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AP World History: Unit 3

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Madison Novak

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Transcript of AP World History: Unit 3

Kyra Taveras, Madison Novak, Kendall Bryant, Asharde Ward, Charlotte Holland
AP World History: Unit 3
Chapter 8
Trade
Sand Roads
Environmental Variations :
North Africa: manufactured goods
Sahara: copper, salt, dates
Agricultural South: crops, gold
Earliest Trade: Sudan agricultural people w/ urban clusters (Jenne-jeno) early centuries CE
West Africa
:
Turning Point:
camel -> could now cross the Sahara
Trans-Saharan commerce by 300-400 CE
Merchants wanted West African gold
Huge caravans
Sea Roads
Mediterranean: commerce since Phoenicians
Linked Europe to Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean Network: World’s most important until 1500
Cheaper by sea
Bulk goods
Understanding of monsoons
Between towns
rather than states
Start: First Civilizations
Tempo increased early centuries CE w/ understanding of monsoons
Roman Empire -> southern India & East African coast; spread Christianity
Eastern Indian Ocean & South China Sea
Fulcrum: India
(spread of Hinduism & Buddhism in SE Asia)
Encouragers for Indian Ocean Trade:
Economic/political revival of China:
Tang & Song unified China; vast market
Rise of Islam (7th cen CE)
: supported trade; Arab Empire from Atlantic to India; trade communities from East Africa to southern China; international maritime culture by 1000CE
altered consumption
of a variety of goods
->
specialization
of a product -> alliances among countries
social mobility
prestige goods
for elites
Spread of
religion, technology innovations, animals, plants and diseases
500-1500 CE: increase in long distance trade; mostly indirect
Separate American Web
best when large states provided security for trade

American Web
Less dense
Limitations:
lack of large domesticated animals & geographical obstacles
(North/South Orientation)
Local & regional trade
; not long distance
Loose web from Great Lakes to Andes
:
At least indirect
Center: Cahokia
Mesoamerica
Maya & Teotihuacan by land
Maya by sea (dugout canoes)
Aztecs: pochteca (merchants)
Andes
Inca: trade run by state

Chapter 9
Silk Road
Control:
Roman & Chinese
Empires
Belt: Byzantine Empire, Abbasid Dynasty, Tang Dynasty
(7th & 8th cen)
Mongol Empire
(13th & 14th cen)
Steppe products
<-->
agricultural & manufactured goods
Luxury goods
for elite
Camel
High transportation cost
Symbolized by silk (
Chinese monopoly
/ currency in Central Asia/ high status/sacred in Buddhism & Christianity)
Small volume
of trade
Peasants in Yangzi: market goods>crops
possibility of
Individual profit
Spread of culture>spread of goods

Buddhism
:
Popular among:
Central & East Asia, merchants, oasis cities
, slowly among Central Asian pastoralists
Voluntary
conversion: founding monasteries provided rest stops
Central Asian cities: centers for learning & commerce
China: religion of foreign merchants or rulers
Transformed during spread: monasteries-> rich & semi-secular, Mahayana flourished, Greek influences
Disease: long-distance trade=exposure to unfamiliar diseases
Smallpox & measles -> Roman & Han empires
Bubonic Plague from India
-> Mediterranean (kept Byzantine from regaining Italy & made it hard for Christians to resist Islam spread)
The Black Death: spread bc Mongol united much of Eurasia
(13th - 14th cen)
Death of 1/3 of population in Europe; similar death toll in China & parts of Islamic world
Bad effect in Central Asian Steppes (
Mongol power dropped
)
Gave
Europeans an advantage in Western Hemisphere after 1500
(due to lack of immunity in Americas)
Korea & China
Vietnam & China
Byzantine Advantages
Western Christendom
With Roman Collapse
After Roman Collapse
Reason vs. Faith
Masai of East Africa
The Mongol Empire
Mongol Moments:
Mongol Moments Cont.
The Birth of Islam
The Worlds of the 15th Century
China vs. Europe
The Islamic World
Americas
Webs of Connection
Encouraged
new & larger political structures (Ghana, Mali)
Rep for riches
Slavery
First, among women
Male slaves for officials, miners, agricultural laborers
Came from raids in the south
Most
sold in North Africa
( few to Europe; Europe had Slavic-speaking slaves; common in Europe in 1440s)
Urban/Commercial Centers
( Koumbi-Saleh, Jenne, Timbuktu)
Manufacturing
Islam
established in towns
Chapter 10
Chapter 12
Chapter 11
Chapter 13
Transformed Southeast Asia( political change & religious ideas)
between China & India -> Malay opened all-sea route & competitive small ports
Srivijaya
: Malay Kingdom
Emerged from
competition
Dominated trade 670- 1025CE
Gold, spices, taxes of ships -> resources for powerful state
Local belief + Indian politics + Buddhism
(became center for Buddhism)
Sailendras
Kingdom (central Java)
Indian influence (Hindu & Buddhist centers)
Burma: Khmer state of Angkor (Indian culture)
Islam came later
Transformed East Africa
Swahili: Bantu + commercial life of Indian Ocean
Urban; each city politically independent w/ a king
Sharp class distinctions
Participation in Indian Ocean trade
: visited by Arabs and Indians; Arabic influence in script; Islam
Culture did not spread to interior
Trade w/ interior for gold -> Great Zimbabwe
Silk
Spread of Buddhism

