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The Four Great Adventures
Transcript of The Four Great Adventures
And Summaries Phaëthon believed he was the son of the sun god, for his mother, Clymene, had told him he was. When he told people this, they simply laughed. To prove that he was, in fact, the sun god’s son, he traveled to the sun temple to ask the sun god. When he arrived at the temple, he climbed the great staircase leading to the throne of the sun god where he was almost blinded by the brightness of the staff of the sun god. It was at this time when the sun god lowered his staff and told Phaëthon that he was the sun god’s son and that he would give Phaëthon anything to prove it.
Phaëthon told the sun god that he would like to ride his great sun chariot across the sky the next morning, and the sun god told him of the dangers of this, such as the constellations of the Bull, the Lion, and the great Crab, then let him go anyways. Phaëthon died on the trip across the sky, as he lost control of the horses and started to burn the earth. Zeus threw a lightning bolt at the chariot in order to stop the chariot, but it killed Phaëthon as well. Phaëthon Pegasus and Bellerophon Bellerophon was the son of Glaucus, a king, who fed his horses human flesh but was torn piece by piece by them after being thrown from his chariot. Bellerophon was also rumored to be the son of Poseidon, the Ruler of the Sea, and Eurynome, an apprentice of Athena, who had the wit and wisdom that rivaled the gods. It was only sensible that Bellerophon would be more godly than mortal and that he would go on great and amazing adventures. What Bellerophon wanted more than anything was Pegasus, a magical winged horse. Bellerophon was told by Polyidus to go to Athena’s temple and sleep there. While Bellerophon slept, Athena gave him a golden bridle to use to tame Pegasus. When he woke, Bellerophon picked up the bridle and left to find Pegasus and tame him. He found Pegasus and successfully tamed him. Bellerophon accidentally killed his brother and went to Argos where King Proteus purified him and the king’s wife fell in love with him. Bellerophon rejected her and told Proteus to kill him. Proteus couldn’t kill him himself, so he devised a plan instead. He sent Bellerophon with a letter to the King of Lycia and the Lycian King did not ask to see the letter for nine days. The letter told him to kill Bellerophon, but he couldn’t because the gods did not treat those who treat guests poorly kindly.
Instead of killing Bellerophon, the King of Lycia sent him on an adventure to defeat the Chimera, a beast with the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a snake. Bellerophon beat the Chimera in the end, and went back to Proteus who sent him on two more quests, one to defeat the Solymi and another to defeat the Amazons. When he came back, Proteus gave Bellerophon his daughter to marry and Bellerophon lived like this for a long time. With all his success, Bellerophon decided to ride Pegasus to the top of mount Olympus. Pegasus threw him and Bellerophon was left to wander the lands, eating his own soul. Otus and Ephialtes Otus and Ephialtes were two very large giants, said to be the sons of Poseidon and a mother who was unknown. At a very young age, Otus and Ephialtes set out to take Zeus’s throne and prove that they were superior to the gods. They imprisoned Ares and threatened to pile Mount Pelion on Mount Ossa and scale them to reach heaven and defeat the gods in battle. While Otus and Ephialtes scaled the mountain and fought the gods, Zeus prepared to launch a lightning bolt at them to end the madness. However, just before the bolt left his hands, Poseidon stopped him, begged him to stop, and told him that he’d get his sons in order.
Otus and Ephialtes stopped attacking, leaving Poseidon to be pleased with himself, but only to go after Hera and Artemis. The two giants knew that they could only go after one of them at a time, so they decided to go after Artemis first. Artemis led them to a wooded island called Naxos where they lost sight of her and spotted a milk-white doe and ran after it. The doe left their sight and they decided to split up to go after it. However, both of the giants saw the doe in a clearing and launched a spear at it. The doe disappeared and the others’ spear hit the giants and they both fell to the ground and died. Daedalus Daedalus was the architect who designed the Labyrinth for the Minotaur in Crete, which was seemingly impossible to escape from without the help of Daedalus. The Athenians were imprisoned inside it, and, when they escaped, King Minos blamed Daedalus and imprisoned him and his son, Icarus, in the Labyrinth, where Daedalus told his son that, although they may not be able to escape by land or sea, they may escape through the air. With this thought, Daedalus built two pairs of wings, one for himself, and one for his son. He told his son that, if he flew too close to the sun, the glue would melt and the wings would fall apart.
