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Nervous and Endocrine Systems

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Amy Davis

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Nervous and Endocrine Systems

Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Think of the most exciting or scary event in your life.

How did you feel physically right after it happened?
You have two systems in your body that send information to and from the brain
Nervous System and Endocrine System
Nervous System
always at work
controls almost everything you do
emotions, movements, thinking, and behavior
Structurally, it is divided into 2 parts
Central Nervous System

Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
smaller branches of nerves that reach other parts of the body
conduct information from organs to the central nervous system and takes info back to organs
These nerves can be as thick as a pencil to invisibly small
Within the PNS there are two more systems: Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System
Controls voluntary activities
ex: Picking up a pencil
controls the involuntary activities
ex: heartbeat/blinking
Sympathetic Nervous System

prepares body for dealing with emergencies or strenuous activity
ex: speeding up the heartbeat to quicken the supply of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
Parasympathetic Nervous System
works to conserve energy and enhances the body's ability to recover from strenuous activity
ex: reduces the heart rate and blood pressure and helps bring the body back to normal resting rate
Nerves are strings of long, thin cells called neurons
Neurons send messages to and from the brain
Transmission of messages between neurons occurs when the cells are stimulated past a minimum point.
These signals travel like flame on a fircracker fuse
All-or- None Principle
neurons fire at full strength or not at all
Parts of a Neuron
: short, thin fibers that protrude from the cell body
receive messages from other neurons and send the to the cell body
: the cell body which contains the nucleus
: carries the impulses from the cell body toward the axon terminals which release transmitters to stimulate the dendrites fo the next neuron
can be sever feet in length
Myelin Sheath
: white, fatty substance insulates and protexts the axon for some neurons
: the connection between neurons
joins the axon terminals of one neuron with the dendrites of the next neuron
Two Types of Neurons
Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
relay messages from the sense organs to the brain
eyes, nose, skin etc.
Motor (Efferent) Neurons
send signals from glands and muscles to the brain
Neurons travel on two tracks
Ascending: to the brain
Descending: from the brain
Endocrine System
Sends chemical messages called hormones
Homones are produced in endocrine glands and distributed by blood and other bodily fluids
hormones are received only at the specific organ that they influence
Hormones affect Behavior
Growth of bodily structures
Metabolic processes
Physical differences between boys and girls
Pituitary Gland
Pituitary gland is controlled by hypothalamus
Acts as master gland
located near midbrain and hypothalamus
secretes a large number of hormones which control the output of hormones by other glands
Hypothalamus monitors amount of hormones in blood and sends messages to correct imbalances
Thyroid Gland
Produces hormone called thyroxin which stimulates chemical reactions that are important for all tissues of the body
Hypothyroidism is too little hormone
Hyperthyroidism is too much homone
Adrenal Glands
Produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
becomes active when a person is angry or frightened
causes heartbeat and breathing to increase
heightens emotions like fear
can help generate energy to help deal with difficult situations
Produces cortical steroids
develops muscles
cause the liver to release stored sugar when the body requires extra energy for emergencies

Sex Glands
Produces testosterone in males
important for growth of muscles and bones
Produces estrogen and progesterone in females
important in female development
regulates reproductive cycle
Full transcript