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Transcript of Wood Construction
Corie Posey Engineered
Framing Wood Truss
Framing Stick Framed
Timber Framed What is a joist? Wood Foundation Types of Wood Joists
(Ceiling & Floor) Concrete Foundation Elements of a Wood Frame Insulation Framing Around
Doors & Windows (Lumber)
o Typically non-reinforced concrete footings are used in foundations, but in situations where the soil is unstable, the concrete footings may be reinforced
o Foundation walls may be poured concrete or masonry blocks
o Masonry block foundation walls are often coated with Portland cement mortar on the exterior and then approximately two coats of asphalt on top of that, to prevent anything from penetrating the foundation (such as ground water)
o Masonry walls are topped off with full masonry or cement
o Drain tiles are added around the entire perimeter of the foundation o Pressure preservative treated wood is used to create foundations
o Consist of wood framing and plywood sheathing (concentrated with heavy amounts of preservatives)
o This system is used in basement as well as crawl space foundations
o Wood foundations are useful in cold weather construction
o The bottom layers of these foundation are gravel or stone, then treated wood footing plates are added to the base at the perimeter of the walls
o Basement walls are covered with polyethylene (this helps to direct ground water to the stone base) and then basement floor are added A framing member used
to create floors and ceilings. Platform Construction Balloon Framing Dimensions of Wood Framing Nominal Dressed Methods of "Stick Framing" But what size?! Foundation Wood
Joists Roofs Remember, this is Codes class... ... so when & where can you use wood framed construction according to the building code? The IBC classifies buildings into five types of construction, which are limited based on combustibility of materials. Multi-story wood construction is typically Type III and V. Balloon
Framing Nominal VS. Dressed Directly from factory Unseasoned Undried Full dimensional Cheaper "Milled" Planed smooth Measures less than nominal More expensive Studs YOUR TURN! Engineered Laminated Standard Truss Natural Lumber
2x6s - ect Made of sheets of lumber products (plywood) that are no more than 1/4 in thick
Sandwiched together to make one thick beam
Manufactured in various thicknesses (2-4in) and range in lengths from 24-36 ft long
Can be used in almost any project
One of the strongest options Rectangle made from two-by-four lumber that is fastened together with metal strap fasteners.
Cross bracing is installed for extra support
Can span distances as great as 24-36 feet without the support of bearing walls or posts Made by gluing together thin strips
of wood in specific directions.
Lowest cost for materials.
if you have the time and the
skilled labor required.
If trusses cannot be delivered
to the jobsite, conventional
framing may be your only
alternative. Pros • “In a balloon-frame building, the studs run two or more stories high from the foundation to the eave line. At the floor line, a horizontal board called a ribbon board is nailed to the studs. The joists rest on the ribbon board. The channels between the studs may be open from the cellar to the attic, and the joist channels (space between the joists) are open to the stud channels. Thus, fire can spread through all the interconnected spaces from cellar to attic and across the ceiling.” o A path is created that would enable fire to spread easily from one floor to another (despite the fire stops at each floor level)
o Requires scaffolding, for workers to reach the tops of walls during construction
o The requirement for long wood timbers to be used as framing members
o There can be differential shrinkage of wood frames in larger buildings, which would cause the floors to slope slightly to the central walls
o Often higher heating costs, due to lack of insulation Disadvantages of Balloon Framing: *Platform framing replaced Balloon framing (for the most part), because it is a less expensive and strenuous (it doesn’t require the huge timbers used in balloon framing) •as “stick framing” or “stick construction” (because each element is built stick by stick)
• Most popular method of building residential structures in the US
• Becoming more and more popular as a method of construction for industrial and commercial buildings
• Typically with platform framing construction, a platform is created first with a box frame and joists, then the joists are covered with subflooring, and once this is leveled and constructed, walls and roofing are added
• Adaptable to various methods of prefabrication
• Usually the structure sits on concrete
• Platform framing is one of the most common methods for construction framing nowadays
• “The 1st floor platform is built on the foundation sill and band joist. Once the sub-flooring is installed, the first floor walls are constructed.”
