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Punctuation

End marks, commas, semicolons, colons and more
by

Chelsea Lamp

on 5 August 2014

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Transcript of Punctuation

Punctuation
End Marks
OH MY GOODNESS!!!!
Apostrophes
Little dots with big influence...
Semicolons and Colons
Hyphens, Dashes, Parentheses and Ellipses
The other pieces of punctuation...
I'm so glad to be done with punctuation....


Ya know, practice does make perfect!!

End marks, commas, semicolons, colons and more
Periods, Question marks, Exclamation points
Periods
1. Used to end a statement
Example: My dog, Rossi, is a little monster.
2. Used in an abbreviation
Example: P.O. Box
M.D.
3. Used at the end of an indirect question
Example: He asked where the basketball
game was.

She asked her teacher for the homework.
Commas
Question Marks
1. Use a question mark at the end
of a direct question.
2. Use a question mark when a sentence is
half statement and half question.
Example 1: Do you want to grab a pizza?

What do you think?
Example 2: I think he likes me, do you ?

You do care, don't you?
Exclamation Points
1. Use the exclamation point to show
emphasis or surprise.

Do not use the exclamation point in
formal business writing.
Examples:

Wow!
Fantastic!
You did great!
Rules are vast and extensive
Take a look at this sentence...

In the cabinet of the old house, Norman keeps a hand towel, finger paint,
and carving knife.
What if we wrote the sentence like this...
In the cabinet of the old house, Norman keeps a hand, towel, finger, paint,
and carving knife.
Pretty wild difference, right? Commas change things quite drastically...
1. Use a comma to separate words or groups of words in a series.
#1 Examples:
-Caitie bought cookies, tofu, tortillas, and a kumquat to snack on during the movie.
-Disturbed people nibble, lick, and gnaw on telephone poles.
2. Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the conjunction and makes sense between them.
3. Use a comma to separate two sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction.... FANBOYS
4. Use a comma to separate words in direct address from the rest of the sentence... Direct address is when you speak directly to a person...
5. Use a comma to separate short introductory words(Interjections) from the rest of the sentence....
6. Use a comma to separate two or more introductory prepositional phrases from the rest of the sentence. Also, use a comma to separate one long introductory prepositional phrase(four or more words) from the rest of the sentence.
7. Use a comma to separate transitional words (however, therefore, nevertheless, thus, consequently, besides...) from the rest of the sentence.
#2 Examples:
-Lionel's lion loves to lap vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, and antelope ice cream cones.
#3 Examples:
-The laundry was not dry by school time, so Emmett cleverly put his jockey shorts in the toaster.
#4 Examples:
- Thorton, why did you name your dog Spot?
--OR--
-Please toss me a cantaloupe, Wilbur.

NOTE--
Don't confuse a direct address with a mention of a name....
-Wanda, lost her head, but the cat found it under her bed. ----Wrong.
-Wanda, you've lost your head. ----Right.
#5 Examples:
- Gee, I think I sat on your miniature chihuahua.
-Yes, I will have another Spam milk shake.
#6 Examples:
-For favors at her birthday party, Wilma passed out guppy eggs dyed in attractive pastel colors. (2 short phrases)
-In the bug-filled flower bed, Doug dug up a hyperactive slug. (one long phrase)


--WAIT!!--
- Don't place a comma after a phrase if it is followed by a verb.... What's a verb???
-In the basement of the house on the corner live millions of mutant millipedes.
#7 Examples:
- Horace, for instance, enjoys molding clay statues of giant flying monkeys.
8. Use a comma after introductory adverb clauses and introductory participial phrases.
9. Use a comma to enclose most appositives (words that rename nouns) and their modifiers.
10. Use commas to enclose parenthetical expressions ( expressions such as of course, to tell the truth, I believe, and I think that are used as side remarks and could be omitted from the sentence).
11. Use a comma to set off contrasting expressions beginning with not.
12. Titles or degrees that follow a person's name should be set off by commas.
13. Use commas to separate the elements in dates and addresses.
14. Use commas to separate nonessential participial phrases and nonessential clauses from the rest of the sentence
15. To use or not to use, a comma is sometimes simply a judgment call, so the final rule is simple; Use a comma to avoid confusion.
#8 Example:
-When Squiggly grows up, he wants to be either a nuclear physicist or a shepherd.
-Hoping to win the election for class president, Egbert gave every student a pony.
#9 Example:
- The parakeet, a popular house pet, has a brain the size of a shriveled pea.
-Jell-o wrestling, my favorite hobby, requires great skill and coordination.
#10 Example:
- Everyone knows, of course, that eating large amounts of red M&M's increases a person's intelligence.
- Some earthworms in the North Pole grow to a length of fifty feet, I think.
#11 Example:
-Use flour, not sawdust, to make cupcakes.
- Freda brought a tick, not a goldfish, for Show and Tell
#12 Example:
-Barney Trembles, M.D. removed my appendix.
-Phil Filling, D.D.S. gives each patient a free pedicure.
#13 Example:
-On Feb. 11, 2002, Goober rode his gnu to Timbuktu.

