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Physical Education Unit 4: AoS 1: Planning, implementing and evaluating a training program

Developed for students of Mallacoota P-12 College Using "Malpeli, R., Telford, A., Whittle, R., Corrie, M. (2010) Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4 5th Ed., Nelson Cengage Learning, Melbourne

Simon Berry

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of Physical Education Unit 4: AoS 1: Planning, implementing and evaluating a training program

Physical Education Unit 4: AoS 1: Enhancing Performance
Developed for students of Mallacoota P-12 College Using "Malpeli, R., Telford, A., Whittle, R., Corrie, M. (2010) Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4 5th Ed., Nelson Cengage Learning, Melbourne
What did we learn last lesson?
What are we learning today?
What are we learning this week?
Home learning....any issues?

Fitness Components used in sport and activities
There are numerous definitions of physical fitness.

• ‘the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and
alertness, without undue fatigue, and ample energy
to enjoy leisure time pursuits and meet unforseen
emergencies’ (President’s Council on Physical Fitness
and Sport)

• ‘the capability of the heart, lungs, blood vessels and
muscles to perform at optimal efficiency’ (Dr Leroy ‘Bud’ Getchell, one of the founders in the field of physical fitness)

• ‘the ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue, and the capability of maintaining such ability throughout life’
(The American College of Sports Medicine).
It is difficult to measure fitness in terms of these definitions. More questions are raised than answered.

Fitness is specific to the requirements of the sport and the individual.

Eg Full forward vs rover. Wing vs front rower

It is useful to look at
fitness as being multidimensional
(which means??)
rather than ‘one size fits all’.
There are common dimensions across sport, what would these be?

Fitness is not static, it can be improved or lost. It is beneficial to measure to determine the amount of change and relate this to training.
Component Model of Fitness
Health-Related Components
Skill related components
SAC 1: Maintain 2 - Improve 1
Class discussion: pg 177 - Case study
Rather than looking at total physical fitness (which, as we have established, is very difficult to define),
we use a component model based on health-related components and skill-related components
Health-related fitness components have been identified as those that are more important to health than to athletic or sporting ability.

These components of fitness are directly related to good health and a
reduced risk of hypokinetic disease.
eg. Heart attack, Type 2 diabetes

What do we think some are?
Skill-related components improve a person’s physical performance in motor skills. They are sometimes referred to as athletic ability.

Having a high degree of fitness in these areas is often linked to high levels of athletic performance.

What do we think some are?
The component model of physical fitness allows for measurements to be taken and comparisons to be made.

It is now possible for each individual component to be compared with norms (normative data), and different athletes can be compared in each component.

With the component model of fitness, there is no need to attempt to determine total physical fitness.
Aerobic Capacity
Anaerobic Capacity
Muscular Strength
Muscular Endurance
Body Composition
Health-related fitness components have been identified as those that are more important to health
than to athletic or sporting ability.
Muscular Power
Reaction time
VCAA need to memorize all!
Linked with improved performance in sport. Improvement in one area does not necessarily tsf to another.
- High levels of one area can compensate for lower areas.
- Elite athletes tend to be above average in most
Discuss tbl 7.5 pg 193
- Capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

Ability of the heart, blood vessels and respiratory system to supply nutrients and oxygen to the muscles and the ability of the muscles to use the oxygen for sustained exercise.

- Most important health-related component

- Involved in large groups of muscles (eg running)

- High levels can assist in high intensity (anaerobic) recovery

- Also known as aerobic fitness, aerobic power, cardio fitness, endurance
Factor affecting aerobic capacity
Aerobic capacity is dependent on the ability of the body to take in oxygen, transport it and use it
. Therefore the components of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are important to aerobic capacity.

Increased levels of aerobic capacity are associated with:

• an efficient and strong heart

• healthy blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) that are elastic and free from obstructions

• blood that has adequate levels of haemoglobin to carry the oxygen

• a fit respiratory system, including lungs and respiratory muscles

• muscle tissue that is capable of using the oxygen delivered to it.
Activities requiring large groups of muscles (eg. running) for a long period of time will require aerobic production of ATP (energy).

- Aerobic Energy system (usually Aerobic Glycosis)

- Capacity is virtually unlimited

- Slow twitch muscles have a higher aerobic capacity

- Best measure: VO2 max.

- Capacity is improved though fartlek or long interval training.
The capacity of the anaerobic systems (that is, the ATP–PC and Anaerobic glycosis systems; see Chapter 4) to provide energy for muscular contractions is termed
anaerobic capacity or anaerobic power.

- Anaerobic capacity refers to the total amount of work that can be done by the anaerobic systems.

- Anaerobic power refers to how quickly the work can be done.

- The capacity of the anaerobic systems is finite.

- Both the ATP–PC and the Anaerobic Energy system have limited capacity buy high power output.

- Power for a short period, but provided energy quickly (think speed)

- Fast twitch muscles higher anaerobic capacity than slow.
- Longer duration activities will rely on aerobic energy system

- Anaerobic capacity is lower in females than males (20% lower)

- Males have a greater relative area and metabolic capacity of fast twitch fibres
Muscular strength is the maximal force that can be generated by a muscle or muscle group in one maximal effort.

Muscular strength is specific to the muscle group, type of contraction, speed of contraction and joint angle.

- The amount of strength that can be generated in an individualmuscle or muscle group is dependent on the size, shape and fibre composition of the muscle.

- Other factors that affect strength are age and gender.
Types of Contractions
When muscles contract, they develop tension while shortening, lengthening or staying the same length.

The amount of tension depends on the external load placed on the muscles relative to the amount of force developed by the fibres.

The load and the force developed by the muscle are opposing forces.

Three types of muscular contractions: isometric
contraction, concentric contraction and eccentric contraction.
These can determine the amount of force developed.

Eccentric (muscle lengthens)
contractions produce the greatest force (eg running on earth)

- next in order come i
sometric (muscle static)
contractions and,

- finally, concentric
(muscle shortens)
Isometric contractions
Isotonic/Dynamic (eccentric and concentric)
Isokinetic contractions
They try to trick you here....
- Static contraction (muscle does NOT move)

- Muscle length constant as external resistance is greater than internal force of muscle

- Function is to stabilize joints/limbs

- Think gripping a bat. No muscle length change, object stable.

- Fg 7.7 is example
- Both eccentric and concentric contraction

- Most common contraction types

- Movement of the skeleton

- Eccentric (tension developes while lengthing)
think.....ecc - extension.

- Concentric (tension while shortening)
think...ecc is extension con is the opposite

Easy example: Concentric contraction...lifting a bicept curl, eccentric dropping a bicept curl.
During an isokinetic contraction, the tension developed in the muscle is maximal throughout the whole rangeof motion.

The velocity of the lengthening or shortening of the muscle is constant.

To perform isokinetic contractions, specialist equipment such as a Cybex machine is used.

Length-Tension R/S
Pg. 183 Look at the Pictures

All you need to know...
- The optimal length is defined as the
sarcomere (unit of muscle fiber)
length that allows maximum overlap of the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments.
- Peak force is developed in the muscle at lengths just beyond resting length
(Figure 7.10).

- Therefore, muscles are strongest at lengths that are slightly longer than the resting length of the muscle.
Speed of Contraction
The greater the amount of force developed in the muscle, the slower the speed of contraction.

- Maximal contraction velocity occurs when there is no load to move.

- Zero velocity occurs when the load is too great to be moved; the muscle cannot generate enough force to overcome the resistance of the load.

- A practical way to remember this is to think of modified sports equipment. The lighter the bat or racquet, the faster it can be swung.
Muscle size, fiber arrangement and type
The maximal force that can be generated in a muscle is related to the cross-sectional area of the muscle:

the greater the cross-sectional area of the muscle, the greater the strength.

