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Logic

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Ashley Barry

on 22 March 2014

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Transcript of Logic

The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek philosophia, which literally means "love of wisdom. The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.
What is Philosophy?
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.


Chapter 1
What is an argument?
A set of statements of which one-the one being argued for- is taken to be established as true on the basis of all the other.

2 Categories:

1.) Deductive-
is the process whereby a particular idea or premise is established as true based from a general law or principle that is assumed to be true.
2.) Inductive-
is a reasoning process whereby the human mind processes particular instances to a universal/general truth.

Chapter 2
Nature of Idea
Logic
A science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration

Logic is derived from the greek term "logike" which means thought.

Summary of Logic
Chapters 1-14
Phantasm
Idea
Is an outcome of a process which is known as an intellectual image or representation of a thing.
Types of Ideas
1.
EMPIRICAL
– Observable by our senses.
2.
THEORETICAL
- uses device to perceive such concept.
3.
METAPHYSICAL
-exist beyond the realm of space & time.
4.
FICTITIOUS
- creation of mind.
5.
ABSTRACT
-understood as mental entity.
6.
DISPOSITIONAL
-observable manifestation of a certain operation.
7.
EVALUATIVE
- signifies our evaluative judgment.
MENTAL PICTURE OF THE EXTERNAL OBJECT WE PERCEIVE.

Chapter3
Term
is a sensible,artificial,material,arbitrary and conventional sign, expressive of an idea.
Classification of terms according to extension:
1. Singular terms
- stands for one individual or group definitely.
2. Particular terms
- stands for an indeterminately designated portion of its absolute extension.
3. Universal terms
- stands for each of the subjects to which it can be applied.

Properties of Terms:
1. Comprehension
- sum of the intelligible elements or essential notes or characteristics which make up an idea
2. Extension
-pertains to the particular things to which the comprehension can be applied to.

Classification of terms according to relation
1. Contradictory
- good/not good, organic/inorganic, pretty/not pretty
2. Contrary
- thick/thin, fast/slow, white/black
3. Relative
- one cannot be understood without the other

Classification of terms according to exactness of meaning
1. Univocal terms
- signifies exactly the same concept or essence in at least two occurrence of terms.
2. Equivocal terms
- used in two or more different senses or meanings.
3. Analogous terms
- applied to unlike but unrelated things, so that it is used in a meaning that is partly the same and partly different.

Definiendum-
the term to be defined
Definiens-
is a cluster of words that defines that term
Chapter 4
DEFINITION
-statement which explains what a thing is.
Rules of Definition
1. A definition should state the essential attributes of the term to be defined
2. A definition must not be circular
3. A definition must be neither too broad nor too narrow
4. A definition must not be expressed in ambiguous, obscure or figurative language
5. A definition must not be negative where it could be affirmative

Types of Definition
1.Stipulative-
a brand new term
2.Lexical-
reports a meaning it already has
3.Denotative/Extensional-
enumerates the extension of the term
4.Ostensive/Demonstrative-
involves the use of gestures
5.Connotative/Intentional-
giving the comprehension or intention of the term
6.Synonymous-
giving the synonym of the term
7. Operational-
gives the performance of a specified operation or operations in that case yield a specified result.

Chapter 5
Proposition
defined as a statement in which anything whatsoever is affirmed or denied
Basic Elements of a Categorical Proposition:

*Subject
- something affirmed or denied

*Predicate
- what is affirmed or denied of the subject

*Copula
- is either “is” or “is not”

Quantity of Proposition
~Singular
- standing for one definitely designated individual or group
~Particular
- standing for an indeterminately designated portion of its absolute extension
~Universal
- standing for each of the subjects to which it can be applied to.

Quality of Proposition
-> Affirmative-
if the sentence is used in a positive mood like the use of “is”
-> Negative-
it expresses a negative mood like the use of “is not”
A, E, I and O Proposition
1. Universal-Affirmative (A)
“All plants are organisms”
2. Universal-Negative (E)
“No plant is organism”
3.Particular-Affirmative (I)
“Some plants are organisms”
4. Particular-Negative (O)
“Some plants are not organisms”
Chapter 6
Diagramming Categorical Proposition

A- Proposition
E- Proposition
All S are P
No S are P
I- Proposition
Some S are P
O- Proposition
Some S are not P
Square of Opposition
Chapter 7
Opposition
~> Is recognized when two proposition are same in terms of their subject and predicate but different or the same in their quantity or quality

Square of Opposition
~> Is a chart that was introduced within classical logic to represent the logical relationships holding between certain proposition in virtue of their form.
Truth Table of Logical Proposition
Chapter 8
Education
~the process of immediate inference whereby, from any proposition taken as true, we derive other implied in it, through differing from the first in subject, predicate or both.
3 Formal Education
1.)
Conversion-
re-expression of a proposition by switching the subject & predicate while preserving its quality.
*The original proposition is called the
converted
; while the new proposition is called
converse
.
2.)
Obversion-

