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We Didn't Start The Fire Project

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Dr. Dubberfly

on 6 April 2013

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Transcript of We Didn't Start The Fire Project

We Didn't Start The Fire Caroline Ramsburg Connor Cavitt Carrie Smith Caitlin Grimes Elvis Presley Elvis Presley became famous as the King of Rock 'n' Roll in the mid-1950's. He was raised in Tupelo, Mississippi. Although he was already famous, Elvis served in the military. Elvis' different style of music and performing led to some controversy. Most performers at the time would either stand still or sit while singing. Elvis' dancing and wild behavior on stage was seen as entertaining for some but offensive and provocative to others. Elvis received many awards for his music and was famous for songs such as “Viva Las Vegas”, “Hound Dog”, and “Blue Suede Shoes”. The mass fame and attention surrounding Elvis had some negative impacts on his life. The pressure in his life led him to do drugs and ultimately led to his death in 1977. Hemingway Ernest Hemingway, an American author, lived from July 21, 1899-July 2, 1961. He grew up in Oak Park, Illinois. He was a veteran of World War 1, which led him to write such books like A Farewell To Arms. Hemingway was famous for his carefree style of writing where he would basically write the same way a persons thought process would think. Hemingway lived in Paris for a while along with other writers and artists in the Lost Generation. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in the year of 1954. His writings often pertains to war and also human nature, giving his work deep, insightful meaning. The Catcher In The Rye A novel written by J.D Salinger that takes place in the 1950's and 60's. The novel traces the life of the protagonist, Holden Caulfield in New York City. Holden struggles in a social climate where he finds everyone to be phonies. He believes that only kids contain innocence and that people lose innocence as they grow older. He feels sickened by society and how the world and people function. He finds that people care mainly about themselves and having a good time. He doesn't like Hollywood or anything that misrepresents itself. He finds most things to be misleading and acting with immoral goals in mind. He faces many internal struggles that he gradually begins to accept as the novel progresses. U2 An American U2 was sent to fly over the Soviet Union to spy on them and take photographs on May 1, 1960. Francis Gary Powers was the CIA pilot that was chosen for the secret mission. The Soviets saw the U2 and shot it down and captured Powers. This led the Soviets to be suspicious and distrustful towards America, increasing tensions between the nations. Ike had to confess that the CIA had carried out several spy missions over the USSR. Powers was sentenced to prison and was let go after 2 years in a “spy swap”. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike) was a military leader as well as a US president. Ike was a very high ranking and respectable military leader who was in charge of top priority missions such as Operation Overlord. Ike's popularity as a military figure helped him win the presidency in 1953. As president, he signed an armistice to end fighting in Korea. Ike also wanted to keep peace with the Soviets. After his presidency, he left behind a positive legacy. JFK Blown Away President John F. Kennedy was assassinated during his first term as US president on November 22, 1963 at 12:30 pm. He was supposedly killed by Lee Harvey Oswald. This took place at the Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas. There is a lot of conspiracies surrounding the assassination of JFK. Many people believe that two people had fired at the president and that the assassination was linked to conspiracy. People currently remain debating over whether or not Lee Harvey Oswald was led by Communists, the US government, or if he was acting alone. Some also believe that Oswald was framed by the FBI to appear as though he was the assassin. Many Americans mourned after JFK's death, leaving the country in the hands of Lydon B. Johnson, during the crucial times of the Cold War. Bay Of Pigs In mid-April of 1961, The US attempted to invade Cuba through the Bay of Pigs. They aimed to overthrow the Cuban dictator, Fidel Castro's government. The CIA set up the secret operation by training American Cubans so they could act like Cuban civilians in order to start an uprising against Castro's government. John F. Kennedy agreed with this plan. It was a failed attempt and the US never reached Havana. JFK accepted responsibility for the invasions failure although it was mainly the CIA and Pentagons fault. After this invasion, Castro was always skeptical of the US and believed that they would strike Cuban soil again. "American President: Dwight David Eisenhower." Miller Center. http://millercenter.org/president/eisenhower (accessed March 27, 2013). "The Catcher in the Rye." Shmoop: Homework Help, Teacher Resources, Test Prep. http://www.shmoop.com/catcher-in-the-rye/ (accessed March 27, 2013). " Elvis Presley Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com ." Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com . http://www.biography.com/people/elvis-presley-9446466 (accessed March 27, 2013). "Cold War Museum." Cold War Museum. http://www.coldwar.org/articles/60s/u2_incident.asp (accessed March 27, 2013). "U-2 Spy Incident — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts." History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History. http://www.history.com/topics/u2-spy-incident (accessed March 27, 2013). H-Bomb In 1950, scientists who developed the first atomic bomb began working on an even more destructive thermonuclear weapon, known as the H-bomb. Despite vehement arguments about the morality of creating a weapon with 67 times the power of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, the U.S. began their research. On November 1st 1952 the United States exploded the first hydrogen bomb on Eniwetok atoll in the Pacific. This put them one step ahead of the Soviet Union in the nuclear arms race. However this advantage was short lived when the Soviets exploded their hydrogen bomb in August 1953. With the creation of these highly destructive weapons also came the fear of a radioactive fallout in which they installed in Americans and others across the globe. By the 1970’s, seven nations had developed hydrogen bombs.
"United States tests first hydrogen bomb — History.com This Day in History — 11/1/1952." History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/united-states-tests-first-hydrogen-bomb (accessed March 30, 2013). Walter Winchell From the late 1920’s to the 1950’s, Walter Winchell was known by all throughout America as an extraordinary journalist. He began during the Jazz Age, writing six columns each week which were printed in nearly 2,000 newspapers. In the 1930’s his radio programs were the highest rated programs on the air. His combined work reached approximately 50 million homes. Winchell had a unique way with words and became one the most powerful journalists of his time. Winchell is credited with creating scandal and gossip in a new way in the world of media. He had a very aggressive personality which could create a star overnight or enhance or crush a political career. Winchell interviewed many of the famous and powerful and was a supporter of the New Deal and civil rights while he was against Hitler and Facism. In the 1950’s his career took a different turn as he became obsessed with Communism and was a strong supporter of McCarthyism. He began writing and speaking about accusations that resulted in lawsuits and distressed many readers. Winchell died in 1972 and has influenced much of the media today.
Gardner, Ralph D.. "The Age of Winchell." Eve's Magazine. http://www.evesmag.com/winchell.htm (accessed March 30, 2013).
WEINRAUB, BERNARD. "He Turned Gossip Into Tawdry Power; Walter Winchell, Who Climbed High and Fell Far, Still Scintillates - New York Times." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/18/arts/he-turned-gossip-into-tawdry-power-walter-winchell-who-climbed-high-fell-far.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm (accessed March 30, 2013). Vaccine The first vaccine for the disease poliomyelitis, or polio, was tested by Dr. Jonas Salk in 1952. Polio was one of the most feared diseases of the 1950’s and had partially paralyzed President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Polio cases were becoming more frequent and deadly over the decade, with approximately 58,000 afflicted with the disease in 1952 across America. Dr. Jonas Salk’s vaccine for the deadly disease had worked, and was extremely effective. Years later in 1962 Dr. Albert Sabin developed another version of the vaccine which could be taken orally, which eventually replaced Salk’s. By 1974 only seven new polio cases were reported in America.
"Security Alert:." Inventors. http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmsalk.html (accessed March 30, 2013). Rosenbergs Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were activists in the Communist Party. They were accused of giving the Soviet Union information about the American atomic bomb, information that would have enabled the Soviets to build their own atomic bomb years earlier than they would have previously. The Rosenbergs denied the charges, pleading the Fifth Amendment. They were convicted on March 29, 1951, and sentenced to death. The Rosenbergs were the only two Americans to be executed for espionage during the Cold War. Judge Irving Kaufman also blamed them for the deaths of the Korean War, since the information leaked to the Russians was believed to help them develop the A-bomb years before America had predicted and led to cause Communist aggression in Korea. They both died in the electric chair on June 19, 1953. The Rosenberg case attracted a lot of attention from the media with many supporting the trial and many against it. This case has been one of the main controversies over communism in U.S history.
Roberts, Sam. "Julius and Ethel Rosenberg | Biography | atomicarchive.com." atomicarchive.com: Exploring the History, Science, and Consequences of the Atomic Bomb. http://www.atomicarchive.com/Bios/Rosenberg.shtml (accessed March 30, 2013). Studebaker The Studebaker is an automobile manufacturer that was in business from 1852 until 1967. The company was based in South Bend, Indiana. Starting in the 1930’s the company was constantly on a financial rollercoaster. The creation of the compact Lark saved the company from financial collapse, but it was short lived. In the 1960’s the company was experiencing competition from other car makers that released similar models. Sales began to drop drastically and rumors spread that the company was going out of business. In 1963 the plant in South Bend shut down due to cars and trucks selling poorly. In 1966 the last Studebaker was built in Canada.
Guide, the Auto Editors of Consumer. "HowStuffWorks "Introduction to the 1959-1964 Studebaker Lark"." HowStuffWorks "Auto". http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1959-1964-studebaker-lark.htm (accessed March 17, 2013).
"History of the Studebaker Corporation South Bend Indiana." History of the Studebaker Corporation South Bend Indiana. http://www.studebakerhistory.com/dnn/Home/tabid/36/Default.aspx (accessed March 17, 2013). Joe DiMaggio Joe DiMaggio was a major league baseball player. He played his 13 year career as a center fielder for the New York Yankees. In the 1940’s he lead the Yankees to the World Series five times, producing four wins. In 1941 DiMaggio set a 56-game hitting streak that broke the previous record. That record still stands today and many baseball players haven’t even came close to DiMaggio. The American people were inspired by DiMaggio after being worn out from the economic troubles and upcoming war.
"The Official Site of Joe DiMaggio." The Official Site of Joe DiMaggio. http://www.joedimaggio.com/ (accessed March 17, 2013). Disneyland Walt Disney opened America’s first major theme park in 1955 in Anaheim, California. At first bankers and investors opposed the project thinking it would ultimately be a financial disaster. However Walt Disney pursued his dream and began to gather his own funds and develop a design team which would be the precursor to today's Disney Imagineers. A television show entitled “Disneyland” which was targeted towards children promoted the park. After a year of construction and with an investment of $17 million the park was ready for guests. The opening day of Disneyland was broadcasted live across America. On July 17th thousands of eager Americans entered the park and profits started to roll in. The park expanded adding destinations in Orlando, Florida in 1971. Today, Disneyland theme parks are some of the top tourist destinations in the world.
"Disneyland History." Walt Disney - Just Disney.com - Your Source For Disney. http://www.justdisney.com/disneyland/history.html (accessed March 17, 2013).