Camel
Luxury goods for elite
altered consumption of a variety of goods
-> specialization of a product -> alliances among countries
social mobility
prestige goods for elites
Spread of religion, technology innovations, animals, plants and diseases
Sea
Sand
Location: Eurasia
Chinese monopoly on silk (became a symbol for upper class)
Mongol Rule
Active from 100BCE-approx. 800BCE; disrupted until 1200CE & flourished until late 1400s
Commodities: silk, gold, spices
High transportation cost
Location: Sahara (North Africa to the Mediterranean Sea)
Spread of Islam
Oaises
Commodities: gold, salt, ivory, kola nuts, slaves
Caravans
Trade->new and larger political structures
Location: Indian Ocean
Cheaper by sea
Bulk goods
Understanding of monsoons
Spread of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, & Islam
Huge boats and ships
Commodities: spice, ivory, minerals
In 1500 they're were many types of societies such as gatherers and hunters to empires
They're were many
gathering and hunting societies
all throughout Australia, Siberia, the artic coastlands, and parts of America and Africa
These societies
started to interact
with each other overtime
In the
coast of North America
they used the environment to their advantage, and they had a more
permanent society
Agricultural Village Societies
:
were dominant in North America, Africa(south of the Equator), parts of the Amazon River Basin and Southeast Asia
Their societies
avoided harsh authority, class inequalities, and seclusion of women
In present-day
southern Nigeria
there were three different political patterns that had developed
In the
central New York State
the agricultural village societies became
fully agricultural around 1300
, and there was a
rise of warfare
and it triggered the creation of the
Iroquois confederation
Following the 1400 the
steppe nomads' homeland was taken to expand the Russian and Chinese empires
African pastoralists remained independent
until the late nineteenth century
Ming
Dynasty China
Disrupted by
Mongol rule
and the
plague
Reestablishing of the civil service
examination system
A
highly centralized government
was created
In
Europe
Expansion occurred in western Europe
the
population began to rise
in 1450
the
renaissance
occurred which
reclaimed classical Greek traditions
Maritime Voyaging
In
1492 Columbus reached the Americas
Vasco da Gama
sailed
around Africa to India
from
1497
to 1498
European voyagers were
seeking wealth, converts
Europeans
used violence
to create and adjust empires
The
Ottoman Empire
lasted from the
14th to the 20th century
Safavid Empire
emerged in
Persia
Established
after 1500
The
Shia Islam
was the official religion of the state
The
Sunni Ottoman Empire and the Shia Savavid Empire fought often between 1534 and 1639
The
Songhay Empire
rose in
West Africa
between 1450-1500
Islam
was limited to
urban elites
It was a major
center of Islamic trade/learning
The
Mughal Empire in India
was
created by a Turkic group that invaded India in 152
The
Aztec
Empire:
The Mexica were a
seminomadic
people who
migrated from Northern Mexico
The
Triple Alliance in 1428
was the
uniting of Mexica and two other city-states
They were
loosely structured
and an
unstable conquest state