- muscles for strength Unipennate, Bipennate and multipennate (across the muscle)

- muscles for speed Fusiform (along the muscle)

Draw in note books
Welcome to Unit 4. - Expectation review

- Equipment: Computer, Textbook, Note book, Diary
(when required: Runners, shorts, shirt - exercise gear)

- It is EXPECTED that you come to class having read/highlighted/ and note taken the chapter we are on. What will this lead to?

- You should now be reviewing Unit 3 notes, re-reading the prezi, completing the Quizletts, and previous exams.

- Speaking of quizlets, lets do it!
- fast-twitch fibres have a greater cross-sectional area,faster twitch (contraction) time and higher force production capabilities when compared with slow-twitch fibres.

-For this reason, fast-twitch fibres are preferentially recruited for activities that are high intensity and require more force to be produced.

- Slow-twitch fibres are preferentially recruited for low-intensity, endurance-type activities.
Age and Gender
- Strength increases from early childhood, through adolescence and into adulthood, it decreased by 8% per decade after 50

- The factors that are thought to lead to this decline in strength include:
• decreased muscle mass
• loss of contractile properties of the muscle
• reduced activation of motor units.

- After puberty Males have greater strength than females. Males have greater muscle and cross-sectional area.

- However when strength is compared with cross-sectional area of muscle, no difference is found.
Muscular endurance is the ability of the muscle or muscle group to perform repeated contractions (concentric, eccentric or isokinetic) for an extended period of time, or to maintain a contraction for an extended period of time (isometric contraction).

- Factors that affect muscular endurance are fatigue, fi bre type, age and gender.
- Muscular endurance is often referred to as local muscular endurancee (LME). E.g. running - legs / rowing - core and arms.
A muscle that has high levels of endurance must have reduced levels of fatigue;
therefore muscular endurance can be also be
defined as the opposite of fatigue.

- The ability to sustain the contraction while fatigue increases is an important aspect of local muscular endurance.
Fibre Type
- The level of muscular endurance is dependent on the type of fibre in the muscle.

- Fast-twitch fibres are suited to high-intensity, anaerobic-type activitie
s, fat
igue quickly

- Slow-twitch fibres are highly fatigue resistant and suited for extended periods of exercise or activity.

- The
greater the percentage of fast-twitch fibres in the muscle, the greater the muscular fatigue, the greater slow-twitch lower levels of muscular fatigue.

- Slow twitch are recruited first for low intensity, if duration or fatigue occurs fast-twitch will be recruited.

- Muscular endurance activities generate ATP from both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.
UN home learning
pg 188, Q 1-4
Flexibility is the capacity of a joint to move through its full range of motion, and reflects the ability of the muscles and connective tissues to stretch

- Flexibility is specific to the joint.

- 2 types: Static - flexibility under stationary conditions, Dynamic - resistance to motion in a joint.

- Having high levels of Static Flexibility does not mean you will have high levels of Dynamic. Athletes tend to have both.
Factors affecting flexibility
Joint Structure:
Different joints allow different range of movements. Joint structure can NOT be changed. Any improvement comes from muscle and connective tissue lengths.

Soft-tissue structure:
Muscles, Tendons, Ligaments provide resistance and affect flexibility. Restriction around joints is important for holding them in place. Stretching lengthens these connective tissues (but must be maintained).

Body and muscle temperature:
Increasing body and muscle temp increases elasticity of muscle. (warm up activities)

Children usually more flexible than adults. The loss of flexibility is thought to be a result of the loss of elasticity in the connective tissue but the cause of this decline may be a result of decreasing activity levels and
not a purely physiological change as a result of aging.

emales tend to be more flexible than males, due to skeletal differences (hips). Flex is joint specific, males have more flexibility in some joints than others.
- The common misconception that females are more flexible than males probably arose because females do perform better than males in the sit-and-reach test.

- Females tend to have higher participation rates in sports and activities that require good flexibility, such as gymnastics, dance and swimming.

- It can therefore be concluded that, depending on the joint being measured, females may have greater, less or the same flexibility as males.
Body composition can be divided into two components: fat-free mass and fat-mass.
Fat-free mass includes bones, water, muscle and connective tissue, organs and teeth.

Fat-mass includes both essential and non-essential fat

- Essential fat - heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, etc. Essential fat in males makes up (on average) 3 per cent of total body mass and 12 per cent in females.

- Non-essential fat is found in the adipose tissue.

- Different sports have different % of body fat.
In general, healthy body-fat percentages are 16 to 25 per cent for women and less than 20 per cent for males.

- Increased levels of non-essential fat are detrimental to health and have been associated with increased disease risk.

- Body composition is an important consideration in sports that have weight categories.
Muscular power is the ability to exert a force rapidly, over a short period of time, and is closely related to muscular strength and speed.

- Related to muscular strength and speed

- Power activities are high intensity and short duration: ATP- PC energy system

- Fast twitch provides more power than slow twitch. Muscles with high % of fast twitch produce more force than slow twitch as well

- Power increased with increased velocity. Increased power is more rapid at lower speeds.

- Total power depends on force AND velocity.
Speed is rate of motion, so in physical activity and sport it refers to how fast you can move your body or a body part from one point to another.

- Important in sprint events. Duh!

- Rely on a number of factors:
Efficiency of anaerobic system (ATP-PC and Anaerobic Glycosis)
Muscle activation
fibre composition of muscle
rate of force production
muscle and connective tissue/joint stiffness or elasticity
resistance to fatigue

Some of these are closely related. Which do you think?
Agility has historically been defined as the ability to change direction rapidly and accurately.

Sheppard and Young (2006) defined agility as ‘a rapid, whole-body movement with change in velocity or direction in response to a stimulus’.

- Def now takes into account recognition, decision and physical performance.
Coordination is the ability to use the body's senses to execute motor skills smoothly and accurately.
- May involve the control of body parts to complete a sequence of movements (for example, in a gymnastics routine)

- or it may involve coordination of an external implement and various body parts (for example, kicking a football).

- Performances by elite athletes are often characterised by smooth, well-timed movements.

High levels of coordination have been shown to decrease the perceived muscular effort, increase the economy of the movement and increase the transfer of energy between joints (Prilutsky 2000).

Coordination improves with the learning of a skill
Is defined as maintaining equilibrium while stationary or moving.

To maintain equilibrium, external forces acting on the body (gravity, friction and forces applied by moving objects) must be constantly opposed by internal forces (muscular contractions).

- Specific to the task. Some require more than others.

- Static balance is maintaining balance while stationary

- Dynamic balance is maintaining balance while stationary.

- Balance can be improved by increasing the area of base of support (legs further apart) or decreasing the center of gravity (ducking)

- Though to be a process where the body adapts to the external and internal forces.

- Changes to equilibrium (body is balanced) can occur in 3 ways. Changing location/changing environment supports/changing body position

- Sport usually invovles a combination of 2 or more.
Reaction time is the time it takes the body to react to an external stimulus.

- important in sprint events

- quickest when only one response eg....

- slower when there are a number of choices (combining it with decision making) eg....