Once the two of them left, Icarus, feeling delighted in flight, flew too close to the sun and fell into the water. Daedalus went on to fly to Sicily where the King greeted him kindly. When Minos found out that Daedalus had escaped, he was furious, and devised a cunning plan. He proclaimed that if anyone could run a thread through an intricately spiraled shell, they would receive a reward. When Daedalus did this, Minos concluded that only Daedalus could figure out how to. Minos went to Sicily to seize him, and, in contest with the Sicilian King, he was slain. Picture Bellerophon and pegasus fighting the Chimera. (Found at http://www.theoi.com/Gallery/M14.1.html) Literary Analysis Owen Jenkins There are many examples of literary terms in the four great adventures. One example of this is on page 184 where it says “Dawn had opened her courts full of rosy light.” These myths also tell us many things about the Greeks. For one, the Greeks valued the belief in gods and the help of gods in daily life. Along with this, it tells us that the Greeks did not insult or treat a guest poorly because of their religious belief that the gods would not like it. The Greeks handled problems by outsmarting their opponents and/or trickery and valued intelligence, like in Pegasus and Bellerophon, a king doesn’t see fit for them to live, so he sends them out to fight against the Chimera. Unfortunately for him they come back alive as a bright summer day, but he tried to eliminate them with trickery, proving the point.
The Greeks had many traditions that related to these myths, such as the tradition of honoring your promises, which was very important to the Greeks. These myths related to each other in many ways, such as they were all stories of hardships, and consequences to hasty decisions which were not thought about thoroughly. These also relate to each other through the traditions the Greeks had and the behavior they did not tolerate. These myths were very informative and related greatly to the Greek culture. Two-Voice Poem Walk the stairs, but I cannot see.
I shall lower my crown, for I know who approaches.
I am young and foolish.
I am very old but wise.
My mother has told me to come here.
It was suspected you would come.
I have come for answers.
And answers you shall receive.
Where do you stable your chariot from dusk to dawn?
In the far east, at the great sun gates.
Am I truly your son?
That you are, my son.
Will you grant me case to prove the same.
That I shall, on the River Styx, now what do you desire?
I desire to command your chariot this dawn until dusk.
I warn you of the many dangers.
And I do not care.
The journey will be perilous.
It does not matter to me.
Then you will crash and burn.
It is as it shall be. Script The Story of Phaëthon and the Sun God
Max (Phaethon): Are you my father? Mother says you are, I want to be sure.
Owen (Sun God): Yup. I’ll even prove it to you. Ask of me anything.
M: Can I drive your sun carriage?
O:It’s really dangerous to drive that thing. Only I can control it, and it’s still not easy. There are monsters that will try to stop you, and the horses may reject you as their driver.
M: *Not listening*
O: *Sigh* Ok, but I warned you.
*Phaethon is riding up onto the Path with the Chariot*
*horses reject him as rider and go outta control*
*Zeus (Owen) throw lightning bolt at Phaethon and the Chariot falls* Quiz 1. What was the name of Phaëthon’s mother?
2. What were two of the obstacles that the sun god warned Phaëthon about?
3. What did Athena give Bellerophon to tame Pegasus?
4. What was the Chimera?
5. What happened to Bellerophon when he was thrown by Pegasus?
6. Who were Otus and Ephialtes (Description and sons of _____)?
7. Why did Otus and Ephialtes stop attacking the gods?
8. Why did Otus and Ephialtes throw spears at each other?
9. Who was Daedalus?
10. Why did Icarus fall out of the sky and into the water?