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Digital Grammar Book
Transcript of Digital Grammar Book
English II Honors 4B Abstract Nouns Concrete Nouns Nominative Case Vocative Case There are so many kinds... Verbs! An action verb is the type of verb that describes a noun's particular action or activity. Action Verbs Unlike an action verb, "being verbs" are verbs that do not describe a noun's action but the noun's state of being. Being Verbs AKA "Auxiliary Verbs" Helping Verbs Past, Present, and Future walked into a bar. It was tense. Verbs Tense Intransitive Verbs Transitive Verbs Because Even Verbs Have Mood Changes Mood Active Voice Passive Voice Possessive Case Objective Case Making Nouns Plural! 3 Major Rules Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense Past Participle Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Potential A common noun is a noun that refers to a non-specific or general person, place, or thing. Unlike the Proper Noun, it may remain in lowercase. A Proper Noun is a noun that is used to name a specific or important person, place, or thing. For Example:
Cities and States A Concrete Noun is a noun that names a tangible, solid object. These nouns are something you can touch, see, smell, or observe with any of your other senses A helpful tool: Think of concrete, a solid material, when describing concrete nouns. Unlike concrete nouns, Abstract Nouns are something you can't see or touch (they're intangible). Here's some examples of Abstract Nouns:
Concepts Nouns in the Vocative Case refer to the person or thing you are talking directly to. This noun case is used primarily in dialogue. A.K.A "Nouns of Address" or a "Direct Address" If you have ever been in trouble, it very likely you have heard the Vocative Case. The nominative case is used for nouns that are used as the subject of a sentence. Nouns in the Objective Case act as either the direct object, the indirect object, or the object of a preposition in a sentence. Nouns in the Possessive Case are used in a sentence to describe someone or something's ownership of something. Rule 1: If the singular form of the noun ends in an "f", substitute the "f" with –ves Rule 2: If the singular form of the noun ends in: -ch, -sh, -s, -x…add –es to the end Rule 3: If the singular form of the noun ends in "y", substitute the "y" with –ies Examples of Being Verbs:
Been Helping Verbs are verbs that cannot stand alone in a sentence. Instead they accompany a main verb. Here's A Chart of Helping Verbs: Helpful Tool: Helping Verbs help out other verbs in a sentence. AKA a "Bare Verb" A verb in the infinitive tense shows no specific person or aspect. In other words, Infinitives aren't "conjugated". Infinitives are usually introduced by a "to" Present Tense is the verb tense that describes the current action of a noun (What it or they are doing NOW.) The Past Tense describes the action that already happened (What it or they DID). A verb in the future tense refers to what will happen in the coming, seconds, minutes, days, months, or years (What it or they WILL DO). Helpful Tool: When trying to decide which tense is which look at their names.
Present tense is used in the Present...
Past Tense is used in the Past...
Future Tense is used in the Future... The Past Participle is usually used as a verbal adjective in a sentence. This form of verb describes something the subject has done in the past. To make a Past Participle:
Add -ed, -d, or -t to the end of the base form of a verb.
Its form is very similar to that of a regular past tense verb. The more common verb mood, the Indicative Mood is used to express a statement or a question of opinion/fact. The Imperative mood is used in writing to express an order, request, or command or sometimes advice. In the imperative mood, an understood "you" is the object of the command. The Subjunctive Mood, perhaps the least common of the verb moods, is used as an expression of
wishes, doubts, or possibilities When using the subjunctive mood to talk about possible/hypothetical situations use the helping verbs: could have, would have, might have. The Potential Mood is typically used to express the possibility of something, such as an event, happening. This mood is accompanied by "might" or "may" in order to stress the fact that it is only a possibility. Passive Voice is used in sentences in which the subject is not the "do-er" but is being acted on by another force or object. Opposed to passive voice, active voice is used in sentences where the subject is the "do-er" and usually acts upon another noun. Transitive Verbs are a type of action verb that always has a direct object, something the noun acts upon via the verb. Helpful Tool:
(A transitive verb carries its action over to the direct object)
Intransitive=Doesn't Carry Over
(An intransitive verb has no direct object to carry its action to) An Intransitive Verb is another type of action verb. However, unlike a transitive verb, these verbs do not have a direct object. Videos Courtesy of YouTube
and SchoolHouse Rock Materials are included under fair use exemption of U.S. Copyright Law in accordance with the multimedia fair use guidelines. dog girl statue Coit Tower Olivia Jackson Street Chairs Bike Gummy Bear You can either touch, see, or taste these 3 things Love: An emotion A new idea Mary Anne, Don't you ever do that again! (Mary Anne is the noun in the vocative case.) The girl draws. The turtle sat. (turtle is in the nominative case) (girl is in the nominative case) Olivia caught the ball. (ball is the direct object, and so it is in the objective case) The wave hit against the rock. (wave is the object of the preposition, so it is in the objective case) Marshall's camera is old. ("Marshall's" is in the possessive case, showing that the camera is mine) thief thieves Berries Berry paintbrush paintbrushes She threw the ball. ("threw" is the action performed by "she") The dog was tired. ("was" describes the dog's state of being) The firework has exploded. ("has" accompanies "exploded" as a helping verb) Olivia was knocked down by the wave. (Olivia, the subject, was acted on by the wave, making this a passive sentence) The wave knocked Olivia down. (a wave, the subject, acted on Olivia, another object) Olivia saw the wave. ("saw" is the verb, and "waves" is its direct object: this is transitive) The boy draws. ("draws" is the verb, but there is no direct object, like "a picture" to receive its action: this is intransitive) The sun is setting. (this is a factual statement, so it is in the indicative mood) "Tell me about your specials." (the man is commanding the waitress to tell him the specials, making this sentence imperative) Having studied a lot, Josie made an "A" on her test. ("studied" is the past participle, as it adds description to what Josie did) The girl surfs. ("surfs" is a present tense verb describing what the girl is doing currently) I buckled my seat-belt before driving. ("buckled" is a past tense verb describing what I did before driving the go cart) The dog likes to play. ("to play" is the infinitive in this sentence. It describes what the dog likes to do) The new iPhone will come next Friday. (the future tense verb, "will come," describes what the new iPhone will do soon) "I might need to rethink my homework assignment," thought Linda. (by using "might" to show that there is a possibility, it makes this sentence in the potential mood) "I want you for the U.S. Army." (by using "want" in this sentence it makes it a wish in the subjunctive mood)