--NOTE--
A comma is also used to separate a date or address from the rest of a sentence but do not use a comma between the state and a zip code.
#14 Example:
-Mr. Peabody, who recently underwent a costly hair transplant operation, suffers from split ends.
-Nonessential
-People who are trying to lose weight should not snack on sticks of butter.
-Essential
#15 Example:
- In 2004, 352 million people received emergency care for paper cuts.
Semicolons.

1. Use a semicolon to connect closely related sentences.
2. Use semicolons to connect sentences when the second sentence begins with a transitional expression such as HOWEVER, NEVERTHELESS, MOREOVER, IN ADDITION, FURTHERMORE, CONSEQUENTLY, FOR INSTANCES, FOR EXAMPLE, ON THE OTHER HAND, ETC.
3. Use a semicolon (instead of a comma) to separate items in a series when one or more of the items contains commas.
4. Use a semicolon (instead of a comma) between the clauses of a compound sentence if one of the clauses contains commas.
#1 Example:
- Lyda, who is in a constant state of denial, refuses to believe her tire is flat; she insists that the other three are bloated.
#2 Example:
-Lolita was startled to find bugs in her begonias; furthermore, she was astounded to see menacing monkeys in her mimosa.
#3 Example:
-Theodore brushed his teeth on January 7, 2006, March 5, 2007; and February 10, 2008.
#4 Example:
-In his spare time, George plays the xylophone, wrestles his python, and practices ballroom dancing; but his favorite pastime is designing potholders.
Colons

1. Use a colon to show that a list is about to pop up .

Kind of like "Hey, look whats next!!"
2. Use a colon to set off a quotation, especially a long one.
3. Use a colon to draw attention to an appositive.

What is an appositive?
4. Use a colon in some conventional situations such as....
Hours and minutes
Biblical chapters and verses
Salutations in business letters
#1 Example:
Stuart received the following gifts from his parents on his birthday: an electric train set, a complete set of action figures, an electric car, twenty model airplanes, an aquarium, an electric guitar, a baseball glove and an ant farm. But, he wanted a sock monkey...

--NOTE--
Don't put a colon after a verb or preposition!!

Wrong: Opey's biggest fears are: ghosts, monsters under his bed, werewolves, vampires , and hangnails.

Right: Opey fears many things: ghosts, monsters under the bed, werewovles, vampires and hangnails.
#2 Examples:
When it comes to America's healthcare system, Homer Simpson has this unique perspective: "America's health care system is second only to Japan's... Canada's, Sweden's, Great Britain's...well, all of Europe. But you can thank your lucky stars we don't live in Paraguay!"
#3 Example:
Bing finds one type of person the most irritating: the individual who refuses to pick up his or her toenail clippings.
#4 Example:
According to Uncle Howarth, the space aliens should drop the giant match that will heat the earth and melt the ice caps at approximately 4:30 A.M.

Dear Professor Quigglebottom:
Confusing commas that hang in the air...
Possessives of nouns
1. To form the possessive of a singular noun, simply add 's
2. If a noun is plural and end in -s, just add an apostrophe at the end of the word.
3. If a noun is plural and does not end in -s, add 's at the end of the word.
#1 Example
-the monster's nose
-the ant's antennas
#2 Example
-the monsters' nose
-the ants' antennas
#3 Example
-the children's candy
-the mice's whiskers
4. Use an apostrophe to for the possessive of indefinite pronouns (anyone, anybody, no one, nobody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody)
5. Don't use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns (his, hers, its, ours, theirs, yours).
#4 Example
Has everyone's picture been taken with the Giant Badger?
#5 Example
Wrong: The cornflake-shaped purse is her's.
Right: That cornflake-shaped purse is hers.
Forming Contractions
In a contraction an apostrophe replaces a missing letter.
isn't (is not)
I'm (I am)
you're (you are)
can't (cannot)
don't (do not)
Won't (will not)
Forming some plurals
If to eliminate confusion, add an 's to capital letters, numbers and symbols.

So either way is acceptable....
The winning lottery number has five 7s (or 7's) in it.
In the 1800s, people wore fur underwear when the temperature dropped into the 20s (20's).

