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Education Reform (1800-1860) - By Adrianna Gaudreau
Transcript of Education Reform (1800-1860) - By Adrianna Gaudreau
Gaudreau School Curriculum Education Timeline School in the 1800s Horace Mann Henry Barnard Emma Willard American Education Reformers
-Supported public education and established the concept of state-sponsored free schools.
President of St. John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland (1866–67) Not many went to school because the curriculum was too hard. . Bethany Center Schoolhouse, 1834-1934
Formerly located on Amity Road at the site of the present Center Firehouse
Now located on the grounds of the Bethany Community School Published the book Outline for an Institute for the Education of Teachers.
-wrote on the necessity of training teachers in the art of teaching. He argued that all children should learn together in “common” schools A brief survey of school books from the period indicates that their reading books advanced through several modern grade levels in any given year. Few states provided universal public education The teacher was often left largely to his or her own devices and the day-to-day running of the schools was based more on the teacher’s practices than the board’s policies. In 1821 she opened her own school, The Emma Willard School, for girls in Troy, New York. In the spring of 1807 she became an assistant at the Academy in Westfield, Massachusetts Dedication of Russell Sage Hall and Unveiling of the Emma Willard Statue, 1895. 1800-1860 The first public high school, Boston English High School, opened . 1821 1827 Catherine Beecher founded the Hartford Female Seminary, a private school for girls in Hartford, Connecticut. Eighty students arrived at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, the first college for women in the U.S. Its founder/president is Mary Lyon. 1823 1837 The first state funded school specifically for teacher education (then known as "normal" schools) opened in Lexington, Massachusetts. 1839 Massachusetts enacted the first mandatory attendance law. By 1885, 16 states had compulsory-attendance laws, but most of those laws were sporadically enforced at best. All states had them by 1918. 1852 The Boston Public Library opened to the public. It was the first major tax-supported free library in the U.S. 1854 The first kindergarten in the U.S. was started in Watertown, Wisconsin, founded by Margarethe Schurz. Four years later, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody opened the first "formal" kindergarten in Boston, MA. 1856 THE END The state of Massachusetts passed a law requiring towns of more than 500 families to have a public high school open to all students. 1809 The first blackboard was used in a school in Philadelphia. Teachers Children worked until November when the harvest was over and then they went to school. Schools were only open in the winter and summer. A lot of teachers had to " board round", meaning they had to live with their students. Some of the younger students were three or four years old and other students were sometimes older than the teacher They wrote with a quill pen made from a feather. Well equipped one-room school (with benches, blackboard, books, globe, stove, piano) Excerpt from The New England Primer of 1690, the most popular American textbook of the 18th century. First teachers’ institute (1839) Rhode islands first Commissioner of Education (1845) State superintendent of education and principal of the normal school at New Britain in Connecticut (1849) Editor of the American Journal of Education (1851-1888) First United States Commissioner of Education (1867 – 1870) Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin in Madison (1858–61) By the fifth year of school, students were reading material at a level which is today considered college level. Most teachers didn't get paid very much money. They received $4 to $10 a month. Wanted -
mandatory student attendance.
a longer school year.
increased teacher preparation. Accomplished-
reorganized the Massachusetts school system.
extended the school year to six months.
doubled teachers' salaries.
enriched the curriculum.
introduced new teaching methods. A public education movement that began around 1825, after the completion of the Erie Canal. Lyceum Movement It is credited with promoting the establishment of public schools, libraries, and museums in the United States. Josiah Holbrook introduced this movement, and in 1826, set up the first "American Lyceum" in Millbury, Massachusetts. A lyceum: A lecture hall; a building/institution used for lectures and discussions.
Massachusetts' teachers were highly trained. In the West, many children had no access to schools. In the North, 72% of children were enrolled but didn't regularly attend classes. In the South, Blacks did not have access to formal education. Only a third of white children actually enrolled in schools. In other areas, teachers were barely literate. From 1820 to 1860: The Antebellum Period, which occurred before the Civil War, included the establishment of free, tax-supported public schools. Inside of a School Outside of a School Positive reactions: Middle-class men realized the future of the republic would fall into the hands of the uneducated poor- both immigrant and native-born. Urban workers generally supported the reformers' push for free, tax-supported schools.
Southerners, committed to tradtion, were reluctant to support public education. They would see social reform as a northern conspiracy against the southern way of life. The schools were generally small, and often several grade levels were taught in the same room. Testing was often oral, and children memorized and recited more often than they wrote.