- distractions also increase reaction time.
UN home learning
pg 199 Q 1, 3
In class Q 2
Program Development
This section is designed to assist you with your program development. Which you will do over the weekend!
Chapter 10 is the chapter you need to focus on. Anything else email me or google.
The purpose or goal of any training program is to facilitate chronic adaptations in the desired fitness components, energy systems and muscle groups to help improve performance.
Principals of training
Training Methods and principals – Chapter 10. S.I.D.O.F.
Specificity – The training program must be specific to the sport you have chosen.
oWhat energy system does it predominately use?
oWhat fitness related (chr 7) components dominate the activity?
oWhat are the major muscle groups utilised in the activity?
oWhat are some common skills?
Intensity – The intensity or level of exertion applied during a training session. Can be measured in a few ways
oHeart rate monitoring (MHR is 208-0.7xage) – can work at a % of MHR
oRPE (rate of perceived exertion) pg 268. Rating 0 (not at all) to 10 (max)
oTraining zones. What training zone should we aim for? Anaerobic is 75-85% MHR
Duration – Refers to the length of time (number of factors)
oLength of the whole training program (ours is 6 weeks)
oMinimum time program runs to see chronic adaptions (permanent improvement)
oLength of the training session
oThe length of time in a bout of exercise (eg 1:2 work ratios, work 2 mins rest 4)
Overload - A planned increase in training stimulus (intensity or duration) to cause a positive long-term adaption.
oOnly one variable should be changed at a time
oShould fall between 2-9%. Overloading beyond 10% induced injury
oUse a structured microcycle (3 week cycle) see fg 10.7 pg 272
Frequency – Is the amount of training sessions attempted in a certain time frame
oWe are aiming for 3 training sessions (this is the minimum to see and improvement)
oNeed to factor in freq of rest and recovery
oCatabolic effect: is the destructive breakdown of muscle tissue and other compounds caused by training
oAnabolic effect: Is tie building of proteins and muscle tissue during rest.
oSplit routines – different body parts (or components) are trained on different days
Fitness Components used in sport and activities
Weekly Email update. - Due Mondays
- I need
to Fitness Components used in sport and activitiesbe able to prove you completed your 6 week progFitness Components used in sport and activitiesram. If you do not give me this information I can NOT pass you for this SAC and hence Unit 4.
- This will also enable you to develop your actual sessions

6 week program - Questions to ask yourself.
Is it specific to 5kms time trial?
Does the intensity match the event (does it vary)?
Is the duration appropiate (does it vary)?
Is the frequency of different training sessions varied, do you have enough per week.

When developing your sessions..have you included overloading (of less than 10%)?
Data collection and activity analysis
Read Tbl 8.1 pg 203
Games Analysis
In games analysis, the
main purpose of viewing a game or performance is to determine how the performance might be improved
either by a coach’s immediate intervention (using direct observation)
or by the application of specific training drills and programs once the game or performance data has been analysed.

There are 3 categories of data collection.
- Observation
- Observation and Statistics
- Digital recording
Observation and Statistics
Digital Recording
Analysis is used to better understand specific physiological requirements such as:

• energy system contribution and interplay during different parts of the game

• major skills performed and related muscles groups requiring conditioning

• likely causes of fatigue, and recovery strategies.
The four key aspects related to games analysis. These are:

(physiological requirements of performance and recovery)

mental (
psychological skills training and performance under game pressures)
• t
echnical (s
uccessful performance of skills under pressure)
• ta
ctical (de
cision-making skills and game-sense ability to ‘read the play’).
- Most common type of games analysis used in schools/universities/non professional sports.

The game is viewed and
subjective information is gathered
, and this allows for making immediate changes if required.
Typical information gathered includes:

• the type of movements being made by players (locomotor patterns)

• use of the playing area and location of the ‘hot spots’ or most utilised parts of the field

• repeated actions and set team plays, for both the team and the opposing team

• playing intensities and ability to sustain high-intensity efforts

• frequency and accuracy of skills

• key actions and associated muscles called upon.
- Elite level this is based on years of experience.

- Lower levels this can be compromised by lack of experience, observer bias towards certain players, unable to keep with with the game.

Observation team is the way to go - what we will be doing!
Statistical recording of observed performances greatly increases the ability
to store and compare data,
potentially makes feedback to players more specifics of and powerful in of bringing about individual and team improvements.
During our PRAC on this section we will use a number of statistical recording devices
Digital recording
includes the use of heartratemonitoring, global positioning systems (GPS), filming and/or ‘eye-in-the-sky’ technology,
linked computer interface
or download of data that can be filtered and set to summarise a multitude of playing

Data collection methods with a
- high level of practicality (cheaper cost - time/money/resources) lower associated accuracy levels
- less practical (cost more - time/money/resources) but more accurate.
Eye in the Sky
Games Analysis Methods

As a class - Read Tbl 8.2 pg 209
You will need to know at least 2 adv adn dis-adv of each.
You must know how to
collect data that will enable you to analyse locomotor or movement patterns, skill frequencies, playing intensities (which incorporate work-to-rest periods) and the use of key muscles
in bringing about successful skills or performances.
Movement Patterns
Playing Intensities and Work-to-rest ratios
Player movements not only link directly to both components and energy systems, but also provide information about fatigue-related factors.

Easiest to use digital recording/GPS device to analyse after.
Analysing Movement Patterns
Analysing Skill frequencies
Analysing Muscles Patterns
The data below comes from a GPS program.
- Each zone is a movement speed.
PRAC (Game Analysis - using Recording handout)
- In groups of 2 watch the 2 on 2 basket ball game. Focus on one player only!
- One should be a recorder and one should be a commentator
- It's hard - aim to be as accurate as possible.
There is little point in assessing a player’s speed over 100 metres if this rarely (or never) occurs during a match. (A more specific speed test would be the 30-metre sprint test.)

Players need to be constantly replenishing their phosphocreatine (PC) stores following repeated high-intensity efforts. The ability of the body to replenish phosphates is assessed via the phosphate recovery test.

As soon as players start showing a decrease in the number of their high-intensity efforts, coaches consider giving them a short break on the sidelines or bench. This affords centre and mobile players an opportunity to refuel, recover and then rejoin the game to have a greater input. Also the coach can give direct instructions to play.
The one we will be using is described below.
Coaches can use
data about the frequency and effectiveness of skills to improve technical and tactical performances.

Look at Tbl 8.7 and read analysis pg 213-214
Lets look at B-ball
skills must be broken down into the major associated muscles,
and s
pecific fitness tests must be chosen to match
(as closely as possible) the way muscles are used during the game.

This is taken a step further w
hen the muscles are trained specifically, utilising similar actions, aspart of a training program.
Games analysis should reveal the major muscles used during the activity.

This is important when considering the major fitness components and energy systems used, and will influence the fitness tests chosen and specific training activities undertaken.
Home Learning
Pg 216 Q 1,2,3, Ext 4,5
UN home learning
Pg 193 Q 1,2 Ext 3,4
We can collect meaningful intensity data by making use of observation supplemented with statistical recording.
Analysing intensity
Analysing work-to-rest data
The example in Figure 8.10 shows one way of recording playing intensity.

Alternatively, multiples copies of single-minute recording sheets (Figure 8.11) could be used throughout the game.
It is important for energy system contribution to focus on work to rest data. This compares intensity and rest on the one graph.
This form tracks a player throughout the game. The first column of entries (5, M, 15) represents 5 seconds of medium intensity followed by 15 seconds of rest.

The highlighted area on the record sheet shows consecutive areas of very high or high intensity actions with limited associated rest, and thus limited ability to restore fuels.

The more often this occurs during a game, the more it needs to be prepared for during training!
It is imperative that the game intensities are replicated during training (with similar work periods followed by similar rest periods) to best develop the associated energy systems and fitness components, according to the principle of specificity.
- GPS is the best way to assess playing intensity. Measures speed (and intensity)

- Heart Rate monitors are also useful. 75%-85% - medium intensity
UN home learning
pg 208 Q1,2,3,6 Ext 4,5,7

Assessment of fitness
Mind map on Assessment o fitness
Aims for fitness testing
Determining fitness component strengths and weaknesses
- Results are compared with normative results.
- Profile is developed

Establishing a baseline
- Creates a benchmark to make comparisions with. Pre/Post -testing

Improving motivation
- Goal setting can be a powerful motivator

Determining team positions
Help assist with the most suitable position for a performer

Predicting the potential of future performers
- Talent identification programs NTID)

Assessing cardiovascular risk factors
- Possible though body compisition testing

Selection criteria
- For employment such as the police force.
Fitness Assessment Protocols
Protocols are the rules or procedures associated with fitness testing. The following apply to all testing:
Informed consent
Informed Consent
Is the test measuring what it claims?
Several fitness components have what is known as a gold standard tests.