Don't use an apostrophe when talking about centuries.
Always add 's to form the plural of lower case letters, and of words and expressions used to represent themselves.
The word arachnophobia has three a's in it.
Ya know, you use too many ya know's when you speak.
Quotation Marks and Italics
Including Titles
1. Use quotation marks when giving a speaker's exact words (a direct quotation).
2. A direct quotation usually begins with a capital letter.
3. Commas and periods always go inside of closing quotation marks.
4. When a speaker tag(the somebody said part of a quotation) or other types of words INTERRUPT a quoted sentence, punctuate the sentence in the following way.
-Enclose the first part of the sentence in quotation marks
-Place a comma before and after the interrupting words
-Enclose the second part of the sentence in quotation marks
-Begin the second part of the sentence with a lowercase letter
5. When the speaker tag or another type of expression comes
at the end of a quoted sentence, punctuate the sentence like this:
-Enclose the directly quoted sentence in quotation marks
-Put a comma, not a period, at the end of the directly quoted sentence
-Place a period after the tag
-Begin the next sentence with a capital letter
#1 Example
Right: "Sometimes I like to enhance my eyebrows with fuzzy caterpillars," declared Hillary. (direct quotation)
Right: Hillary declared that sometimes she likes to enhance her eyebrows with fuzzy caterpillars. (indirect quotation)
Wrong: Hillary declared that "Sometimes she likes to enhance her eyebrows with fuzzy caterpillars." (indirect quotation)
#2 Example
Esther questioned, "Why doesn't Super Glue stick to the inside of the tube?"
#3 Example:
Right: "A duck with udders," muttered Cubby, "would be utterly ridiculous."
Wrong: "A duck with udders", muttered Cubby, "would be utterly ridiculous."
#4 Example
Right: "I consider myself very lucky," said Sally Mae, "that I have good hair every day."
Wrong: "I consider myself very lucky," said Sally Mae. "That I have good hair every day." (2nd part fragment)
Wrong: "I consider myself very lucky." said Sally Mae. "That I have good hair every day." (too many periods)
#5 Example
Right: "A bird dropping landed in my eye," exclaimed Tyson. "I'm certainly glad that hippopotami don't fly."
Wrong: "A bird dropping landed in my eye," exclaimed Tyson, "I'm certainly glad that hippopotami don't fly." (RUN-ON)
6. If a direct quotation includes several uninterrupted sentences, place quotation marks only at the beginning and end of the quote, not around every sentence.
7. Place a single quotation marks around a quote inside a quote.
8. In dialogue, begin a new paragraph every time the speaker changes.
9. If a direct quotation is several paragraphs long from one speaker, put quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the quote. Don't place closing quotation marks at the end of each paragraph.
#6 Example
Right: Reginald sputtered, "My favorite class is Handcrafts 101. Yesterday the class made potholders out of cat fur. Last week we carved figures of jumbo garden insects out of blocks of processed meat."
Wrong: Reginald sputtered, "My favorite class is Handcrafts 101." "Yesterday the class made potholders out of cat fur." "Last week we carved figures of jumbo garden insects out of blocks of processed meat." (too many quotation marks!!)
#7 Examples
Right: "My favorite short story is 'The Cats of Amarillo' by Edgar Allan Poe," announced Moby .
Wrong: "My favorite short story is "The Cats of Amarillo" by Edgar Allan Poe," announced Moby.
#8 Examples
"I need you to knead the bread," said Ed, "because we'll need a fresh loaf in the morning."

"Hey, I'm no loafer," shot back Fred, "so quit stewing and stir the stew."

"Just simmer down and turn up the heat on the turnips," said Ed.
#9 Examples
Toooooo long......
Quotation marks are part of labeling titles too!!

Use quotation marks to highlight the following...
magazine and newspaper articles
short stories
poems
songs
chapters
other short works
Remember, if the title is longer (such as a book) then you would use Italics. (Remember that when you are writing, you, underline.)
Examples:

"Scientists Discover Tiny Space Aliens in Breakfast Cereal" --article
"The Dog That Bit People" --short story
"Mr. Speds and Mr. Spats" --poem
"Some Where Over the Rainbow" --song
Hyphens

1. Used to divide words into syllables.
-Divide words ONLY between syllables.
-Never divide one syllable words.
-Never have one letter hanging out there all by itself,
even if the letter is a complete syllable.
-Don't carry a two-letter word ending over to the next line
-Divide hyphenated words only at the hyphens
-Don't divide capitalized words (proper nouns or adjectives)
2. Use a hyphen when writing out the numbers twenty-one to ninety-nine.
4. Used a hyphen when a compound adjective comes before a noun, but not when a compound adjective comes after a noun.
5. Hyphens are used to separate prefixes from proper nouns or adjectives.
6. Use a hyphen with the prefix self-. Don't use a hyphen with selfish, selfhood, or with pronouns such as himself or herself
7. Use a hyphen to separate a title from the suffix -elect.
8. Use a hyphen after the prefix ex- when it means former or formerly.
9. USE A DICTIONARY WHEN IN DOUBT!! (What's a dictionary!?!?!?!?)
Dashes