Their
trade included slaves
who were intended
for sacrifice
They also created an important philosophical/poetic tradition that mainly focused on the
fragility of human life
The
Inca
Empire
Established along the length of the
Andes by Quechua speakers
More
Bureaucratic
and
centralized
than the Aztecs
Attempted cultural integration
A majority of the citizens of the empire had to preform
labor services (mita)
for the Inca state
Both
the Aztec and the Inca
Empire practiced
"gender parallelism"
Men and women lived in
"separate but equivalent spheres"
Women's household tasks were not seen as inferior
Men
still had the
top positions in religious and political life
Large political systems brought together culturally different people
Religion divided and united
different groups of people
The
Christian
religion
divided into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy
Buddhism

linked
the people in
Korea, China, Japan, Tibet, and parts of Southeast Asia
Islam
was rather good at bringing its people together
In the 15th century trade was almost everywhere
The
Silk Road network was shrinking
Ocean trade in the west Atlantic/Indian Ocean picked up
Wealthier
, more
urbanized​
Defensible capital (
Constantinople
)​
Stronger military​
Preserve Roman
ways​
Greek fire (flammable liquid)​
Emperor ruled as God’s representative
on Earth​
Caesaropapism
- church was closely tied to state​
East: Latin, West: Greece​
Persia conquered by Islam
Removed from world trade routes

European
geography
made
political unity different​
Moderate climate=population rises
Centralized rule=gone​
Pop. Fell by 25% because
war & disease​
Diminuition of urban life​
Long-distance trade outside Italy=gone​
Decline in literacy​
Germanic rulers adopted Roman-styled law​
Tried to recreate roman-style unity​
Many
revivals of Roman Empire
(Christmas Day; coronation of Charlemagne, coronation of Otto 1)​
Highly
fragmented
society ​
Local variation​
Landowning elite
had power​
Serfs- owned services & goods to lords, lived on small farms​
Catholic church
gave stability​
High Middle Ages: time of growth and expansion​
New land from cultivation​
Growth from long-distance trade from two major centers: northern Europe, northern Italian towns​
New opportunities for women​
Europe Outward Bound:
Crusading Tradition​
Expansion of Christendom after 1000​
Crusades: wars at God’s command​
Aimed to
regain Jerusalem & holy places​
Little impact in Middle East, had significant impact on Europe

Hardened cultural barriers​
Europe
developed passion for
technology
Tension
between faith and reason​
Search for classical greek texts (Aristotle)​
Aristotle'
s writing become basis of
university education​
Didn’t happen in Byzantine Empire​
Islam had deep impact on Greek thought​
Caused
debate among Muslim thinkers
on faith and reason
Developed in:​
Grasslands of Eurasia and sub-Saharan Africa​
Arabian and Saharan deserts​
Subartic regions, Tibetan plateau​
Not in Americas: lack of large animals for domesticating​
Women usually had higher status
than in sedentary societies​
Mobility-nomads​
Formation of nomadic states was difficult​
Ruler
Modun revolutionized nomadic life​ (Xiongnu)
Created more
centralized
,
hierarchical
political system​
Divinely sanctioned
ruler​
Distinction between
“junior” and “senior” clans
became important​
Exacted
tribute
from other nomads and from China​
Camel saddles:

Made control of trade routes through Arabia possible​
Camel nomads
were shock troops of
Islamic expansion
Pastoral Societies
Nomadic cattle-keepers​
Masai interacted and invited people into their society from other societies​
Depended on
hunters and farmers​
Farmers adopted elements of Masai culture and military​
Hairstyles​
Cattle terms​
Name for High God​
Long spear​
Practice of drinking cow’s milk before battle
Created
greatest land-based empire in history following their breakout from Mongolia​
Created
greater contact between Europe, China and Islamic world ​
Did not make major cultural impact
on world​
Temujin -> Chinggis Khan​
Temujin
created Mongol Empire

Before Temujin Mongols were unstable collection of feuding tribes​
Mongols recognized
Temujin as Chinggis Khan (“universal ruler”)
Mongols were vastly outnumbered by their enemies​
Reputation for
brutality and destructiveness