"The Construction of Disneyland | Designing Disney." Designing Disney | Welcome to Designing Disney Research Center. Investigating the art and history of Disney theme parks, since 2009.. http://www.designingdisney.com/content/construction-disneyland (accessed March 30, 2013). Hula Hoops The Wham-O company was created in 1948 by Richard Knerr and Arthur Melin. Wham-O became the most successful manufacturer of hula hoop. The toy was made out of the new plastic Marlex in 1958. 20 million of their hula hoops sold for $1.98 in the first six months. In 1959, one year later the hula hoop reached 100 million in sales. For children all over America the hula hoop had become the latest hot toy.
Category. "Hula Hoop - History of the Hula Hoop." Inventors. http://inventors.about.com/od/hstartinventions/a/Hula_Hoop.htm (accessed March 17, 2013). Einstein Albert Einstein was considered one of the greatest scientists and we still follow his Theory of Relativity today. In 1939 along with Leo Szilard, Einstein convinced FDR to go through with the Manhattan project through a written letter. Although he was a pacifist Einstein helped to create the world’s first atomic bomb through this letter. Einstein favored socialism and was a supporter of the New nation of Israel. He died in 1955 at Princeton hospital where his brain was removed for future scientific study without the permission of his family.
"Albert Einstein." Shmoop: Homework Help, Teacher Resources, Test Prep. http://www.shmoop.com/albert-einstein/ (accessed March 25, 2013). British Beatlemania Beatlemania is a term that originated in the 1960’s to describe the British rock band The Beatles large fan base. Magazines and reporters began using the term in their articles. After experiencing much success in the UK The Beatles took the US by storm with seven album releases all but three hitting number one on the charts. The Beatles influenced music in the US and are still considered phenomenal today. Beatlemania was responsible for sold out concerts containing 100,000’s of people. The Beatles started the British invasion along with other popular UK bands in the 1960’s which greatly influenced culture and music in the US.
April, and 1964. "Beatles Timeline - Beatlemania 1964-1965." Classic Rock - Bands Songs Artists CDs DVDs MP3s Lyrics and History of Classic Rock. http://classicrock.about.com/od/beatles/a/beatles_history_3.htm (accessed March 25, 2013). Woodstock The Woodstock Music and Art Fair in 1969 was on a farm in upstate New York. Over half a million people came to the three day festival. No one expected the crowd to create one of the biggest music and culture festivals in history. Performances included Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jefferson Airplane, The Who and many others. The festival represented the movement of peace and love known as the counterculture of the 1960’s. The event greatly influenced the American way of life and highlighted the counterculture movement.
"Woodstock." Woodstock. http://www.woodstock.com/index.php (accessed March 25, 2013).
Category. "Woodstock - A History of the Woodstock Festival of 1969." 20th Century History. http://history1900s.about.com/od/1960s/p/woodstock.htm (accessed March 25, 2013). Sputnik Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite launched by the Soviets in 1957. Sputnik traveled around the earth at 18,000 mph and circled the globe every 96 minutes. The launching of Sputnik is regarded as what started the space race between the Soviets and the Americans. Sputnik had made the US seem weak. The US then began to put more money into scientific research in order to compete with the Soviets. Without the success of Sputnik 1 the US may have never received the drive they needed to put a man on the moon with the Apollo mission. Also with the threat of the Soviets gaining power over all nations, NATO was strengthened.
Dickson, Paul. "NOVA | Sputnik's Impact on America." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/sputnik-impact-on-america.html (accessed March 25, 2013). Roy Cohn Roy Cohn was a lawyer that was also involved in the Rosenberg case, which ended with them in the electric chair. His success in the Rosenberg trial gained him the attention of FBI director J. Edgar Hoover who guided him towards Joseph McCarthy. Cohn then became McCarthy’s chief counsel. Cohn helped McCarthy destroy the lives of other through the Communist witch-hunts and aggressively questioned Communists. Cohn invited his friend David Schine to t join McCarthy's team as a consultant. Schine was drafted into the army in 1953. Cohn made efforts repeatedly to give him special treatment and less work. This created conflict and in 1954 when McCarthy made accusations against the U.S. army he contributed towards it. McCarthy began to lose public support which led to his downfall. With the downfall of McCarthy, Roy Cohn resigns and enters private practice.
"h2g2 - Roy Cohn (1954)." h2g2 - The Guide to Life, The Universe and Everything. http://www.h2g2.com/entry/A2305513 (accessed March 30, 2013). Panmunjom The village of Panmunjom lies on the border between North and South Korea. This was the site where the United Nations met with Chinese and North Korean officials from 1951 til1953 for truce talks. On July 27th, 1953 and agreement was reached known as the Korean Armistice that ceased the fighting. The provisions of the armistice included the cease fire line to be at the existing battle line and a demilitarized zone between the two Koreas. The building where the armistice was signed still stands today and is used between officials for discussions. However, as peace was never agreed to, the two sides are still officially at war. Today, one million men stand guard around the demilitarized zone, which separates the Koreas and is the most heavily armed region in the world.