These are usually laboratory-based tests such as a VO2 maximum test.

Field tests are often validated (or compared though correlation) against these gold standard tests
to ensure that their stated objective is measuring what it claims.

- 20 Mtr shuttle has a high correlation with VO2 max test (gold standard) so it is a good aerobic capacity test
Will the test produce consistent results?
External factors such as time of day, nutritional status and facility can all affect the reliability of the testing protocol.

To increase reliability the following points should be considered. They apply both to testing a group of people and to pre- and post-testing of individuals.
What is an example of a highly valid test and a non valid test?

Traffic light?
What are some things we need to consider when completing our post-testing?

Traffic light?
To increase reliability testing needs to be accurate
Elite testing is performed in sports science labs, by trained professionals (high $$) equipment is regularly calibrated.

Field testing can be inaccurate if specific testing protocols are not followed.
Obtaining informed consent is a process aimed at minimising the risk of harm to both the performer and test administrator.
Pre-activity screening may be appropriate for several groups of people before commencing the informed consent process.
These groups include older adults and those with known health risks.
Look at pg 227. Fill it in
Look at pg 228. Fill it in
What is an example of an accurate test vs a inaccurate test?
UN home learning
Pg 226 Q1,2,3,
In class Q4
Types of fitness assessment
UN home learning
pg 229 Q 1,2, Ext 3,4
Sports-science laboratory testing is usually reserved for elite performers, where fitness testing accuracy is paramount.
Gold standard tests are readily available in this setting, and are performed by sports scientists.
- High accuracy, low practicality (high $$)

Field testing, however, can be very functional and accurate, provided that the protocols discussed earlier are followed.
The advantage of field testing is that several people can be tested at once.
- Lower accuracy, high practicality (low $$)
There are a number of different types of fitness assessment, these are:
- Laboratory and field testing
- Maximal and submaximal testing
- Direct and indirect testing
Laboratory and field testing
Maximal and submaximal testing
Direct and indirect testing
Can you think of some examples of field test vs lab test?
A maximal test is one that is performed as close as possible to exhaustion.

- Maximal testing is often associated with laboratory testing, such as a VO2 maximum test (lab) or 20m shuttle run (field)

Submaximal tests are those that are not performed to exhaustion.
- One example of a submaximal aerobic test is the PWC 170, performed on a bicycle ergometer. In this test, the intensity on the bike ergometer is increased until the performer reaches a heart rate of 170 beats per minute.
The thencalculatee the VO2 max from this and HR zones.
Can we think of some examples?
Direct testing, as the name implies, directly measures the function of a fitness component.

- E.g. VO2 maximum test, which directly measures a person’s aerobic capacity.
ndirect fitness assessment is based on predictive measures and equations linked to norms
- E.g. 20 Meter shuttle test (beep test
Fitness test selection
Several different fitness tests will be required to assess the various fitness components for the required profile, and these tests are usually referred to as a fitness test battery.

In selecting a fitness test battery (like we did) we need to consider:
results comparison
Results Comparison
When assessing the various fitness components for a chosen sport, it is important to keep the testing as specific as possible to requirements established in a data collection and activity analysis (see Chapter 8).

E.g. 50 meter sprint for netball is not specific to what is required by that sport.

Can you think of some examples of poor/good specificity.
3 ways which results can be compared:

Norm-referenced approach
Norms represent the distribution of results of a particular reference group,typically, these results are based on percentiles.
- When comparing a result to a norm its important to compare similar reference groups.


Criterion–referenced approach
The goal of this approach is to identify a level of fitness appropriate for health promotion.
- With sufficient levels of physical activity, all students should be able to achieve an acceptable level.
- Comparisons under this method is irrelevant.

Pre- and post-testing
he comparison is made between pre testing and post testing.
- Comparing test results with existing data may not always be possible.
- Still a valuable way to assess the program
In selecting a fitness testing battery, it is important to consider the sequencing of tests.

It is advisable to avoid two maximal tests in a row, as the fatigue from one test may have a carryover effect, diminishing the reliability of the subsequent test.

Analyze our Sequencing.
Was it good?
How could it improve?
Will we do it the same post-test?
Which one/s did will we use? Why?
This is also an important consideration that will impact on the choice of tests available for a testing battery.

Resources include facilities and access to testing equipment.

The availability of appropriate staff to execute the testing also needs to be considered.

What resources do we have?
What did that lead to?
In class
Pg 231 Q1
UN Learning activities
Pg 231 Q3,4
Fitness test selection
VCAA: You are required to understand 2 tests for each fitness component. Need to understand the strengths and weaknesses.

Let's work though the book together with our chapter summaries.

Needs to be finished in own time
Fitness training methods and principles
Questions relating to specificity

What energy system does

the activity predominately use?

What fitness (health related) components dominate the activity?

What fitness (skill related) components dominate the activity?

What are the major muscle groups utilised in the activity
Intensity – The intensity or level of exertion applied during a training session. Can be measured in a few ways

- critical in ensuring that the targeted energysystem and/or fitness component is being developed during training

Can be assessed the following ways:
- % of Max heart rate monitoring
(MHR is 208-0.7xage) example

- % of VO2 max

- RPE (rate of perceived exertion) tbl 268, pg 268. Rating 0 (not at all) to 10 (max)

- Accelerometer

- GPS tracking
Duration – Refers to the length of time (number of factors)
- Length of the whole training program (ours is 6 weeks)
- Minimum time program runs to see chronic adaptions (permanent improvement)
- Length of the training session
- The length of time in a bout of exercise (eg 1:2 work ratios, work 2 mins rest 4)
Overload - A planned increase in training stimulus (intensity or duration) to cause a positive long-term adaption.

Training causes stress. The bodies defense to this is adaption.

Once you become used to training intensity you ill plateau. This is when you must increase the intensity or overload.

- Only one variable should be changed at a time
- Overload to fall between 2-9%. Overloading beyond 10% induced injury
- Use a structured microcycle (3 week cycle)

Used correctly this will lead to accelerated adaptation.
Frequency – Is the amount of training sessions attempted in a certain time frame.

- In order to improve a specific component of fitness you must train at least 3 times a week. (assuming other core principals are met)

- Rest and recovery are important considerations
During training there is a catabolic effect (destruction of muscle tissue)
During rest there is a anabloic effect (building of muscle tissue)

Split routines – different body parts (or components) are trained/rested on different days.

Remember that certain training methods will exercise more than one fitness component.
To maximise fitness improvements it is
essential to apply some fundamental training principles
to any training program.

The correct application of the following principles will also guarantee that any possible improvements are
achieved efficiently.
Mind map - What do we know
SIDOF is an easy way to remember the major training principles presented in this chapter.
stands for:
Overload (progressive)
The other training principals we are required to know (VCAA) are:
diminishing returns
Specificity – The training program must be specific to the sport you have chosen.

Foundation of any training program for an athlete to achieve maximal benefits that can be applied to their chosen activity.

Data collection (chr 8) allows you to identify the following:
- Energy System used (chr 5). Intensity/Duration

- Fitness components (chr 7)

- Major muscle groups (Unit 1). Balanced training

- Common skills (specific to sport). Eg Rebounding
Pick a sport and we will apply these training principals to it.

Take notes!!! Could be an exam question.
Training zones
It is essential to train at the correct intensity to improve and maximise chronic adaptations.

Both % max HR and RPE are practical and reliable methods of establishing intensity.
Questions relating to Intensity

What would be the best way to assess intensity?

What is the intensity of a game?