• Disadvantages of platform framing: as modern construction and housing frame designs becomes more complicated it becomes more difficult to use platform framing methods as they were once used, however with new technology and modern methods, platform framing is evolve.
• “As energy efficiency becomes more prominent, platform framing will adapt and be supplemented by other techniques.” http://www.energyauditingblog.com/what-is-platform-framing/ Platform construction can also be referred to Equipment and Technical Specifications for Platform Construction: 1. All lifts shall be carried out on a platform measuring between 2.5 m x 2.5 m minimum and 4.0 m x 4.0 m maximum. It must not exceed 10 cm in height from the surrounding stage or floor. 2. The surface of the platform must be flat, firm and level and covered with a material of non-slip smooth carpet [i.e. free from irregularities and projections]. Rubber matting or similar sheeting materials are not permitted to be used. Using rubber will not ensure a solid footing and will cause the platform to move and give when pressure is applied. 3. The platform will be built using ¾ inch sheets of plywood measuring 4’ x 8’. For sturdy construction, no less than two  layers of ¾ plywood will be used. Three  layers of ¾ plywood is preferred and recommended. 4. If you’re going with the preferred three  layers of ¾ inch plywood to construct your platform, the bottom two  sheets of plywood will be placed side by side, with the seam going front to back. The middle two  sheets, again will be placed side by side, with the seams going left to right. Finally, the top two  sheets will be placed side by side, with the seam going front to back. 5. [Marina Grade Plywood] should be used with 2” galvanized and/or ceramic coated screws, with a course thread, to attach and secure the sheets together. Be sure to countersink the screws, so as to not rip/tear the carpet that will be placed on surface of the platform. The screws should be staggered every 6” – 12”. 6. An 8’ x 8’ piece of [Heavy Contract Loop Carpet] should be used to cover the platform. This
type of carpet is stiff enough and contains a weave that will not allow for any roll and/or spread to form. 7. The Technical Secretary for the championship, in collaboration with the competition director, will ensure these standards are used in the construction of the platform. Cons Slow to install and requires skilled labor.May not be accepted by the building department, as it is not an engineered product.Requires scarce large lumber sizes (2x8, 2x10)Smaller span capability.
High jobsite waste. Pros Cons Creates handsome exposed timber-frame structures Requires skilled labor
Difficult to run ductwork,
wiring, and pipes through
Slow to install and frame in
Hard to insulate Pros Cons I-Beams are suitable for steep sloping ceilings
Trim-able ends on floors, great for angled or rounded walls
Engineered product with uniform quality
Gulam and Laminated Veneer Lumber make strong beam material Difficult to run ductwork, wiring, and pipes through
Limited use in complicated roof lines, coffered ceilings, ect.
May require special connections Pros Cons Lowest overall cost
Fast to install
Requires ordinary tools and does not require skilled labor to install
Virtually and roof and ceiling possible
No job sit waste Must plan in advance Cripple King Jack Header Sole Plate Nominal Size Sawmills Actual Size Lumberyards 2" x 4"
2" x 6"
2" x 8"
2" x 10"
2" x 12" 1 1/2" x 3 1/2"
1 1/2 " x 5 1/2"
1 1/2" x 7 3/8"
1 1/2" x 9 3/8"
1 1/2" x 11 3/8" 50' & 100' Rolls 4' Batts Both in widths of 15", 19" and 23" Between Joists Over Joists Saves time and money No staples needed Leaves air space Needs staples Work Cited Blackburn, G. (1975). Illustrated housebuilding: Overlook Press, Woodstock, N.Y. http://thumbandhammer.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/windowframing.jpg Chudley, R; Greeno, R. (2010). Building Construc on Handbook: incorporating current building and construction regultions. Elsevier, Oxford. 2009 International Building Code National Fire Protection Agency Table 220