"Panmunjom, The Only Place Where Tourists Can Get Shot | Amusing Planet." Amusing Planet - Amazing Places, Wonderful People, Weird Stuff. http://www.amusingplanet.com/2013/01/panmunjom-only-place-where-tourists-can.html (accessed March 30, 2013). Rockefeller Winthrop Rockefeller was a grandson of John D. Rockefeller, the founder of Standard Oil. He was considered one of the world’s wealthiest bachelors. He also contributed much of his fortune and time towards philanthropist projects. Rockefeller served two terms as the governor of Arkansas. From 1948 to 1954 he shared an extremely public marriage with Barbara “Bobo” Sears. The media was enchanted by their relationship and viewed it as a Cinderella story. The couple separated in less than two years into their marriage. The matters of their divorce were very public. Winthrop Rockefeller offered a settlement of $5.5 million, but Barbara Rockefeller requested $10 million instead. She eventually took the $5.5 million. This was a record divorce settlement, $2 million in cash and $3.5 million in trust funds for Bobo and their son.
Bernstein, Adam. "Barbara Sears Rockefeller, 91; Miss Lithuania, Millionaire Bride." Washington Post: Breaking News, World, US, DC News & Analysis. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/05/20/AR2008052001841.html (accessed March 30, 2013).
"Remembering Bobo and Hunt." Welcome | New York Social Diary. http://www.newyorksocialdiary.com/node/10050/print (accessed March 30, 2013). Starkweather Homicide "Starkweather Case." Lincoln City Libraries. http://www.lincolnlibraries.org/reference/starkweather_case.htm (accessed April 2, 2013). The Starkweather homicides took place in Nebraska in the years of 1957 and 1958. Charlie Starkweather and his girlfriend, Caril Ann Fugate killed 10 people, including Caril's family. This mass murder case became very famous as it was televised. Because they were both teenagers, this case made people question and focus on the psychology of younger people. Pop culture took interest in the case as songs, movies, and shows were made centering around the event. Charlie Starkweather got executed for his crimes in 1959. Caril Ann Fugate served time in jail. This highly publicized case gained the public's attention to serial killers and youth. Homeless Vets Television Watergate An Analysis of Billy Joel's Hit Song http://blog.syracuse.com/shelflife/2008/07/hemingway.jpg http://www.eftekasat.net/pmg/pix_edadasastew/1151/Elvis_Presley_597.jpg http://notlt.blogspot.com/p/r-journal-6_28.html
Mafia
The Mafia is a term given to a crime syndicate that is ruled, and made up of a family. This family is usually Italian or Sicilian in origin, and started under the name of The Black Hand in the 1860’s. By the 20th century the Mafia had become a term that was commonly known, with involvement in many illegal institutions such as gambling, prostitution, drug trafficking and many other crimes. In 1952 the good friend to a mob boss named Fulgencio Batista became president, making Cuba a nest for criminal activities and development of the Mafia. However it wasn’t until 1957 until organized crime was considered a serious problem by the FBI. This led to the creation of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (Rico Act) in 1970, which allowed the FBI to arrest anyone under suspicion of committing a crime in the service of a crime syndicate.

Wikipedia. "American Mafia." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Mafia#The_Commission,
Rock Around the Clock
Rock and Roll first saw life in the 1950’s, and was considered a cultural revolution. In 1954 this song Rock Around the Clock, by Bill Haley and the Comets, was considered its ‘Declaration of Independence”. Distinguished by its excessively loud instrumentals (so loud that the vocals could not be heard clearly on tape), it sold an average amount of 75,000 copies. But this song was revitalized when the son of actor Glenn Ford got his father hooked on this song. This led to Rock around the Clock becoming a pop sensation.