What training zone should we be aiming for?
Aerobic - 75-85% or 3-6
Anaerobic (2) - 85-95% or 8-10

LIP - 85%-95% (anaerobic or aerobic)
Lactate inflexion point (LIP) occurs at a lower percentage for untrained people than more trained performers.
Highly trained aerobic athletes to have a LIP at 92% max HR.
At 87% max HR, they would still be training their aerobic energy system. To train their anaerobic energy systems they would need to train above 92% max HR.
Note: We want to train at our LIP to extend it. Where lactate production (anaerobic glycogen) is equaled by lactate removal (aerobic system).

- By training we improve the aerobic's systems ability to remove lactate, so can use more of the anaerobic energy system.
Uses Periodisation: the planned variation in training methods, volume and intensity designed to bring
about optimal performance at a specified time.

Periodised programs build in tapering and peaking to ensure a performer is at their prime for a specified major competition.

Broken into 3 time blocks:
- Macrocycle (1 yr)
- Mesocycle (3-6 weeks)
- Microcycle (5 -10, usually 7 days)
UN home learning
Pg 271 Q 1,2,3, Ext 4
UN home learning
pg 267 Q 1,2, Ext 3
Two suggested models appear in Figure 10.8. The unloading in week 6 effectively introduces a taper into the program, allowing peaking to occur in the following week of retesting.
Questions relating to Duration

What should the length of training program (inc. tapering and peaking) program be (macrp/meso/micro)?

How long should each training session be?

How long should recovery be?
Questions relating to Overload

What different aspects of our training program can be overloaded?

What cycle will we be using?

Graphical representation.
Questions relating to

- How many times a week will we train?

- How many times a week will we train specific components (think strengths v weakness)?

- What affect will a to low / high frequency have?
Refers to how often you train. Linked to frequency.

- Fitness gains can be maintained by training that component twice a week.

- Important for time poor athletes during a season.

- Also important for off season. Athlete spent 6 mths building fitness, can avoid detraining by maintain fitness component with 2 sessions.
Individuals respond differently to similar training stimulus.

Can be due to the following:

- Genetic predispositions.
(Eg. Fibre type - % FT V ST, Resistance to fatigue, Aerobic system strength)

- Initial fitness level.
(reduced training method for newbies, aviods fatigue and injury)

- Preparedness
(Coming back from fle - may want a reduced load to minimise fatigue)

Adaptive Response (Different people will have a different adaptive response to exercise, due to individual identity and physiological and psychological make-up. This includes factors such as hormonal, enzymatic, motivational and nutritional requirements.)
Each individual has a genetic potential for fitness.

An untrained performer will show greater initial improvements than their trained counterparts.

As a performer gets closer to their ultimate potential, the rate of improvement signifi cantly slows down
Varying a program may help to mentally reinvigorate a performer who is becoming bored with a program.

Variation may also lead to enhanced improvement through the application of a different training stimulus.

- Double edged sword. Remember specificity. If we vary it too much it may not be specific.
Diminishing Returns
It is the termination of training and the corresponding and rapid return to pre-training levels.

- Usually occurs when an athlete stops training (off season)

Often referred to as reversibility

- Anaerobic detraining: V02 Max can decrease by 8% in 3 weeks and 18% in 12 weeks.

- Faster for those with immobilisation injury's
In class reading / discussion
pg 273/4 TTT 1-5
Detraining Questions

When finishing training what should we take into account?

What should a professional athlete do in the off season?

What should a injured athlete do?
Maintenance Questions

How often should we train in the off season vs on season?

What should a professional athlete do in the off season?

What should a injured athlete do while injured?
Considering all four of the above factors, it can be seen that in order to optimise the potential for chronic adaptations, a training program must be tailored to suit the individual’s needs.

At a national level, particularly in well-funded sports, there is a growing trend towards a partially individualised progam.
Individuality Questions

What is a way we can get information to individualise a program?

Do we have the ability to create an entirely individual program, why or why not?

How could we allow for individuality while considering practicality in local sports?
UN home learing
pg 277 TTT Q 1,2 Ext 3
Note that a performer can move in either direction;
if they fail to meet the core principles of training, they can move in the opposite direction to the arrows.

This would be particularly evident with detraining.
Diminishing returns Questions

ll an
Elite preformer OR an untrained performer have greater improvements?

l an E
lite preformer OR an untrained performer have greater de-provements?

As a coach how could we use this as motivation?
Individual specific
Variety Questions

hat are some different varieties of mainexercisess we could use?

What do we need to consider when adding variety?

Other than cognitive refreshmentent what other benefits do variety offer?
In class learning
pg 277 Q 1,2
Fitness training principles
Planning a Training program
In notebooks! VCAA

Planning a training program must follow these steps:
1. Needs Analysis Chr 7, 10
2. Fitness Test (pre-test) - Chr 9
3. Designing a training Session (Exercise prescription) - Chr 7, 10
4. Exercise Program - Chr 10
5. Fitness Test (Post-test) - Chr 9
6. Evaluation Chr
7. Repeat steps 3-6 FOREVER!!!
Needs Analysis
Designing a training session
Methods of training
The first step in a training program is conducting a needs analysis.

(We have complted this for our SAC...but you can now build on this!!!!)
The following should be analysed (see Chr 8)

- Energy systems, fitness components and muscle groups

- Fitness test results for the performer (strengths/weaknesses)

- Availability of time

- Appropriate training methods (facilities..etc)

- Physical state of the performer (injurys..etc)
The appropriate sequencing of training is paramount in ensuring the best possible outcome from a training session.

This includes minimising the risk of injury.

The sequencing includes a warm-up and cool-down with every session.
- A proper warm-up enables the performer to prepare both physiologically and psychologically for the main work bout to follow.

- Lasts 8-10 minutes

- Increase of 1 degree in body temp

- gradual (light aerobic) increase in intensity (anaerobic)

- If anaerobic training --> stride thoughts

- If weight-training --> light load on 1st two sets

- If aerobic, gradually increase to desired intensity

- Dynamic should be specific to sports, kicking actions for soccer
There is no evidence to support the inclusion of static stretching, other than for the minority of sports that require participants to hold a static stretch as part of their performance.

Static stretching may, in fact, be counterproductive. While the performer is performing static stretching
(usually sitting down) the acute responses they have initiated in the warm-up (such as increased
cardiac output and minute ventilation) will start to reverse.

Describe your warmups so far
Training Logs
For the majority of sports, the best form of cool-down is performing the same locomotion patterns at a reduced intensity.

This is known as an active recovery (removes byproduct, fatiguing - H ions, non fatiguing L-Acid)

- Reduces the effect of DOMS (delayed onset muscle sorness)

- Think slow jog to walk of lap after a 5kms time trial.

What are some example of a cool down?
While some performers may find this process tedious,

...maintaining a training log or diary both before and after training provides invaluable information to the performer and/or coach.
UN Activities
Pg 280 Q 1, 3, 4
The goal of any training program is to develop the sporting potential of a performer, from a physiological perspective.
Interval Training
Continuous Training
Fartlek Training
Resistance Training
Speed Training
Plyometrics Training
Circuit Training
Core-Strength Training
Flexibility Training
Interval training alternates higher-intensity work periods with rest. Work to rest.
1:2 (1 work : 2 rest)

Depending on the length of the work and rest periods, interval training can be used to develop any of the three energy systems.
Interval training can be further classified into long-interval, medium- or intermediate-interval, and short-interval training.

What energy systems would the following work to rest ratios train
2:1, 1:6, 1:3?
- Work is dominated by the aerobic energy system

- Work period is a minute or longer: Rest period is 1 min or less

- 2:1 and 3:1 mean what?

- Aim is to increase the Lactate inflection point LIP. Improve the ability of the aerobic system to remove lactate that the anaerobic system creates.

- Higher intensity can be achieved as we have a rest period.