1. Use a dash when you want to show a change of thought, a very deliberate pause.
#1 Examples:
Wrong: to-oth gass-y
itch-y emu-s
wrink-ly gang-ly
mo-ther-in-law
Grace-land
#2 Examples
Quidley, who saves money by buying toilet paper in bulk was disappointed to find that his package of one hundred rolls only contained ninety-nine.
#3 Examples
Zeffy always begins the morning with one-half cup of bran and smoked ham.
#4 Examples
Thisleberry was too hungry to wait, so he ate a half-baked rattlesnake.
#5 Examples:
"The Loch Ness Monster lives someplace in Lake Michigan," said not-so-wordly Appleton, "and I think Bigfoot lives in the mid-Atlantic."
#6 Examples:
For self-protection, Marlowe, a self-described innovator, built a moat himself around his home for self-defense, despite the complaints of his selfish neighbors.
#7 Example
The governor-elect requested that the state bird be changed to the snipe.
#8 Example
Mr. Bittlehopper, soon to be the ex-governor, graciously suggested that the new bathroom facilities in the capitol be name after the governor-elect.
3. Use a hyphen with fractions that are used as adjectives but not nouns.
2. Use a dash for emphasis.
3. Use dashes to set off appositives if the appositive has commas....
4. Use a dash to separate appositives that are introduced by words such as FOR EXAMPLE, THAT IS and FOR INSTANCE
#1 Examples:
" I called the Addict Hotline," divulged Kibby, "and I had to admit that I'm--I'm--I'm hooked on phonics!!"
#2 Examples
Oh, my! Look what the cat, dragged in -- a seventy-pound rat!
#3 Example
"I know what type of car I'm going to buy --either a blue one, a green one, or a yellow one--and I hope the dealer has a fifteen-year finance option," said Trixie.
#4 Example
An intimidating guard animal--for example, the snaggle-toothed gopher--requires months of training.
Parentheses

Set off side comments or information that is not closely related to the sentence

You have to be able to lift it out of the sentence without changing the meaning.
Examples:

If the shoe fits, wear it (but make sure the other one fits too because sometimes two sizes get mixed up in the box).

The winner of the Anti-Air Pollution Award ( a prize that's coveted in the scientific community) was the inventor of the minty breath spray.
Decide where to put the period....

Gertrude runs every race with her lucky rabbit's foot (but for some reason she always comes in last).

Fletcher quit his job as a dogcatcher. (He grew tired of being hounded by the opposition.)
Ellipsis... We are not going to worry about ... If you need them, Microsoft Word will help you....

Usually you use them to show that there is something missing.

--OR--

To show a pause or hesitation.
Example:

Hmm,..." ruminated Beasly, "I think for my vacation I'll travel to Egypt to see the pyramids,...or maybe I'll go to New Jersey..."
Practice:
1. The International Club asked if they could plan a party
2. Could we attend the festival this weekend
3. Ask Mr. Oliver to be a chaperone
4. My cousin just learned how to drive
5. It is disappointing that the town pool will be closed next week
6. How do you expect me to do that
7. Join the choir
8. I asked if I could help with any of the plans
9. Are you bringing Oliver
10. My goodness, you scared me
Practice: Write the word that precedes the punctuation followed by the punctuation mark (end marks and commas)

1. Maybelle a musical genius plays the kazoo not the tuba in the school board

2. No you may not use your father's power tools to play dentist Timmy

3. Goober did you know that thousands of children are injured every year by out-of-control Slinkys

4. Thelma won the Olympic silver medal in underwater belly dancing and she hopes someday to win the gold medal in synchronized tight-rope ballet

5. Many professional bikers I believe pick bugs from their teeth with sharp Swiss army knives
Practice:
Write the word that precedes the punctuation with the correct punctuation following it (end marks, commas, semicolons).

1. Boomer often harasses his little sister for example he put Mr. Potato Head's eyes in her breakfast cereal

2. The Surgeon General advised that wool underwear causes chafing and skin rashes therefore most brands will soon carry warning labels

3. Texas has had many flags flown over it at one point France Spain and Mexico all claimed it

4. Almost every one recognizes our country's flag however few recognize our state's flag

5. Alaska became the forth-ninth state on January 3 the year was 1959
Colon Practice

1. During the field trip, our teacher pointed out the
following trees sugarberry, papaw, silver bell, and mountain laurel.

2. The first lunch period begins at 11 00 A.M.

3. This is my motto Laugh and the world laughs with you.

4. Using a recipe from Miami Spice The New Florida Cuisine, we made barbecue sauce.

5. The artist showed me how to make lavender Mix blue, white, and a little red.
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