the formulation of a new proposition by retaining the subject and quantity of an original proposition.
*The original proposition is called the
obverted
; while the new proposition is called
obverse.
3.) Contraposition- the formulation of a new proposition whose subject is the cotradictory of the original predicate.
*
Combination of obversion and conversion.
Conversion:
A -> I
E -> E
I -> I
O -> Can't be conversed
Obversion:
A -> E
E -> A
I -> O
O -> I
Contraposition:
A -> A
E -> O
O -> O
I -> Can't be contraposit
Argument-
is a set of statements of which one-the one being argued for- is taken is taken to be established as true on the basis of all others.
Chapter 9
Reasoning-
derivation of a new truth from previously established truth.
Premises-indicators
since
because
for
follows from
as indicated by
for the reason that
may be derived from
as shown by
the reason is that
may be inferred from
may be deduced from
in view of the fact
Indicators
Conclusion-indicators

therefore
hence
thus
it follows that
we may infer
I conclude that
consequently
proves that
which implies that
so
accordingly
as a result
inconsequence
which shows/means/entails that
the conclusion that
Structure of the 2 types
Categorical/Standard Syllogism
1st premise- Major
2nd premise- Minor
Conclusion
Hypothetical Syllogism
2nd premise- Minor
1st premise- Major
Conclusion
Chapter 10
Syllogism
A deductive argument in which a conclusion is inferred from two premises.
Two types of Syllogism
:
1.) Categorical
2.) Hypothetical
Figure
A standard-form syllogism is determined by the position of its middle term.
Mood
A syllogism is determined by the types of its three propositions.
Figure 1:
M P
S M
Figure 2:
P M
S M
Figure 3:
M P
M S
Figure 4:
P M
M S
Valid Categorical Syllogism
1st Figure:
AAA- 1
EAE- 1
AII- 1
EIO- 1
2nd Figure:
AEE- 2
EAE- 2
AOO- 2
EIO- 2
3rd Figure:
AII- 3
IAI- 3
EIO- 3
OAO- 3
4th Figure:
AEE- 4
IAI- 4
EIO- 4
Chapter 11
Term

Symbols

Major P
Minor S
Middle M
Universal/
Singular u
Particular p
Affirmative +
Negative -
General Rules in Propositions
1.) If the proposition is affirmative (A/I), the predicate is particular.
2.) If the proposition is negative (E/O), the predicate is always universal.
6 Rules of Categorical Syllogism
Rule #1
Rule: 3 terms
Fallacies: 4 terms on fallacy & Equivocation
Rule #2
Rule: Universal middle
Fallacy: Undistributed Middle Term (UMT)
Rule #3
Rule: CONOWI (conclusion not wider than the premise)
Fallacies: Illicit Major Term
Illicit Minor Term
Rule #4
Rule: NEPRECON (negative premise & conclusion)
Fallacy: two-premises/Exclusive Premises
Rule #5
Rule: NEPRECON (negative premise & conclusion)
Fallacy: ACNP (affirmative conclusion from negative premise)
Rule #6
Rule: CONOWI (conclusion not wider than the premise)
Fallacy: Existential Fallacy
For the NEPRECON Rule:
Testing Validity Using the Venn-Diagram Technique
Chapter 12
3 Methods of Validity
1.) Venn Diagram
2.) Figure/Moods
3.) Six Rules

Remember:
If one of the three is violated the syllogism is INVALID.
Notes in Diagramming:
1.) Diagram the universal premise first.
2.) If an x mark is to be placed on an area divided into the region's, put the x on the line dividing the two.
Chapter 13
Hypothetical Syllogism
~> a deductive argument which uses hypothetical positions.
Three Types:
1.) conditional - If........then
2.) disjunctive- Either......or
A.) strict- two & o invalid contradictories
B.) Broad- contraries
3.) conjunctive- Cannot be.... and at the same time
Informal Fallacy
Chapter 14
1.)
Ad Baculum
-> threat of force
Example:
"If you don't do my project I'll beat you up."
2.)
Ad Hominen
-> attacks the character or personality of the opponent.
Example:
"Don't listen to her, her dad is a killer and her mom is insane."
3.)
Ad Ignorantiam
-> ignorance
Example:
"If you can't prove I'm guilty that means I'm innocent.
4.)
Ad Misericordiam
->
pity/mercy
Example:

"I hit him because there was mosquito. I'm pretty sure it hurt being bitten, I felt bad for him."
5.)
Ad Verecundiam
->
false authority
Example:
"You can't do that, God made it clear it is wrong."
6.)
Petitio Principii
->
repeating the meaning
Example:

"Premarital sex is wrong because it is immoral."
7.)
Complex Question
->
conclusion
Example:

"Have you started feeding your pet?"
8.)
Equivocation
->
double meaning
Example:
"She looks blue and the sky is blue. Therefore, she is the sky."
9.)
Accent
-> confusing truth
Example:
"You look amazing today."
10.)
Post hoc ergo propter hoc Fallacy
-> false cause & false effect
Example:
Beliefs and superstitions
11.)
Non Sequitur
- doesn't follow
Example:
"She should be a model, she can dance."
12.)
Bifurcation
-> two poles.
Example:
"Either you hate him or love him."
Final Project in Logic
Submitted to:
Sir Victor L. Felicia
Submitted by:
Barry, Ashley S.
Respall, Alfonso Jesus B.
Reference: Isidoro, M. Alcala, F. & Leuterio, E. (2011) Workbook in logic. Philippines: Our Lady of Fatima University.
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