- Intensity at 85% (or untrained LIP) will increase the ability of the aerobic systems removal of lactate.
Long-Interval Training
Medium-Interval Training
Short-Interval Training
- Work is dominated by anaerobic gylcolysis energy system

- Work period is a b/w 10 and 60 secs and the w:r ratio is 1:2 or 1:3

- 1:3 mean what?

- Aim is to develop the tolerance of lactic acid. This tolerance occurs in the muscle and is due to anaerobic training.
- Work is dominated by ATP-CP energy system

- Work period is less than 10 seconds. W:R ration at least 1:6

- 1:6 mean what?

- Aim is to develop the tolerance of lactic acid. This tolerance occurs in the muscle and is due to anaerobic training.
Overloading an Interval Training program
Overload can be applied by (1 variable at a time):
• increasing the number of repetitions
• increasing the number of sets
• increasing the distance
• increasing the intensity within the set zone
• increasing the duration of work
• decreasing the amount of rest.

Note increasing duration or intensity may change dominant energy system.
Involves preforming an activity none stop for a long period of time

Also know as LSD (long slow distance).

- Examples:Jogging, cycling, rowing, swimming

- forms the training foundation for other, more demanding, aerobic training methods, such as long interval training or fartlek.

- low risk of injury

- To max benefits mist have HR b/w 70-85% of MHR for at least 20 mins.

What sports is this 'specific' to?
It combines continuous running (or other activities) with random bursts of speed, increasing the contribution of the anaerobic energy systems to help supply this
demand for increased energy.

- These bursts of speed (or higher-intensity periods) are random and therefore fartlek is more suited to intermediate or advanced runners.

- Cna be difficult as discipline is required to complete.

Eg. Cyclists complting hill training.

What sports is this 'specific' to?

UN home learning
pg 284 Q1,2, ext4

In class Q3 (if time)
There is an abundance of urban myths about the ‘best’ weight training program and exercises that should be performed.

- There is a lot of information that is illinformed and could lead to injury.

There is no doubt that a properly constructed and individualised weight training program will enhance sporting performance

Need to know the following terms
Fibres are recruited according to intensity levels

Slow-twitch fibres are recruited at lower intensities.

As intensity increases, fast-twitch fibres are recruited.

Strength, power and hypertrophy training are purely anaerobic activities and need to be performed at an intensity that will not only recruit fast-twitch fibres but also place them under stress to elicit maximal chronic adaptations.

Initial gains occur rapidly. They are neural driven (that is improved CNS motor neuron recruitmen/pathways)

Speed is a critical component in most sporting endeavours.

Short-interval training, together with technique work to improve the efficiency of the task being performed (running, swimming, kayaking, etc.) will develop speed.

Strength work and plyometrics will also benefit any speed training
Developing speed for running can occur 2 ways.

Stride frequency (taking quicker steps)
Stride lenght (longer steps)

An increase in one often leads to a decrease in another

What sports would Speed training be specific for?
Plyometrics is also known as the stretch-shortening

Any time there is a
rapid eccentric muscle contraction, the stretch reflex initiates a rapid concentric muscle contraction
as a protective mechanism to prevent the muscle overstretching.

The eccentric phase of this stretch-shortening cycle also stores elastic energy, which is immediately used in the concentric contraction.

Think rubber band!
Plyometrics training harnesses these two phenomena (the stretch refl ex and stored elastic
energy) to develop a more powerful muscular contraction, also further enhancing neural

Plyometrics has been well documented as an effective training method to enhance
power. It is also effective in improving both speed and agility.
Because of its explosive nature, care needs to be taken to minimise the risk of injury when introducing a plyometrics program.

Consider the following guidelines.
• A strength base is recommended before commencement of a plyometrics program.
• Appropriate footwear, warm-up and surface are paramount.
- Lower-intensity plyometrics exercises should be used initially, before progressing to harder
• Ample rest (at least one minute) is required between sets.
• When performed concurrently with another training method (such as short-interval or strength
training), two sessions per week are suffi cient to elicit improvement. Training frequency above
this may increase the risk of injury.

What sports with this be specific to?
Lets all complete activity B
Comprises a sequenced performance of exercises at different activity stations
(typically, between eight and twelve stations).

- When all completed...known as lap. Usually 2-3 laps.

- Used when trying to train multiple components of fitness. (but improvement will be less than if just one was trained)

- Can be tailored to suit individual.Eg. Leg injury all upper body work

- Advisable to arrange so not targeting the same muscle groups 2 stations in a row
Three main types

Fixed time
- usually 60secs per station (good for large groups)

Fixed load
- 10 reps at each station

Individual circuit
- Tailored for individual. Asmany as possible in 1 min, number halfed, preforment completed 3 times. Aim is to go quicker next session.

What sports is this training specific for?
Overloading can be achieved by:
• increasing the resistance (if using weights)
• adding more stations
• adding more laps to the circuit
• increasing the time spent at each station
• attempting to complete more repetitions at a station (not applicable to a fi xed load circuit).
UN home learning
pg 290 Q1,2,3,ext4
The importance of developing core strength is being increasingly recognised.

Improved core strength is associated with:
• improved running efficiency
• decreased risk of injury, particularly of the lower back
• improved transfer of power between the lower and upper body extremities, and vice versa
(for example, a tennis serve will transfer power from the legs to the arms)
• improved balance
• the potential to improve both acceleration and deceleration.
- Core is the muscular box around the abs at the front and paraspinals and gluteals at the back

- Pilates is a great way to train core.
Uses coordinated breathing, stretching and strengthening activities.
Establish a neutral spine
Developed for WW2 vets

-Swiss ball training
. Developing core stability. Maintain balance and stability while on large ball.

What sport is this specific for?
The importance of flexibility training is now well documented. Improved flexibility will:
• improve sporting performance through enhancing developments in speed, strength and power
• reduce the likelihood of injury, particularly for performers who require a full range of motion
in their sporting pursuits
• improve posture
• reduce the impact of DOMS
• release stress and tension.

Should always be done when muscles are warm (reduces likelihood of injury and maximises gains.

Good at the end of a training session. But can also make up an independent session
3 main types:
- Static stretching
. (no movement) Hold a position for 10 seconds. Should NOT be done prior to training (increases injury). Good at end when warm.

- Dynamic and ballistic stretching.
Moving joint though range of motion (increasing intensity). Ideal for warm up.

Ballistic is same but with greater force. Only done by professional athletes like gymnastics due to risk of injury.

Proprioceptive neruronmuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching
Muscle moved gently though its range of motion until disconfort. At that point muscle is contacted isometrically (no change in length).
UN home learning
Pg 293 Q1,2,3
Chronic training adaptions
Chronic adaptations to training are those that occur as a physiological response to the increased demands placed on the body through training, over time.

effects are specific to the type of training undertaken
(aerobic or anaerobic)
and to the system where the physiological change is occurring.

Training needs to be tailered to the specific demands of the activity and goals of athlete.

Mind map on what we know!
Chronic Adaptions - Aerobic Training
Cardiovascular adaptions
Respiratory adaptions
Muscular Changes
Other changes
Chronic Adaptions - Anaerobic Training
Cardiovascular adaptions
Muscular Changes to anaerobic training
Muscular Changes to resistance training
Adaptations to the respiratory, cardiovascular and muscular systems
as a result of
aerobic training improve the efficiency of the aerobic energy system
provide energy to the working muscles and for removal of waste

Chronic cardiovascular adaptations are those which occur to the structure and function of the
heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) and the blood.
Blood Vessels
Heart is a muscle and it responds to training by getting bigger/stronger

Aerobic training results in hypertrophy (increase in volume) of the heart muscle.
Increase size of left ventricular cavity and thicking walls
Greatest change is in left ventricle capacity (can pump more)
- Increased left ventricle is linked to increased cardiac output.
Q=SV x HR. On board

- At rest HR and SV will change following training, but Cardiac output (Q) will remain unchanged.

