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Freud's Phsycosexual Theory
Transcript of Freud's Phsycosexual Theory
Developed his theory of development in order to help emotionally troubled people.
His system of pshychoanalysis was the first formal theory of personality and is still the best known.
Life instinct: serve the purpose of survival of the individual by satisfying the basic necessities which are oriented to growth and development.
libido: Psychic energy that drives a person towards pleasurable behaviors and thoughts.
Death instinct: The unconscious drive towards aggression, compelling them to destroy, conquer , and kill.
Type of Instincts
Improvised Personality Structures
Instincts are the basic elements of the personality
The instinct is not the bodily state, rather it is the bodily need transformed into a mental state : a wish.
Thus the person experiences a feeling of tension or pressure.
People may take different paths to satisfy their needs thus maintaining physiological equilibrium.
Personality is rooted in our unconsciousness
Personality is divided into 3 parts:
Freud's Psychosexual Theory
( 1856 - 1939)
Preconscious: Mind Palace of memory, perception and thought
Unconscious: Largest aspect of human personality based on instincts, desires and wishes that command our natural behavior.
It includes all the
aspect of personality associated with instincts
Source of psychic energy
Operates according to the pleasure principle
Pleasure Principle: Principle which helps the id to prevent pain and maximize pleasure
rational aspect of the personality
directs and controls instincts according to reality principle
principle by which the ego functions to provide appropriate constraints on the expression of the id instincts. This helps one to behave in a practical and realistic way.
moral aspect of personality
internalization of parental and social values
Behaviors for which the child has been punished is contained in this portion of superego
This part of the super ego consists of the moral and ideal behaviors for which a person strives.
Psychosexual stages of development
The Psychosexual theory describes how personality gradually develops through a series of stages during childhood.
In these stages, the pleasure seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas.
If these psychosexual stages are not completed successfully a fixation can occur.
Fixation is when a previous psychosexual stage is on persistent focus.
This may lead to personality modifications which will be discussed in the following.
State: Physical and emotional
Pleasure is derived from sucking , biting and swallowing
Lasts till year 2 of an infants life
Freud emphasized highly on the erotic satisfactions attained from oral activities
Infant is dependent on mother and learns to love her
Oral Incorporative Behaviour
Adults fixated at this stage are excessively concerned about oral activities i.e. eating, kissing, drinking etc.
Behaviour trends: unusually optimistic and highly dependent on others
Trusts people very easily
Oral Sadistic Behaviour
Occurs during the first painful teeth growth in an infants life
They blame the mother for this pain as they regard the mother responsible for everything in their small life and develop a love-hate relationship
Behaviour Trends: hostile, aggressive , highly pecimistic
Tends to hurt others
Envious and dominating
Mother responds to child's demands
The infant sees the world through his/her mother's eyes and perceives the world like the mother
Physical and Emotional Stage
Starts from the age of 18 months to age 3
Erotic pleasure achieved through defecation
Parents try to regulate the time and place for which interferes with natural intstictual impulses
Time of conflicts
Anal Aggressive Personality
Child considers this as a weapon against parents
Defecate where parents disapprove
Does it frequently to reduce frustration of failing to learn toilet manners
Behavior trends: Temper tantrums, cruelty, destructive tendency
Anal Retentive Personality
Hold back faeces and avoid defecation as a reaction to the frustration of failing toilet training
Parents are concerned if the child does not defecate for several days
New technique to attract parental attention
Behavior trends: Stubborn , stingy
Sense of security depends on one's
possessions and savings
Neat, overly conscientious
Age: 3 - 6 years old
Stage: Emotional , Social
Pleasure shifts from anus to genitals
Curiosity in manipulating genitals of themselves and their playmates
Unconscious desire of the male child for his mother
Father gets to sleep with his primary love object while he feels inferior and neglected
Feeling of jealousy and hatred towards his father
A girl child's prime love object shifts fro mother to father as she finds out boys have a penis which she does not
Unconscious desire develops for the father and the child starts loving her mother less.
Sense of inferiority and competition
Jealous of the male's sex organ
The envy of the female as she does not have a penis which is accompanied by a sense of loss
Fear of a male child that his penis might be cut off. This happens during the oedipal period ( circumcision be can feared as castration by jewish and muslim boys.)
The Phallic Personality
Age 5 to puberty
Physical, Emotional , Social
Sex instinct is substituted by socially accepted activities like sports, dance
Friendship with members of the same sex
The id, ego and super-ego has been formed
Relationships between them are being solidified
Sex drive at rest and dormant for 5 to 6 years
final stage of phsychosexual theory
Age: Puberty onwards
stages: Physical, Emotional and Social
physiological growth of the body
Perfectly normal life if no fixations have occured
Conflicts are less intense in this stage
Conflicts are minimized via sublimation into socially accepted acts and later going into a committed Adult relationship
The Genital Personality
Able to find satisfaction in love and work
Id impulses are sublimed by the satisfaction through work
phallic conflicts and degree of resolutions determine the person's behavior towards the opposite sex
Need continual praise of their qualities and attractiveness
Difficulty to establish mature heterosexual relationships
Female Phallic Personality : exaggeration of femininity and uses her charms to conquer men
Male Phallic Personality: Brash, self assured, vain
expresses masculinity via repeated sexual intercourse or activities as such.
5 Defense Mechanisms
Going back to a point of life which was less frustrating and stressful
Displaying usually childish behavior of that previous more secure period of time.
i.e. giggling, trying to forget the present
Involuntary removal of something from conscious awareness
Usually this is a discomforting or painful memory/event/thing
Affects perception of the present or body's physiological functions
Difficult to eliminate
Basis of Freud's theory, involves all neurotic behavior
Own personality depended on someone else or lifestyle.
Wife wearing the dress of dead husband
Raped and tortured victim later helping the terrorists who tortured her.
When an individuals ego can no longer take
care of id's demands or pay attention to
the super-ego of the person, he or she will face
anxiety and tend to suffer a mental break down.
To prevent this break down, the human mind
has developed several defense mechanisms. There are
9 main mechanisms for defense that are known to us.
we shall elaborate on five of the following defense mechanisms:
Denying the existence of a traumatic event or threat. It is related to repression.
Attributing a disturbing impulse to someone else
Strengths of FREUDS THEORY
CONFLICTS and CRITICISM
Pioneer of theory of human psychoanalysis
Introduces the existence and role of unconscious mind to the world
Neglects female psychosexual development
Hypothetical - not proven scientifically
Ambiguous- hard to relate childhood actions to adult personality
Based on adult case studies , not a formal research on child activities.