History. "Bill Haley and the Comets Record 'Rock Around the Clock'." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/bill-haley-and-the-comets-record-quotrock-around-the-clockquot Punk Rock
Punk rock started in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. Musicians who were “punk rockers” were classified as such because of a lack of musical and vocal instruction. People saw punk rockers as being rebellious because, usually they’re lyrics were anti – government, or anti – establishment. In addition to this music critics said they broke the rules of music playing, but they didn’t know the rules because of their lack of instruction. Most bands that composed punk rock music were at least rooted in a garage rock type of music, which signifies that they were a group of people that just wanted to play music, and didn’t mind meeting in the garages of one of their homes. It is because of their anti – establishment lyrics that punk rock was important to this era because before an anarchical society was not given thought to.

About. "The History of Punk Rock." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://punkmusic.about.com/od/punk101/a/punkhistory2.htm , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punk_rock Trouble in the Suez,
In 1957, Gamal Abdul Nasser president of Egypt, nationalized Egypt, the Suez Canal, and forced the British to leave. When this happened, the U.S., and Britain stopped all loans that were going to the Suez Canal to help with construction. However European countries were not ok with Nasser having full control over the Suez Canal, so France and Britain allied themselves to invade Egypt, but failed. This led to Nasser gaining more support and power.

Economist. "The Suez Crisis." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://www.economist.com/node/7218678 Ayatollahs in Iran
In 1979, there was a revolution in Iran. Protests and riots occurred in between August and December of 1979. The Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Palavi was exiled. In his absence the previous Ayatollah which was a religious leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini, returned from his exile to Baghdad and took over. While America supported Shah Palavi, they no longer supported Iran under the Ayatollah’s rule as an Islamic Republic.

Wikipedia. "Iranian Revolution." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_Revolution Malcolm X
Malcolm X was an African American preacher for Islam. He followed Elijah Muhammed, and was charged to build Mosques in Detroit and Harlem. He was part of the League of Islam, but left after he said “the chickens have come home to roost” about Kennedy’s assassination. Malcolm X said this because he believed that Kennedy did not respond to violence adequately enough.