- Aerobic training lowers resting HR - Called
Easy measure of increased cardiovascular efficiency.

- Endurance Athletes have low resting HRs compared to untrained.
Pg 298 Measuring HR..
..what has been happening to yours?
If cardiac output is unchanged but heart rate decreases, there must be an
increase in stroke volume. The increase can be attributed to:
• increased left ventricle volume and mass
• reduced cardiac and arterial stiffness
• increased diastolic filling time
• increased cardiac contractility.

- Increased SV during rest and exercise
- Lower HR..more time to fill left ventricle (venous return during diastole)...larger SV during systole.

Must memorise this tbl
-Sub max exercise Q (cardiac output) is slightly decreased
. Due to increase in SV and decrease in HR. Trained athletes achieve a steady state quicker. Heart does not need to work as hard, as its more efficient.

- Max exercise increased cardiac output (Q)
allows more rapid removal of by products, increases the amount of O2 available...greater aerobic glycosis can occur
Aerobic training results in an increase in the capillaries that feed the heart.

- more O2 assists energy demands of the myocardium (heart muscle).

- myocardium O2 consumption decreases with training.

Long-term aerobic training also results in increased capillarisation of skeletal muscles.

- Change most evident in slow twitch muscles.

- That means that the larger the muscle fibre, the greater the number of capillaries around it. Bigger muscles (engored) more blood.

- Slow twitch has an increased amount of mitocondria per fibre (O2 part of cell)

Increasing the number of capillarie
s around the muscle leads to an
increase in the supply of oxygen and other nutrients and enhanced removal of waste products from the muscle.

At rest and submaximal intensities, blood flow to the active muscles is decreased. A larger volume of blood
is directed to muscles fibres that have a high oxidative capacity (slow twitch) at expense of IIB (fast t - b)

Chronic adaptations as a result of aerobic training increase the ability of the muscles to deliver, extract
and use oxygen;
therefore the active muscle oxygen demands are reduced and require less blood flow to them.

Improved fitness also increases blood flow to the
skin, which allows for greater removal of heat and
better thermoregulation of the body.
Aerobic training increases both the plasma volume and red blood cell volume of the blood, therefore increasing the overall blood volume.

Increases in blood volume occur within only days of training; however, red blood cell increases take weeks to achieve.

Highly trained endurance athletes have a blood volume 20 to 25 per cent greater than an untrained subject. HUGE!
Increases in blood plasma assist in increasing stroke volume, due to the increase in the volume of blood that can fill the heart during diastole (as mentioned previously).

Plasma volumes can also assist in the regulation of body temperature.

The total amount of haemoglobin (O2 carring red blood cells) in the blood increases with aerobic training....

...Increases in blood volume are associated with greater amounts of haemoglobin, but the haemoglobin concentration does not increase
Blood Lactate
Blood lactate concentration has been shown to decrease with aerobic training.

Accompanying an overall decrease in blood lactate is the ability for endurance-trained athletes to extend exercise levels before OBLA (onset of blood lactate accumulation).

This adaptation to training is thought to be
result of a decreased rate of lactate production
during exercise or
an increase in the rate of lactate removal from the blood
, or a combination of these two factors.
The ability to sustain high-exercise intensities without accumulating lactate is strongly related to performance in endurance events.

The lactate inflection point (LIP) reflects the balance between lactate entry into and removal from the blood.

- as the intensity increases, lactate increases
dramatically because the body cannot remove it at the same rate it is accumulating.

- With aerobic training, endurance athletes become better at clearing the lactate because
of an increase in oxidation and gluconeogenesis (production of glucose from lactate in liver).

- Endurance athletes are able to work at higher intensities for longer before reaching LIP.
UN home learning
pg 303 Q1,2,3 ext4,5
Chronic respiratory adaptations (as a result of aerobic training) allow for greater amounts of oxygen to be taken in and used by the body.

The mechanisms responsible for this inc
rease are either
structural (changes to the respiratory system) or functional (improved function of the respiratory system).

Measured at rest, lung volumes (with the exception of tidal volume) increase with training.

Increases the cardiac output and haematocrit (volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood)
Total lung volume capacity is the amount of air in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration, or the largest amount of air you can breathe in (in one breath).

Vital capacity is the volume of air that can be forcefully expired after maximal inspiration.
Diffusion of oxygen across the
alveolar–capillary membrane
and of carbon dioxide across the
is greater in trained subjects.

The increase in diffusion is seen at rest and during submaximal and maximal exercise intensities.

Increased duffision due in part to larger lung volumes - more surface area.
During exercise at a
submaximal workload,
endurance-trained athletes have lower ventilation
(=TV X RR) rates compared to untrained subjects (see Figure 11.8).
Ventilation at maximal intensity will, however,
increase following aerobic training

- due to increase in tidal volume and Respirator Rates

- max O2 consumption occurs, develop more CO2 which triggers greater ventilation.
Ventilation increases proportionally with CO2 productions.

Ventilatory efficiency occurs as a result of training.

This means that the amount of oxygen required to breathe is less during rest and submax.

- less oxygen is delivered to the muscles responsible for breathing (the intercostal muscles and diaphragm).

- More oxygen is then available to be delivered to the working muscles.

Ventilation = Tidal Volume x Respiratory Rate

Due to chronic adaptions trained athletes have a larger TV and RR increasing overall ventilation at MAX.
As a
result of aerobic training
, for a given workload,
oxygen consumption is the same or slightly lower
at rest and during submaximal exercise

Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) has been shown to increase with aerobic training.

Improvements of 5 to 20 per cent can be achieved with 8 to 12 weeks of training, depending on the training principles and methods used!!!

-O2 approaches maximum during high intensity excercise.
VO2 max can be calculated from stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR) and arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff).

VO2 max = SV × HR × a-vO2 diff

The change in VO2 max is a result of a number of changes:

- increase in oxygen delivery to the working muscles
- increase in the ability of the muscles to extract the oxygen from the blood (the a-vO2 diff).

The increase in cardiac output is a result of an increase in heart rate and stroke volume at maximal intensities, and the increase in a-vO2 diff is a result of changes within the muscle.

Must memorise this tbl
UN home learning
pg 305 Q1,2,3
Chronic adaptations to aerobic training are characterised by changes that increase maximal oxygen consumption with little or no change in muscle strength or power.

- the adaptations facilitate an increase in the production of ATP by the aerobic system.

- increase in activation frequency (how often) of motor units

- specific to the muscle location/fibres being trained
Muscle Structure
Muscles have a mix of FT and ST fibres and aerobic training effects both.

Aerobic capacity (to generate ATP using aerobic methods) of ST will increase.

ST increase in size (hypertrophy) - as that occurs increased capillary density surrounding fiber also occur.

Read pg 306
a-vO2 diff
Stands for arteriovenous oxygen different....Chloe explain.

Aerobic training leads to an increase in the amount
of oxygen extracted from the blood by the muscles,
or arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff).

Increase in size of ST muscle fibres (due to increased capillarisation). Leads to:
- Increase diffusion of O2, CO2 and other metabolites

- Increased diffusion and blood distribution to working muscles, combined with increased capacity of the muscles to extract and process O2...
leads to increase in the a-vO2 diff.

a-vO2 diff is the difference in O2 concentration in the arteries compared to the veins.
Myoglobin and mitocondondria
The myoglobin content in slow-twitch fibres increases as a result of aerobic training.

Myoglobin assists in delivering oxygen across the cell membrane to the mitochondria
, where it is used in the
process of energy production. (ATP!)

- increased myoglobin levels mean more O2 available to produce ATP aerobically (with O2)

- Following aerobic training; mitochondria increase in size, number, surface area (assisting aerobic production of ATP

- The increase in number of sites available for ATP release aerobically increases the bodies ability to preform aerobically.

