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Copy of CH 4 Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

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Wulan Purnamasari

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of CH 4 Psychological Foundations of Curriculum

Psychological Foundations of Curriculum Rachelle Hurd In what ways do psychological foundations enable curriculum workers to perform their educational responsibilities?
How would you compare the three major theoretical schools of learning?
How has the view of multiple intelligences influenced the field of curriculum?
How should the concept of learning styles influence the thinking of those responsible for curriculum development and delivery?
How should an educator use the information about various types of thinking?
In what ways can addressing emotional intelligence be justified in the curriculum? Focusing Questions Psychology is the scientific study of mental functions and behavior including:
perception, cognition, behavior, emotion, personality, and interpersonal relationships. What is psychology? 1. Behaviorist theories:
Focuses on stimulus response and reinforcers
Studies conditioning, modifying, or shaping behavior through reinforcement and rewards

2. Cognitive theories:
Focuses information processing in relation to the total environment
Studies developmental stages, understanding, multiple forms of intelligence, problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity.

3. Phenomenological and Humanistic theories:
Focus on the whole child, their social, psychological, and cognitive development.
Studies focus on human needs, attitudes, feelings, and self-awareness. Why study psychology? Psychology theories provide principles and direction for curriculum developers.

Psychology theories provide insight into understanding the teaching and learning process. Ask yourself*
How should my curriculum be designed to enhance learning?
Why do the students respond the way they do to the curriculum? Behaviorism Thorndike - Law of Effect
Pavlov and Watson - Classical Conditioning
Skinner - Operant Conditioning
Bandura - Observational Learning
Gagne' - Hierarchical Learning Edward Thorndike
1874-1949 Father of modern educational psychology and founder of behavioral psychology
Started his research with animals using stimulus-response (classical conditioning) and developed the idea of Connectionism.
1928 Thorndike conducted his first major study with adults.

Defined learning as a connection or association of an increasing number of habits. More complicated = higher level of understanding. Three Laws of Learning 1. Law of Readiness
Deals with attitude and focus.

2. Law of Exercise
Connections proportional to frequency, duration, and intensity.

3. Law of Effect
Responses that cause satisfaction strengthen connections and discomfort weakens connections. Positive Reinforcement Final.avi
Youtube.com Thorndike's Influence He believed that rote memorization does not necessarily strengthen connections.
There has to be some kind of meaning associated with it in order for it to be transferred to other situations.

Broke tradition of hierarchy of subject matter.
No one subject more important than the other.
Before math and science Ivan Pavlov (1849- 1936) Ivan Pavlov The first to demonstrate classical conditioning. Two and Half Men - Pavlov's Bar James Watson Used Pavlov's research to build further on behaviorism.
Observable or measurable- not on cognitive process.
He argued for the cases of environmental influences when the majority of psychologist argued for the case of genetics. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Attempted to apply his theories to the classroom

Theory of Operant Conditioning
The idea that behavior is determined or influenced by its consequence

Respondent V. Operant Behavior
Respondent behavior is the elicited response tied to a definite stimulus.
Operant behavior is the emitted response seemingly unrelated to any specific stimuli. Desired operant behaviors must be reinforced in a timely manner. Delay of reinforcement hinders performance.

By selecting which behavior to reinforce, we can direct the learning process in the classroom.

As behavior is shaped, new and more complex concepts can be introduced and desired behavior again reinforced. Albert Bandura Bandura contributed to the understanding of learning through observation and modeling.
He showed that aggressive behavior can be learned from watching adults fighting, violent cartoons or even violent video games. Passive behavior can also be learned from watching adults.
Repeated demonstration and modeling is used by coaches in various sports, military endeavors, and is also used in the classroom setting to model and practice desired behaviors. Robert Gagne' 1. Signal learning: the learner makes a general response to a signal

2. Stimulus-response learning: the learner makes a precise response to a signal

3. Motor Chains: the connection of a set of individual stimulus & responses in a sequence.

4. Verbal association: the learner makes associations using verbal connections

5. Discrimination learning: the learner makes different responses to different stimuli that are somewhat alike

6. Concept learning: the learner develops the ability to make a generalized response based on a class of stimuli

7. Rule learning: a rule is a chain of concepts linked to a demonstrated behavior

8. Problem solving: the learner discovers a combination of previously learned rules and applies them to solve a novel situation Five Learning Outcomes (observable and measurable)
1. Intellectual Skills
“knowing how” to organize and use verbal and mathematical symbols, concepts and rules to solve a problem.

