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BSS 402 SOIL INVESTIGATION

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Elma Dewiyana Ismail

on 14 April 2016

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Transcript of BSS 402 SOIL INVESTIGATION

SOIL
&
SOIL INVESTIGATION

BSS502
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS 1


ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS WHILE I
GO THRU THE PRESENTATION.

SOIL
INTRODUCTION
From an engineering viewpoint, the ground beneath a site can conveniently be divided into the categories, based upon generalizations of its expected behaviour in construction works.
Soil used to be
rock,
which was tuned into soil by
weathering, chemical
and
mechanical forces
.
Nature recycles the soil to rock, that this takes millions of years.

HORIZONS
3 MAIN SIZE GROUP OF SOIL:

Sand (0.05 to 2.00 mm)

Silt (0.002 to 0.05 mm)

Clay ( less than 0.002 mm)

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS:
Color,

Texture,

Aggregation,

Porosity,
Ion content and
pH
Soils come in a wide range of colors.
Shades of
brown
,
red
,
orange
,
yellow
,
gray
and even
blue
or
green
.
A dark color usually indicates the presence of organic matter.

COLOR

TEXTURE
A soil texture depends on its content of the three main mineral components of the soil, sand ,silt and clay.
Very fine textured soils may be poorly drained.
Medium texture and a relatively even proportion of all particle sizes are most versatile

AGGREGATION
Individual soil particles tend to be bound together into lager units referred to as aggregates or soil peds.
Aggregation occurs as a result of complex chemical forces acting an small soil components in soil act as glue binding particles together.

POROSITY

Part of the soil that is not solid is made up
pores
of various
sizes
and
shapes
Porosity greatly affects
water movement
and
gas exchange.

ION CONTENT

Particularly the clay, hold groupings of atoms known as ions.

These ions carry a negative charge.

Like magnets, these negative ions (anions) attract positive ions (cations)

PH
Another important chemical measured is soil pH.

Refers to the soil acidity or alkalinity.

A greater concentration of hydrogen results in a lower pH, meaning greater acidity

SOIL INVESTIGATION
ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS WHILE I
GO THRU THE PRESENTATION.

INTRODUCTION
Specifically related to the subsoil beneath the site under investigation and could be part of or separate from the site investigation

A well designed soil investigation can often lead to project cost savings in the long term by allowing contractors to foresee potential problems.

PURPOSE OF SOIL INVESTIGATION
Determine the
suitability
of the site for the proposed project.
Determine an
adequate and economic
foundation design.
Determine the
difficulties
which may arise during the construction process and period.
Determine the
occurrence and/or cause
of all changes in subsoil conditions.

Soil Samples
1) Disturbed Soil Samples

Soil samples obtained from
boreholes and trial pits
. The method of extraction disturbs the natural structure for visual grading, establishing the moisture content and some lab tests. Disturbed soil samples should be stored in l
abelled air tight jars.

Soil Samples
2) Undisturbed Soil Samples

Soil samples obtained using coring tools which preserve the natural structure and properties of the subsoil. The extracted undisturbed soil samples are labelled and laid in wooden boxes for dispatch to a lab for test. This method of obtaining soil samples is suitable for rock and clay sub-soils but difficulties can be experienced in trying to obtain undisturbed soil samples in other types of subsoil.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SOIL INVESTIGATION METHOD
:
Size of contract;
Type of proposed foundation;
Type of sample required;
Type of subsoils which may be encountered.

As a general guide the most suitable methods in terms of investigation depth are:

Foundations up to
3.000d (M)

trial pits
;
Foundations up to
30.000d
(M)

borings
;
Foundations over
30.000d

(M)

deep boring and in-situ
examination from tunnels and/or deep pits.

TYPES OF SOIL INVESTIGATION


Generally the following soil investigation techniques are employed for majority of projects:
 
Trial Pitting
Dynamic Probe Testing
Cable Percussive Boreholes
Rotary Drilled Boreholes

TASK
EXPLAIN
IN DETAILS THESE SOIL INVESTIGATION METHODS
Trial Pitting
Dynamic Probe Testing
Cable Percussive Boreholes
Rotary Drilled Boreholes
PLEASE USE NOTES FROM OTHER BOOKS AND RESOURCES, NOT FROM THE NOTES GIVEN.. TQVM
SUBMISSION DATE:
8 APRIL 2015
1. LIST DOWN
SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
2.LIST DOWN THE
LAYERS OF SOIL
(HORIZONS)
3.LIST DOWN THE
TYPES OF SOIL
1. WHAT ARE THE
PURPOSE
OF SOIL INVESTIGATION?
2. LIST DOWN 2 TYPES OF
SOIL SAMPLES
3.WHAT ARE THE
FACTORS
THAT MIGHT AFFECT THE CHOICE OF SOIL INV. METHOD?
4.FOUR COMMON TYPES OF
SOIL INV. TECNIQUES.
Full transcript