Malcolm X. "Malcolm X." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://www.malcolmx.com/about/bio2.html http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/1122-kennedy-assassination/9072754-1-eng-US/1122-Kennedy-Assassination_full_600.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/General_Dwight_D._Eisenhower.jpg/220px-General_Dwight_D._Eisenhower.jpg Space Monkey Psycho Peter Pan Berlin "Peter Pan (1953) - IMDb." IMDb - Movies, TV and Celebrities. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0046183/ (accessed April 3, 2013). "Monkeys in space." wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkeys_in_space (accessed April 3, 2013). "Psycho (1960) - IMDb." IMDb - Movies, TV and Celebrities. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0054215/ (accessed April 3, 2013). "Watergate Scandal — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts." History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History. http://www.history.com/topics/watergate (accessed April 3, 2013). "vietnam veteran." wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_veteran (accessed April 3, 2013). "Kennedy." caveofknowledge. http://caveofknowledge.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Kennedy.jpg (accessed April 3, 2013). "Assassination of John F. Kennedy." Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_John_F._Kennedy (accessed April 3, 2013). "Berlin Wall - The Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall." 20th Century History. http://history1900s.about.com/od/coldwa1/a/berlinwall.htm (accessed April 3, 2013). Category. "Television History." Inventors. http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/Television.htm (accessed April 3, 2013). http://radiatoromc.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/istock_000002437215medium2.jpg http://nursing322sp10.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/veterans1.jpg http://uniquedaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/space-monkey.jpg http://www.blindloop.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/bay-of-pigs.gif http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/thedailymirror/files/1958_0130_starkweather02.jpg http://clickamericana.com/wp-content/uploads/nixon-watergate-speech-1973.jpg http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/lockheed-u2-274.jpg http://haergar06.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/berlin-wall.jpg http://images4.fanpop.com/image/photos/16700000/Psycho-psycho-16795880-1016-1280.jpg http://images.picturesdepot.com/photo/p/peter_pan-207818.jpg Budapest is the capitol city of Hungary. In October 1956 a revolt known as the Hungarian Revolution began. After being controlled by the Soviet Union since the end of World War II, the Hungarians wanted a democratic government. Imre Nagy, a Hungarian Communist leader led the uprising when he promised free elections, mocked the Warsaw Pact and ordered Soviets to end their occupation in Hungary. The Soviets responded in November with a brutal attack, severely crushing the uprising and killing about 30,000 Hungarians. Nagy was executed and the Hungarian government was now in the control of the Soviet Union. Nearly 200,000 fled the country. Despite the Truman Doctrine, the United States nor the UN did nothing to help which greatly disappointed many Hungarians. “The 1956 Hungarian Revolution." The George Washington University. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/N Budapest http://www.filolog.com/crosscultureHistory1956.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_beatles http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodstock http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sputnik_asm.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethel_and_Julius_Rosenberg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Albert_Einstein_Head.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/winthrop-rockefeller-institute/5453827319/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonas_Salk http://www.biography.com/people/joe-dimaggio-9274899 http://www.ocregister.com/articles/history-363256-disney-look.html http://celebslists.com/24810-walter-winchell.html After the Vietnam War in 1975, soldiers returned home. The veterans of the Vietnam War found that the struggles and horrors of the war would follow them home. The war left many veterans physically and mentally impaired. Men that fought in the war struggled with post-traumatic stress disorder while nightmares from their past in the war still haunted them. Many were left with injuries, many being permanent. Physical and mental impairments prevented many veterans from getting jobs and being able to work. This left many homeless and poor. Not enough help and aid was given to them in order to keep them off the streets, in spite of the government's attempt to provide for them. To make matters worse, Vietnam War Veterans were met with hostility back at home in America. Many anti-war Americans called them killers and blamed them for the atrocities they saw carried out on their televisions. http://kowb1290.com/today-in-history-for-march-17th/mushroom-cloud-2/ http://www2.denver.k12.ia.us/student/fire/hulahoops/Welcome.html Watergate is a building in Washington D.C that is home to the Democratic National Committee. On June 17, 1972, people that were linked to President Richard Nixon's campaign were caught breaking into the building. They were caught stealing secret documents and wiretapping the building. Once Nixon found out about this break in, he paid the people involved to keep quiet in order to prevent the FBI from investigating. Once Americans found out about the scandal, the public and media referred to it as the Watergate Scandal. In 1974, Nixon resigned due to this scandal and there remains no proof that Nixon knew that the operation was going to happen. This scandal caused Americans to question and become more distrustful toward the government and presidency. http://www.howstuffworks.com/1959-1964-studebaker-lark.htm http://www.amusingplanet.com/2013/01/panmunjom-only-place-where-tourists-can.html After World War 2, Berlin, as well as the rest of Germany was split between nations. Russia occupied the East while the United States, Britain, and France occupied the West. Berlin, the capital of Germany, was located in the East part of Germany. Russia wanted to control all of Berlin. They attempted to make all Berliners fall under their rule by cutting off their resources and supplies until they agree to Communist rule. The Western forces responded with the Berlin Airlift, flying supplies to Berliners, especially West Berliners in order to keep them from starving and being forced under Russia’s rule. Many East Berliners were suffering under Communist rule so many fled to West Germany. In order to prevent more people, such as specialists and the educated, from leaving, Russia decided to build the Berlin Wall which was completed on August 13, 1961. The wall separated East and West Berlin until it was ultimately taken down on November 9, 1989. In order to test the safety of space travel, NASA used monkeys to test the effects space travel had on them. NASA conducted flights with monkeys from 1948-1961. Albert was the first monkey to ever go into space on June 11, 1948 and he died of suffocation while he was in space. It was necessary to test space travel on monkeys so they could make it safer for humans. Scientists were able to change many aspects of space travel in accordance with the results of experiments conducted on primates. Other countries also used monkeys to test space travel such as France and Russia. Many monkeys died in these experiments. The first moving picture was transmitted on June 14, 1923 with a system called radiovision invented by Charles Francis Jenkins. Cathode ray tubes made the television a possibility. As technology and developments were made on the television, it grew more and more popular with Americans. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to appear on television to address the American people. The creation of the television negatively impacted the radio business as people turned away from the radio and watched television instead. Television gave the media an easier way to reach out to its audience and inform them of events. The Vietnam War was the first war to be broadcast to the American people, which caused more Americans to oppose the war. Americans were now able to see the horrors of war from their homes and that led to Americans being angry and against the war effort. Television changed the way of life, as people had the opportunity to experience things from their living rooms. Psycho is a horror movie based on the novel by Robert Bloch. It was directed by Alfred Hitchcock and released in 1960. It tells the story about a man, Norman Bates that owns the Bates hotel. He is a schizophrenic and psychotic serial killer. When he has his own personality, he is a normal and nice person. His second personality portrays his deceased mother. He believes that he is acting on his mother's orders when he kills his guests. He thinks that his mom is the one that wants them dead so when he is in that personality he turns into a serial killer. Norman Bates also keeps his mothers remains in a chair in his house near the hotel. Psycho was a very popular movie and still remains a classic. Peter Pan is a Disney movie that was released in 1953. It tells the story about a boy named Peter Pan that lives in Neverland where he never grows up. He leads the Lost Boys, who are also kids that never grow up, while he is accompanied by his faithful fairy, Tinker Bell. One day, Peter Pan loses his shadow and when he finds it he runs into a girl named Wendy and her two brothers. Peter Pan then uses Tinker Bell’s fairy dust in order to allow Wendy and her brothers to fly to Neverland with them. In Neverland, they end up fighting and defeating Peter Pans adversary, Captain Hook. After their adventures, Peter Pan proposes that Wendy and her brothers stay in Neverland with him and never grow old together. Although her brothers wanted to stay, Wendy convinced them that the responsible and sensible thing to do was go back home to their family and grow old like they were meant to. "Ernest Hemingway." Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway (accessed April 3, 2013). Little Rock, the capital city of Arkansas soon followed the rest of the country in segregating their schools after the decision in the case Brown v. Board of Education. However in September of 1957 Governor Orval Faubus overlooked the court’s decision and ordered the National Guard to stop African Americans from entering Little Rock Central High School. These students who were prevented from entering the school became known as the Little Rock Nine. The NAACP organized to escort the students to school all except Elizabeth Eckford who didn’t have a phone and had to face an abusive crowd as she walked to school. President Eisenhower was obligated to intervene and dismissed the National Guard. However the Little Rock Nine were exposed to angry white students who bullied and abused them. Eisenhower then relied on the 101st Airborne Division paratroopers and he put the Arkansas National Guard under federal command. Under the governments protection the African American students finished their school year, but were forced to leave the state to go to school when Faubus shut down Central High. That year Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which gave the attorney general more power of the desegregation of public schools. This event is important because it resulted in another step forward towards the desegregated school system that we have today.
"We Shall Overcome -- Little Rock Central High School." U.S. National Park Service - Experience Your America. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/a Little Rock http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Rock_Nine North Korea John Glenn South Korea http://www.johnglennhome.org/images/john.jpg "John Glenn." The John & Annie Glenn — Historic Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://johnglennhome.org/about/john-glenn/>. John Glenn was one of the top pilots in the nation. He attended Ohio State University and was a marine.With his expertise, NASA chose him as one of the first 7 astronauts to participate in the US space program. On February 20, 1962, John Glenn became the first person to orbit around the Earth. Glenn became an American inspiration and his achievements yielded political and scientific benefits. NASA did not send Glenn on any more flight missions. He then went on to politics, becoming Senator Glenn from Ohio. Syngman Rhee Syngman Rhee was the first President of South Korea. In 1960, he was reelected for a fourth term with 90% of the popular vote, although news soon broke out that the election was rigged. Riots led by students broke out on April 19th over the corrupt government. Troops opened fire and they killed 138 South Koreans and injured about 1,000. This protest caused Rhee to resign. Days later he was rescued by a CIA helicopter from an angry mob. It was later revealed by his Minister of Finance that Rhee had embezzled $20 million dollars from the U.S. Syngman Rhee fled to Hawaii where he lived the rest of his life exiled from society. "Syngman Rhee - Galbijim."Main Page - Galbijim. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://wiki.galbijim.com/Syngman_Rhee"Revolution Begins in South Korea."Marxists Internet Archive. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://www.marxists.org/archive/grant/1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rhee_Syng-Man_in_1956.jpg Malenkov Richard Nixon http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_hvf4S3b03yI/S-DA068IzoI/AAAAAAAAAL0/91Wo_dxLG-w/s1600/Richard_Nixon.jpg http://dmn.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Artillery-Korean-War.jpg http://www.arts-wallpapers.com/military/Korean-War/01/Korean-War-w16801050.jpg http://www.komsomol.cz/foto/malenkov_01.jpg "Georgi Malenkov succeeds Stalin — History.com This Day in History — 3/6/1953." History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/georgi-malenkov-succeeds-stalin>. Menachem Begin was a passionate Zionist leader and later became Prime Minister of Israel in 1977. Following his election as Prime Minister, he helped to orchestrate the Camp David Accords of 1978 as an addition to the peacemaking efforts with Egypt. The following year in 1979, Begin signed the Israel-Egypt Peace treaty, wherein both countries agreed to a ceasefire. Peace negotiations were overseen by various US diplomats including President Jimmy Carter.