2. Information
“knowing what” – knowledge and facts

3. Cognitive Strategies
“learning strategies” needed to process information

4. Motor skills
Ability to coordinate movements

5. Attitudes.
Feelings and emotions developed from positive and negative experiences.

Mental operations needed for each outcome differ.

Gagné’s Instructional Events lead into cognitive psychology. Cognitive Psychology Montessori - Structured Play

Piaget - Cognitive Stages of Development

Vygotsky - Theory of Language and Cultural Transmission How do people organize knowledge?

How do they store information?

How do they retrieve data and generate conclusions? Maria Montessori (1870-1952) Directed the Psychiatric Clinic, Unv. of Rome
Influenced by child-orientated pedagogy
Student's interest came first
Sensory learning
Children develop physically, mentally, and socially at different rates
Understood that poor children had difficulties and was committed to equal opportunity education Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Lev Vygotsky
(1896-1934) Social interaction precedes development

Consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior

Three Major Themes:
Social interaction plays a fundamental role
The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)
The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

Student play active role, the teacher is a facilitator Humanistic Maslow - Human Needs

Rogers - Freedom to Learn Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers A Theory of Human Motivation (1943)
Human actions Goal attainment
Any behavior could satisfy several functions at the same time Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Lower level needs need to be satisfied before higher-order needs can influence behavior.

SELF-ACTUALIZATION- morality, creativity, problem solving

ESTEEM- confidence, self-esteem, achievement, respect

BELONGINGNESS- includes love, friendship, intimacy, family

SAFETY- includes security of environment, employment, resources, health

PHYSIOLOGICAL- air, food, water, sex, sleep Established counseling procedures and methods for facilitating learning

Reality is based on what the learner perceives

Influences learning and behavior in class

Positive human relationships enable people to grow

Teacher's role: a facilitator who has a close professional relationship with students and guides their growth and development.

Curriculum is concerned with process American educators started using in 50's and 60's

Four stages of cognitive development (birth to maturity) Consciousness, Choice, and Conditioning Latest Theory on Conditioning Humans are conditioned by habit and routine
Children develop methods of identifying objects and responding to people, thus predicting how they respond to their environment
90% of what people do daily is a habitual response to predictable events (Autopilot)
People learn best when confronted with an unexpected event or reward. Behaviorism and Curriculum Behaviorist believe that the curriculum should be organized so student can master the subject matter.

Rely on step-by-step and structured learning methods.

Criticized as describing learning too simply and mechanically Three Basic Cognitive Process Assimilation- incorporation of new experiences into existing ones

Accommodation- child's existing cognitive structures are modified and adapted in response to environment

Equilibration- process of balancing what is already understood with what has yet to be understood REVIEW BEHAVIORISM:
Oldest theory
Used in current teaching models
individualized learning
direct instruction
Related to elicited responses (S-R)

Related to emitted response COGNITIVE THEORY Piaget and Vygotsky:
environment explains cognitive growth and development

Humans are capable of critical thinking, creative thinking, and intuitive thinking Humanistic Emphasis on attitude and feelings, self-actualization, motivation, and freedom to learn Questions 1. Who was responsible for the Law of Effect?
a. B.F. Skinner
b. Thorndike
c. Montesorri
d. Pavlov 2. B.F. Skinner developed this theory?
a. Theory of Language and Cultural Transmission
b. Theory of Human Motivation
c. Theory of Operant Conditioning
d. Theory of Observation 3. He argued for the cases of environmental influences when the majority of psychologist argued for the case of genetics?
a. B.F. Skinner
b. Ivan Pavlov
c. Piaget
d. James Watson 4. Which theory deals with how people organize knowledge, store information, and how they retrieve data?
a. Cognitive
b. Behaviorist
c. Humanist
d. Three Laws of Learning Behaviorism operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.”

All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning).

All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.

Behaviorism assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli.

Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again.
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