responsible to make sure that the tributes were all accounted for
Men, women, and children all worked
Paid in wine and grain until coinage system
skilled workers were paid more than unskilled workers
Supervisors were paid more than workers
Man were paid slightly more than women, but woman supervisors were paid more than the men working under them
Women got maternity leave and were paid for each child they had
The general job descriptions were farmers, laborers, merchants, landlords, slaves, and soldiers
Slaves were captured from other conquered civilizations and had no rights
Farmers harvested crops such as rice, wheat, apricots, artichokes, spinach, and citrus fruits; they raised sheep and goats
Laborers were involved in the construction of things such as buildings, roads, and canals. They also did work with metals, jewels, pottery, and textiles.
Merchants imported and traded gold, bronze, turquoise, lapis lazuli, and silk
Soldiers are any male under the age of 50 during a time of war, but the only standing army were elite forces known as immortals (only Persians- 10,000)
Landlords were wealthy people that rented out houses
General Job descriptions
The amazing Persian empire developed and modified many innovations to society such as...
The first postal system
An extensive road system for trade including the Royal Road that is 1600 miles long and connects Susa to Sardis- created under king Darius
Canals and waterways to enable better trade including the Suez Canal that connects the Nile River to the Red Sea
Large sailing vessels for trade
The first banks (created to help regulate tributes)
The government provided civil services
They established an official language
Under king Darius they standardized weights, measures, and monetary units
First registration of land (resulting from tax)
Not many of the other empires have as many innovations to society as the Persian Empire... Just sayin'.
Persia's agriculture thrived far more than the agriculture in other empires... Just sayin'
Persia has one of the best trade networks out of all the empires because...
They have an extensive road system maintained by the state to encourage trade
Many goods are transported through Persia, especially along the Royal Road
Horses and carts used for transportation
They have extensive seaborne trade
Canals and underground waterways to encourage trade
Suez Canal- connects Nile River to Persian Gulf to allow easier, faster, and more trade
Goods are brought to Persia from the East by means of travel on the Silk Road
emphasized international trade
due to its extensive trade, the Persian language spread with it
The key goods that they traded were textiles, carpets, tools, and metal objects
The main imports were gold, bronze, turquoise, lapis lazuli, and silk along with many other things such as jewels
> Accepted by rulers and became a defining element of Persian culture
> During Achaemenid period Zoroastrianism reached Southwestern Iran
> Formalized concepts and divinities of Iranian pantheon
> Introduced some new ideas such as free will
> By the 5th century B.C.E. Zoroastrianism had spread throughout the empire
> Use of temples, images of gods, and altars were considered acts of folly and therefore did not exist in Persian culture
> One universal, transcendent, supreme god, Ahura Mazda
> The religion states that active participation in life through good deeds is necessary to ensure happiness and to keep chaos at bay
> Ahura Mazda will ultimately prevail over the evil Angra Mainyu
> Language of chancellory was Elamite
> In the grand rock-face inscriptions of the kings, the Elamite texts are always accompanied by Akkadian and Old Persian inscriptions
> In these cases it looks like the translation is from Old Persian to Elamite
> Elamite used in Susa (by the capital gov't) but was not a standardized language of government
> Empire had no official language but Imperial Aramaic was the lingua franca
> Cuneiform was used to write Old Persian
> It is classified as a syllabic script
> Crafting of precious metals
> Decoration of palaces
> Glzed brick masonry
> Gardening/outdoor decoration
> Persepolis is
said to be the
greatest architectural and artistic display
of the whole
> Gate of All Nations