- Increase in mitochondria also increases Oxidative enzymes (that break down byproducts and lactate) assits endurance athletes in workin at high % of MHR with accumulation of blood lactate.
Oxidation of fats
Changes to the metabolic functioning of muscles
occur with aerobic training.

One effect of these changes is the increased oxidation of free fatty acids.

During submaximal exercise, endurance-trained athletes are able to oxidise fatty acids more readily.

The three factors that result from aerobic training and
increase the ability of the muscles to oxidise fat are:
• an increase in intramuscular triglycerides
• an increase in free fatty acids
• an increase in oxidative enzymes.

Increased oxidation of fat at submaximal
intensities is beneficial to endurance athletes as it
allows them to conserve glycogen stores
Oxidation of Glycogen
Aerobic training increases the ability of
the skeletal muscle to oxidise glycogen.

The adaptations that cause an increase
in the energy-generating capacity of the
muscle are:
• an increase in number, size and surface
area of mitochondria
• an increase in enzyme activity and
• an increase in muscle glycogen stores.

These three factors work together
to improve all aspects of the aerobic
ability of the muscle.
Must memorise this tbl
As well as changes to the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems, a
number of other
physiological and psychological benefits may occur as a result of aerobic training.
Must memorise this tbl
UN home learning activity
pg 309 Q1,2,3
In class 4
Posters 5

Anaerobic training effects are seen mainly in the muscular system
, although some changes occur in the cardiovascular system.

Anaerobic training focuses on the development of the ATP–PC and Anaerobic energy systems.

Chronic adaptations to anaerobic training may lead to improvement in the
anaerobic capacity, strength, power and speed of an athlete.

Best training methods: Resistance, Polymetric and Short Interval
Anaerobic training for non-endurance athletes,
thickness of the left ventricle wall increases.

- systolic function (contraction) of the left ventricle may increase slightly but the volume of the ventricle is unchanged.

athletes have lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest and at a given submaximal workload

Anaerobic training results in no change to the size (volume) of the chamber.
Anaerobic training increases the capacity of the ATP–PC system and the anaerobic glycosis system.

- occur in the skeletal muscle as a result of this type of training include increased energy substrate levels, enzyme activity and glycolytic capacity.

- changes occur in both fast- and slow-twitch fibres.

- most dramatic changes in FT muscles!

- increases ATP, PC, glycogen stores

- great for events that use these readily available stores (eg sprinting and throwing events)

- More ATP PC leads to less reliance on Ana and aerobic glycosis

- ATP-CP system is faster than those above, so you can get more energy, quicker.
Anaerobic training alters the activity levels of the
enzymes associated with the breakdown of ATP.

ATPase is an enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of ATP to ADP. (encourages energy release!!!)!

- increases the quantity and the activity of the enzymes.

- Combined with the increased stored energy substrates,increased enzyme activity increases the turnover of ATP (breakdown and resynthesis). This allows for a more rapid release of energy.

Glycolytic capacity is also increased with anaerobic training
Due in part:
- to the increase in glycolytic enzymes
- increases in glycogen stores
- the rate at which glycogen can be broken down into lactic acid is increased.

Leads to increase in ability to release ATP using this Anaerobic System.
Better preformance for activities that depend on Ana System eg. 400 mtr race
Memorise this tbl
If you stresss a muscle it will adapt by increasing in size and improving function (hypertrophy)

Opp is also true. Do not use a skeletal muscle and it will decrease (atrophy)

Resistance training excercises (stresses) muscles.
Physiological adaptations to resistance training occur within the muscle itself and also within the nervous system (neural adaptations).

- Adaptions within muscle
increase force generating capacity of muscle
- Adaptions with in the NS
enhance the effectiveness of muscle coordination
Neural Adaptions

Muscle Adaptions- Hypertrophy
Resistance training produces increases of strength within a few week....without noticeable muscle mass change....due to neural adaptions

- Innitial stages neural adaptions are greater than muscular adptions

- Enhances motor-unit recruitment

- Max force needs as many motor units as possible.
As well as recruiting more motor units, there is an increase in
ability to recruit high-threshold motor units.

- Fibres are recruited according to size, larger first, smaller last. Usually FT first

- Increase in amount of time contraction can be maintained.
- Increase in speed of contraction...faster fireing rate. 1500% in FT from lowest to highest.

Result: Increased force production.
Plyometric resistance training causes the nervous system to develop
reflexes to high stretch loads, which increases the power in movements such
as jumping.

Co-contraction of antagonist muscles increases control movements by increasing stabilisation in rapid and precise movements and acting as a braking mechanism in ballistic movements. Increased synchronisation of motor-unit firing rates occurs as a result of resistance training.

Increase synchronisation leads to smoother acceleration of body parts, greater power and increased duration of high-intensity contractions.
Memorise this tbl
Muscle cross-training occurs as a result of resistance training.

Cross-training refers to the training of muscles on one side of the body and seeing improvements in strength in the same muscle on the other side of the body, even though it has not been trained.

Cross-training improves performance through integration of strength gains, timing and muscle stretchshortening reflexes.

The Golgi tendon organs in the muscle prevent full contraction of the muscle.
Resistance training inhibits this action and allows for more forceful contractions to occur.
An increase in muscle size (hypertrophy) due to resistance training is a result of one or more of these changes to the muscle fibres:
• increased number and size of the myofibrils
• increased contractile proteins
• increased size and strength of connective tissue (tendons and ligaments).
An increase in the cross-sectional area of the muscle is a result of the increased number and size of the myofibrils.

The actual number of fibres within a muscle does not change,
but the size of the fibres does.
Resistance training produces the greatest increase in the size of type IIB fibres.
- increases the area of fasttwitch fibres compared to slow-twitch fi bres.

Larger cross-sectional area is directly related to increased muscular strength, as shown in Figure 11.17. Larger fibres are capable of storing more ATP, PC and glycogen.

Increased Anaerobic Energy substrates increase the capacity of the anaerobic system to provide energy for rapid high intensity activities.

This effect is two-fold. The increases in ATP and PC stores decrease the reliance on the anaerobic glycosis system, so less lactate is produced.
With resistance training, connective tissue will thicken and strengthen.

This improves the structure and function of the tendons and ligaments.

Increases in tendon thickness allows for greater attachment of muscle to bone which assists in force production.
Data analysis pg 314 if time

UN home learning
pg 314 Q 1-4 (in class hopefully
**Also results in increased ratio of high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoproteins
Chronic adapations take place at the systemic (AvO2 diff) AND tissue level (muscles).

Does not occur after a single session.
Usually takes 6-12 weeks.

It is also much more long lasting

Acute Adaptions are immediate, Chronic take longer to develop and last for longer.
Factors that affect degree of development of chronic training to adaption
Type and Method of training undertaken:
- Aerobic vs anaerobic training
- different training methods led to different adaptions

Frequency, Intensity, and Duration of training:
- Greater the Freq, Intensity, and duration the more pronounced the adaptions (assuming no injuries or overtraining)

Individuals capacities and heredity factors:
- Genetic make-up such as VO2 max, fibre type distribution
Trained athletes have
- lower resting HR - lower sub-max HR
- quicker HR recovery rates - increased capillarisation of heart muscle
- decrease blood pressure
Class Discussion: Two athletes examples
Both 30 yr old males
Jim Triathlete
Chris - Weekend warrior

Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume Q=HRxSV

Who would have a higher
- Resting HR - Resting stroke volume
- Sub max HR - Sub max stroke volume
- Max HR - max stroke volume

Would there cardiac output be the same
- at rest
- at sub max
- at max
Aerobic Training methods
- Continuous
- Fartlek
- Long interval training
Other Chronic adaptions from Anaerobic training
- Increased speed of contraction:
the number of contractions increases making the athlete faster

- Increase strength of tendons and ligaments:
reduces the chance of injury and abilities of muscles to withstand force.
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