Jewish Virtual Library. "Menachem Begin (1913-1992)." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/begin.html Juan Peron was elected President of Argentina in 1946, and reelected in 1952. However Peron was having difficulty coping with the death of his wife and dealing with an economic crisis. Peron wanted to separate the church and state and to make divorce and prostitution legal. These ideas along with the deportation of two Catholic priests resulted in an uprising involving bombs dropped on Buenos Aires killing nearly 350 people. This damaged Peron’s image and he resigned that year in 1955. Juan Peron left the country and lived in exile until 1972 when he returned to Argentina and was again elected president. "Juan Perón Overthrown | History Today."History Today | The World's Best History Writing. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/juan-per%C3%B3n-overthrown>. Juan Peron http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/juan-per%C3%B3n-overthrown Georgi Malenkov became Josef Stalin’s successor of Communist Russia after his death in 1953. The Communist Party opposed Malenkov because they believed he wasn’t communistic enough. He reduced political repression and reduced military spending. Malenkov, due to severe opposition, was not premier long. In 1955, Nikolai Bulganin became the new premier. Bulganin was heavily influenced by Malenkov’s rival, Nikita Khrushchev. " Richard Nixon Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com ." Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/richard-nixon-9424076>. Marilyn Monroe, a young orphan girl from Los Angeles, came to be known as one of Hollywood’s greatest icons. Her debut in 1946 as a model for Twentieth Century Fox swiftly led to a career of modeling and acting for the next decade and a half, until her death in 1962. In her prime years, she became and is still to remain the world’s most popular sex symbol, modeling for the first editions of Playboy magazine. As a result, her impact on society was a great one in that she was one of the first to break so many social and cultural boundaries, bringing sexuality to light among the press. Nowadays, many look back on the flora and fauna of her career through her movies and the many picture documentations of her life as a star.