Ability to
mobilize resources​
Census taking and systematic taxation

Good system of
relay stations
for communication and trade​
Centralized bureaucracy
began​
Encouraged
commerce​
Gave
lower administrative posts to Chinese and Muslim officials​
Practiced
religious toleration​
China and the Mongols:​
Mongol
conquest of China was difficult​
Mongols
unified a divided China
, made many believe that the Mongols had been granted the
Mandate of Heaven​
Mongols used Chinese practices​
Mongol
rule was harsh, exploitative, and foreign
Persia and Mongols​
Conquests of Persia​
Massive impact of invasion​
Damage to Persian/Iraqi agriculture​
Increase in wine and silk production​
Mongol dynasty collapsed in 1330s​
Russia and Mongols:​
Mongol
devastation of Russia​
Mongol rulers of Russia were
less assimilated or influenced​
Russian princes
adopted Mongol weapons, diplomatic rituals, court practices, tax system, and military draft
Spread of Islam
China & Buddhism
Only
large scale cultural borrowing
in Chinese history (before Marxism)
Entered through
Silk Road
Collapse of the Han
dynasty (200 C.E.) brought
chaos and discrediting of Confucianism
Finally
took root 300-800 C.E.
Mahayama Buddhism
became popular
Sui and early Tang
dynasties gave
state support
to Buddhism
Growth of
Chinese Buddhism provoked resistance and criticism
Chinese
state began direct action against foreign religions
in 841-845
China 500-1300

Tang
dynasty had
greater freedom for elite women
in the north
Song
dynasty
tightened patriarchal restrictions
on women
(foot binding)
More women were educated

Han
dynasty
collapsed around 220 C.E
Sui
dynasty was
overthrown
;
Tang
(618-907)
and Song
(960-1279) was
built on Sui foundations

Most enduring interaction was
with nomads of the north
"Tribute system"
emerged; non-Chinese authorities would present tribute to Chinese emperor and would get trading privileges and "bestowals" (worth more than tribute
Steppe states took over parts of northern China
;
Khitan
(907-1125) and
Jurchen
(1115-1234)
Social
Political
Interaction
Had a
"Golden Age" of arts and literature
Also birth of
Neo-Confucianism
(
Confucian revival with
added elements of Buddhism and Daoism
)
Nomads
who ruled parts of China often
adopted Chinese ways

Invention of
printing, gunpowder, and shipbuilding technology
; use of
paper money
Learned
cotton and sugar cultivation and processing from India
By 1000
, introduction of
rice strains from Vietnam
Chinese
textile, metallurgical, and naval technologies
stimulated imitation and innovation
Culture
Economic
Temporary Chinese conquest of northern Korea
; led to
channel of Chinese culture
in region
Silla kingdom allied with Tang dynasty
China to bring some
political unity
; caused
military resistance
Under a
succession of dynasties
(
Silla
688-900,
Koryo
918-1392,
Yi
1392-1910), Korea
maintained its political independence while participating in China's tribute system
Korean
students sent to China to study
Confucianism, natural sciences and the arts
Confucian values and Chinese culture had negative impact on women
Adopted Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, administrative techniques, the examination system, and artistic and literary styles (just like Korea)
Cultural heartland
in the
Red River valley
was fully
incorporated into China for over 1000 years
(111 B.C.E.-939 C.E.) (longer than Korea)
Heavy pressure of the Chinese presence created a
Vietnamese elite schooled in Chinese culture
and
periodic rebellions
Weakening of Tang
dynasty in early 10th century enabled a large
rebellion to establish Vietnam as a separate state
.
Japan & China
Never successfully invaded or conquered by China
; borrowing from China was
voluntary
Issued the
Seventeen Article Constitution
;
Japanese ruler is becomes a Chinese- style ruler
By
10th century
, deliberate efforts to absorb additional elements of
Chinese culture diminished
Buddhism didn't replace
the native beliefs and practices
600s
700s
900s
800s
500s
<-500s
600s: loss of Syria/ Palestine, Egypt, and North Africa to Arab forces
600s-700s: Introduction of Islam & Arab culture in North Africa
604: Seventeen Article Constitution in Japan
610: Beginning of Muhammad’s revelations
618-907: Tang Dynasty; golden age of Chinese culture; expansion into Central Asia; high point of Chinese influence in Japan
622: Hijra (emigrations from Mecca -> Medina)
632-661: Rightly Guided Caliphs
636-637: Arab victories against Byzantine & Persian forces
640: Islamic conquest of Egypt
650s: Quran compiled
656: Emergence of Shia Islam
661-750: Umayyad caliphate
670-1025: Srivijaya domination of Indian Ocean Trade
688: Withdrawal of Chinese military forces from Korea; Three Korean dynasties: Silla, Koryo,Yi
690-705: Reign of Empress Wu; China’s only female emperor
700s: Swahili emerged
711: Muslim conquest of Spain
726-843: Iconoclasm in Byzantium
750-900: High point of Abbasid dynasty
750- 1258: Abbasid caliphate

