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Biosphere, Biomes, and Climates
Transcript of Biosphere, Biomes, and Climates
Tutorial Leader: Dr. Rahman
- 'Bio' is the greek word for 'life.
- Composed of all living organisms.
- It includes the earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere.
- What the biosphere is divided into.
- A specific geographical region where certain plants and animals can thrive.
- Ex: tropical rainforests, grasslands, tundra.
What Determines a Biome?
2. Air Mass
- The long-term weather of a biome.
- Determined by the biome's location from the Equator.
- The Equator is at a direct angle from the sun, so the sun's rays here are the most intense.
- The amount of sunlight a biome receives, determines it's climate.
- A large body of air with similar properties in temperature and moisture that takes on the features of the area below
= rain, freezing rain, sleet, hail , snow.
- When air masses meet, cold air causes hot air to rise.
- Hot air cools as it rises due to temperature dropping.
- Thus the cold air cannot retain water and forms clouds and precipitation- affecting the amount and type of life below.
Air Mass and Precipitation pt. 2
- Air masses called Trade Winds blow from the north and south of the Equator.
- These winds pushes the hot air upwards causing extreme rainy weather.
- The rainy weather is a characteristic of a humid biome supporting many life forms.
- Falling cool air from Trade Winds causes high pressure system that prevents moist air and clouds, creating dry conditions.
- Deserts have little water for air masses to draw upon.
- Light winds allow Intense heat to dry up the moisture in the air.
- Polar and Artic regions
- Farthest away from the Equator thus receiving the least amount of sunlight and having the coldest temperatures.
- Ex: Taigas and Tundras
- Located between the poles and the Equator.
- Receives moderate amounts of sunlight and subjective to seasons.
- Ex: Deciduous Forests and Grasslands.
- Biomes closest/at the Equator.
- Recieve the most amount of sunlight being directly across from the sun having the hottest temperatures on Earth.
- Ex: Tropical Rainforests and Deserts.
Dry Mid-latitude Climate (Steppe/Grasslands Biome)
Grasslands that range from arid desert to tall-grass prairies located away from oceans and close to mountain ranges.
Mediterranean Climate (Chaparral Biome)
Consists of different types of terrains such as flat plains, rocky hills, and mountain slopes. Climate is very dry.
Moist Continental Climate (Deciduous Forest Biome)
Areas where four seasons occur due to conflicting tropical air masses with polar air masses. Forests that shed their leaves during the winter and regrow in the spring.
Tropical Moist Climates (Rainforest Biome)
Wet Dry Tropical Climates (Savanna Biome)
Dry Tropical Climates (Desert Biome)
Tall trees that live in a region of year-round warmth. The climate is extremely humid and is home to a variety of plants and animals.
Regions between tropical rainforests and desert biomes. Contains shrubs and some trees. Has very wet and very dry seasons.
Hot, dry regions with very little plant and animal life. Covers 12% of the Earth's surface.
One Mid latitude Climate Vs. One Low-Latitude Climate
Deciduous Forest Biome
- Location - # of Seasons
- Wildlife - Vegetation
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- Savanna is found between a tropical and desert biome. Found in Africa, Australia, and parts of South America.
- Deciduous forests are found more up north in eastern half of North America, Europe, Japan and eastern China
- Savanna has 2 seasons: very long dry season and very rainy and humid season.
- Deciduous forest has four season: fall, winter, spring and summer.
- Savanna has grasslands, shrubs and small trees. Plants have adapted to survive long periods of drought. Different types of grasses that grow in savannas that fit to the taste of specific animals.
- Deciduous forests have fertile soils. Broad-leafed trees (ex. maple), bushes, flowers, fruit and mosses can exist in this biome. Also supplies nuts and acorns.
- Wildlife in deciduous forests include squirrels, salamanders, robins and so forth. These animals will either travel south for the winter, or hibernate.
- Wildlife in savannas have many herbivores due to the abundant grasses, and in turn they have many carnivores like lions, and cheetahs.
Both biomes are declining due to human interference in terms of global warming, deforestation, housing, and overuse of farming and animal grazing.