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A presentation on the history of leather, the process from turning hide to leather, the chemicals used & their effects, leather companies, what animals are used, & more!

Erin Alkire

on 7 January 2016

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Transcript of Leather

Erin, Ashley, Abbie,
Haley, & Jasmine

Leather in History
~10,000 BC
Ice Age
Wall paintings in Egyptian tombs indicate leather was used
Progress in processing leather
First tanning process: Assyrians (present-day Iraq) using animal fats
Ancient Greece: tanning formulas (tree barks & leaves soaked in water) for preservation
Various garments & especially shoes
Use of leather in Greece spread the idea to Rome
Processing technique improvements
Oil tanning &dyes
Furniture, tapestries, books, chests
Chrome salts
Women made leather garments
1. Preservation

2. Soaking & washing
a. Salt solution
b. Borax solution
3. Liming

4. Rinsing/hair removal

5. Splitting
6. Reliming

7. Deliming

8. Bating
9. Degreasing

10. Frizing

11. Bleaching
12. Pickling

13. Depickling

14. Tanning
a. Tanning solution
How Leather is Made
1200 BC
& Rome
5000 BC
2500 BC
Tanner: a person who is employed to tan animal hides
Prosperous trade
Buckskin: deer or sheep leather
Saddles, sheaths, boots, drinking tankards
Paleolithic Period Neanderthals
Used leather/animal skins for shelter & clothing
Clothing, gloves, tools, armor, decoration, sandals, buckets, bottles, burial shrouds
Chemicals Used
Leather Production

Top leather producing countries: China, Italy, India, Brazil, Korea, Russia, Argentina, Mexico, Turkey, USA

American locations:
Trongo Textile in Florida
Leather First Arzignano Inc. in California
Moser Leather Co. in Ohio
Clude Attia in Florida
Malibu Leather Inc. in California
Top leather products:
Footwear 52%
Furniture 14%
Auto 10.2%
Garments 10%
Other 9.4%
Gloves 4.4%
Top Leather Companies
Top retail companies: Wilsons Leather, Tandy Leather Factory, Global Sources Leather

Top tanneries & contract processing: Kalle GMBH (Germany), Tannery AB (Sweden), & African Leather (South Africa)

Leather dealers & agents
Artificial leather companies
Brands that use real leather
Animals Used
Raising Cattle for Leather
Vegan/Faux Leather
How do I tell the difference between faux & real?
Animal Cruelty Rights
Unethical killing: alligators, kangaroos, snakes, lizards, cows
Animal rights:
Leather Trends & Products
animal-friendly alternative to real leather & it can mean several different materials
Poromeric imitation
If it's a garment, look at
the tag's fabric content
Smell it! Real leather has
a strong, distinct smell
Feel it! Faux leather may
have a plastic-like texture
Look closely! Real leather has irregular pores,
while faux leather's pores have a reapeating pattern
Look at the edge. Real leather has a
rough edge, while faux leather does not
Works Cited
Shoes, liquid containers, rafts, clothing
Ancient Rome: footwear, clothing, shields, harnesses, armor, saddles
Pompei tannery
Top 4: cows, sheep, pigs, goats
Horses, elephants, lambs, kangaroos, sharks, alligators, deer, buffalo, dogs, cats
Chromium Sulfate
Caustic Soda
Soda Ash
Sulphuric Acid
Magnesium Oxide
soaking raw hides
creates large amount of waste water
very toxic for humans, the environment
Hexavalent Chromium in Cameron, MO: water, soil, farmland, fertilizer > brain tumors
Cows are main animal used for leather
Slaughter house & farms
10 steps: purchase herd, plan, feed/pasture mgmt, maintain health, deal with dead, market (when, where, how), other enterprises, keep records, keep up with finances, enjoy it!
Moccasins, mukluk, pouches/bags, sheaths
Turkish Companies
"5 ways to spot fake leather goods." Cypruslikethis - Find...everything in Cyprus! | Cyprus Business Directory. Primecom Ltd, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.cypruslikethis.com/beinformed/5-ways-to-spot-fake-leather-goods.html>.

"Best Leather Producing Countries producing best leather products. | Leather Shoe,Leather Ipad cover." Leather Shoe,Leather Ipad cover | Smile! Youâre at the best WordPress.com site ever. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://cythosblog.wordpress.com/2012/12/04/best-leather-producing-countries-producing-best-leather-products/>.

"DTG." Turkish Leather Brands. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <http://www.turkishleatherbrands.com/company_search.php>.

"Facts: Leather." IDA- In Defense of Animals. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.idausa.org/facts/leatherfacts.html>.

"History of Leather." Moore & Giles. Moore & Giles Inc., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <https://www.mooreandgiles.com/resources/history/>.

"History of Leather." Simply Leather. Simply Leather (Wales) Ltd., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.simplyleather.co.uk/acatalog/History_of_Leather.html>.

"History of Leather - Leather Resource." Welcome to Leather Resource - Greensboro NC. Leather Resource LLC, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.leatherresource.com/history.html>.

"Leather Manufacturers Companies in the United States." Company Profiles & Company Information on Manta. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <http://www.manta.com/mb_35_E806F0GO_000/fine_pliant_leather_sheep_goat_calf>.

"Leather Production." Tanners Council 1 (2007): n. pag. Tanners Council. Web. 12 Mar. 2013.

"Leather: Animals Abused And Killed for Their Skins | PETA.org." People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA): The animal rights organization | PETA.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-clothing/leather-animals-abused-and-killed-for-their-skins.aspx>.

"List of Tannery Companies Worldwide - Bloomberg." Bloomberg - Business, Financial & Economic News, Stock Quotes. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.bloomberg.com/markets/companies/tannery/>.

"Tannery.com | World leather resource." Tannery.com | World leather resource. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.tannery.com/home/index.php>.

"What Is Vegan Leather?." wiseGEEK. Conjecture Corporation, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <www.wisegeek.com/what-is-vegan-leather.htm>.

Xian, Vivian. "China, Where U.S. Hides Get Their Shine." FAS worldwide April (2008): n. pag. USDA. Web. 12 Mar. 2013.
Guangzhou, Dongguan, Nanhai, Jinjiang, and Xinji, Wenzhou (near Shanghai) and Haining
China Companies
Full transcript