800s: state action against Buddhism (China)
800: Charlemagne crowned as new “Roman Empire”
800-1000: Emergence of Sufism
845: Suppression of Buddhism in China
850: Collapse of Maya civilization
868: First printed book in China

900s: Kings of Ghana convert to Islam
900-1250: Cahokia
907-960: Political Breakdown between dynasties (China)
912-961: Reign of Abd al-Rahman III in Spain
939: Vietnam establishes independence from China
950-1150: Flourishing of Toltec civilization
988: Conversion of Kievan Russia to Christianity
960-1279: Song Dynasty China; China’s economic revolution; northern China ruled by peoples of nomadic background (Khitan, Jurchen)
962: Otto I crowned as Holy Roman Empire

500: Flourishing of Teotihuacan
527-565: Justinian rules Byzantine Empire; attempted reconquest of western empire
534-750: Bubonic plague in Europe
570-632: Life of Muhammad
581-604: Reign of Emperor Wendi; state support for Buddhism
589-618: Sui Dynasty; reunification of China

1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
1500s
1000: Gunpowder invented in China
1000: Venice emerges as a center of commerce
1000: Viking colony in Newfoundland
1000: Tale of Genji (Japan)
1000: Completion of Bantu migrations
1000-1200: New monarchies in Western Europe
1000-1500: Flourishing of Swahili civilization
1054: Mutual excommunication of pope & patriarch
1059-1154: Investiture conflict (Western Civilization)
1095: Launching of First Crusade
1099: Crusaders seize Jerusalem

1100s-1200s: centuries: translations of Greek & Arab works available in Europe
1100s-1500s: centuries: Christian kingdom of Ethiopia
1100-1350: Chucuito & Chimu kingdoms in the Andes
1142(?): Iroquois confederation established
1162: Birth of Temujin

1200s-1600s: Silk Road
1204: Crusaders sack Constantinople
1206: Delhi Sultanate in India; Temujin gains title of Chinggis Khan (“universal ruler”)
1206-1227: Reign of Chinggis Khan
1209: Beginning of Mongol conquests
1209- 1279: Conquest of China
1219- 1221: Initial assault on Persia (Mongols)
1237- 1240: Conquest of Russia (Mongols)
1271-1368: Yuan dynasty
1274: failed Mongol attacks on Japan
1279-1368: Mongol rule in China
1281: failed Mongol attacks on Japan
1295: Conversion of Il-khan Ghazan to Islam
1345- 1521: Aztec Empire in Mesoamerica
1346-1350: Black Death in Europe
1368-1644: Ming Dynasty; Chinese rule resumed; end of Mongol rule in China
1370-1406: Conquests of Timur
1398: Timur’s invasion of India

1501: founding of Safavid Empire in Persia
1520-1523: Magellan’s voyage to Asia via the Americas; first circumnavigation of the globe
1520-1530s: Spanish conquest of Aztecs & Incas
1526: Mughal Empire established in India

100BCE-900CE: Silk Roads
200s- 1400s: Sea Roads
220-581: Political Fragmentation of China; Buddhism takes root; incursion of nomads
300s- 1400s: Sand Roads
300-500: Beginnings of trans-Saharan trade
330: Founding of Constantinople
395: Roman Empire -> east & west
476: End of western Roman Empire

1400s: Portuguese voyages along West African coast
1400: Aztec Empire established
1405-1433: Ming dynasty maritime expeditions in the Indian Ocean w/ Zheng He
1438-1533: Inca Empire along the Andes
1440s: beginning of Atlantic slave trade
1450: Inca Empire established
1450-1591: Songhay Empire
1453: Ottoman Empire conquers Constantinople; end of Byzantine Empire
1453: Turks capture Constantinople
1462- 1505: End of Mongol rule in Russia; reign of Ivan the Great
1464- 1591: Songhay Empire in West Africa
1467-1568: Civil War in Japan
1492: Arrival of Columbus in the Carribean
1496: John Cabot sails across North Atlantic to North America
1497- 1498: Vasco da Gama enters Indian Ocean and reaches India
1497- 1520s: Portuguese attacks on Swahili cities; establishment of Fort Jesus at Mombasa; Portuguese contact w/ Christian Ethiopia
Conversion to Islam
Islam was known for
"social conversion"
-Islam also
favored commerce
-The Islamic World was divided
sunni/shia split Islam
A.
Sunni
's:
religious authority comes from the community
(especially from the scholars (ex.
ulama
))
B.
Shia
's: the imams have religious authority
-
Women and Men
in Islam
spiritually
:
Quran states that women/men are equals
socially
: Quran: viewed
women as "subordinate"
(especially in marriage)
*Quran helped women by giving women
control over their own property, right of inheritance, consent to marriage and women's right to sexual satisfaction
Islamic Civilization
India
Turkic-speaking invaders brought Islam to India
Establishment of Turkic ad Muslim regimes in India beginning in 1000
Muslim communities emerged because
Buddhists and low-caste Hindus found Islam attractive, it lightened tax burden, and Sufis fit mold of Indian holy men
, encouraged conversion
Between Hindus and Muslims, Sikhism was formed
as a mix between the two religions
By 1500, 90% of population was
Muslim due to Turkish conquest
Compared to India, Anatolia had a
smaller population, discrimination against Christians, more Turkic speakers, and a deeper destruction of the Byzantine society
Anatolia
West Africa
Islam came through trade
spreading mostly in
urban areas
By 16th century, several
West African cities were Islamic centers
with libraries, schools and major mosques
Spain
Arab and Berber forces conquered most of Spain
(al-Andalus) in the early 8th century
High degree of
interaction between Muslims, Christians, and Jews
Some Christians converted to Islam while Christian Mozarabs adopted Arabic culture
Religious toleration started breaking down by late 20th century
with increasing war with Christian states and limitations on Christians resulting Christian reconquest in 149
Networks of Faith
Islamic Civilization was
held together by Islamic practices and beliefs that were transmitted by the ulama
Madrassas (formal colleges) that taught religion, law, and some secular subjects
arose in the 11th century
Branches of
Sufism
gathered around shaykhs (teachers) by 10th century with Sufi teachings, practices, and writing spreading widely
Networks of Exchange
Islamic world was an immense arena for
exchange of goods, technology, and ideas due to their location, Islamic teaching, and urbanization
Exchange of agricultural products and practices
between regions
Developments in
math, astronomy, optics, medicine, and pharmacology
In the 2nd half of the 20th century, Islam was seen as a growing international influence in the world:
-Birth of a
new religion
religion came new teachings ->
monotheistic
wanted to create a new society of social justice, equality, and care for others (the
umma
's)
*
Jihad "struggle": can be considered the 6th pillar

"greater" jihad: personal striving

"lesser" jihad ("jihad of the sword"): the armed struggle
against unbelief and evil
-Transformation of
Arabia
created
Islamic communities in Medina
(also broke into Judism)
*rapid expansion throughout Arabia

military successes led to alliances

large scale conversions

~
Islam did NOT separate into state
-Arab Empire on the rise
*reasons for expansion:
economical: captured trade routes
wealthy/ social promotion
communal: helped the umma community
religion: helped the government to conquer


Arab Empire
Islam continued to expand
Turkish speaking invaders brought Islam to India and to settle in Anatolia
soon after there was a destruction of the Byzantine society in Anatolia
Islam became
peaceful traders (not by conquest)
religious toleration was breaking down by the 10th century
*the
Islamic world was history's first "global civilization"
*Islam became "networks of exchange"
-Islam
exchanged...
goods, technology, and ideas

-
Islam was now the central location for trade
, with the different trades came...
Muslim conquest of India brought rice, sugarcane, sorghum, hard- wheat, cotton, fruits, and vegetables
technology
-Writings of Islam show that Islam was the "central fact" (1254- 1324)
Comparing Islam- Culturally
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