Modern American Poetry. “About Marilyn Monroe.” Accessed March 13, 2013.
http:// www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/alexie/deanjoplinmonroe.htm Richard Nixon, a republican, became the 37th American president on January 20, 1969. It was a close race, but Nixon won against his democratic opponent, Hubert Humphrey. In his early years, he went to Duke University for law school. Richard Nixon had a hard time in office, as he faced a lot of criticism. The Watergate Scandal was his ultimate demise. After the Scandal, he became the first and only president to resign. Many people believe that he resigned so he wouldn’t have to suffer the embarrassment of impeachment. Also, many people believe that he was behind the Watergate Scandal and knew about it the whole time. Ronald Reagan served two terms as our 40th United States president. One of the most well-known of our presidents, Reagan was admired by many. However, some did not support Reagan as strongly. Shortly after his entrance into office in 1981, Reagan was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt. Thankfully, he recovered and returned to office quite soon after. He was widely praised for his aptitude in facilitating foreign affairs, especially in the case of oil shipments during the Iran-Iraq war. His determination to restore peace between nations is still pursued with great resolve by the US government today.
Location: Washington, D.C.

Presidents. “Ronald Reagan.” Accessed March 23, 2013.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan Joseph Stalin, the totalitarian dictator of the early 20th century Soviet Union, was none other than a force with which to be reckoned. With tremendous political and economic aptitude, Stalin transformed the USSR’s downtrodden wreck of an economy and it’s corrupt system of politics into a supreme world power worthy of comparison to fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Nonetheless, his expertise in economic and political reform came with a price: the lives of countless Soviet civilians.

PBS. “Joseph Stalin (1879-1953). Accessed March 14, 2013.
http://www.pbs.org/redfiles/bios/all_bio_joseph_stalin.htm James Byron Dean, born in a small town in Indiana in 1931, came to be know as one of the best American actors of the 1950s. After the relocation of his family to Fairmount, California when Dean was barely a year old, Dean grew up to become a star. Starting out studying pre-law at Santa Monica City College, Dean later decided to pursue an acting career after having transferred to UCLA to major in drama. He had a rough start on Broadway, trying his best to earn a spot on the stage. His big break was in the film East of Eden, earning him an Audience Poll Award for Best Actor in 1955. Regrettably, Dean died later that year in a car crash, when a truck collided with his Porsche Spyder.

Modern American Poetry. “About James Dean.” Accessed March 13, 2013.
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/alexie/deanjoplinmonroe.htm The King and I was originally broadcast as a musical in 1951, based off of the novel Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. The plot of the musical is that of the King of Siam, who orders that a schoolteacher be hired from Britain to teach his many children. Anna Leonowens, the chosen advocate, is hired and brought with her son to the palace. Initially, there is much confrontation between the King and Anna, illustrating the sudden collision of two very separate cultures; however, with time, chemistry begins to arise between Anna and the King. The musical found huge success throughout popular culture and later gave rise to many film adaptations, the most popular of which came about in 1956 and 1999.
Location: New York, NY

Wikipedia. "The King and I." Accessed March 13, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_King_and_I The term "red" refers to the Communist regime that took hold of China in the early 20th century and has struggled to remain intact to present day. Strongly developed under the control of leader Mao Zedong from the late 1920s to the 1950s, Red China soon became a massive world power. Today, the Communist Party of China often fails to follow the regulations set by the constitution that was established in 1982. The occurence of many civil rights infringements has given the Communist regime in China a rather poor reputation.

Communism and Computer Ethics. "Communism in China." Accessed April 2, 2013.
http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~eroberts/cs181/projects/communism-computing-china/china.html Fidel Castro was the infamous dictatorial ruler of Cuba for nearly half a century. He served as Prime Minister from 1959 until 1976, followed by his role as President from 1976 until his resignation due to health issues in 2008. His harsh seemingly communist rule of Cuba left the country’s citizens with few freedoms. In 2008, however, Castro resigned from office in failing health after having to receive emergency intestinal surgery. He died in early April of 2011. His legacy will most likely live on through his brother Raul, the inheritent of the presidency.

History. “Fidel Castro.” Accessed March 23, 2013.
http://www.history.com/topics/fidel-castro Nikita Khrushchev was the first Secretary of the Communist Party of Soviet Union from 1953 until 1964. He is widely remembered for his strong faith in Communism and his idea that it would rise above the capitalist markets of the US. In addition, Khrushchev's "secret speech" brought him much publicity. In it, he repeatedly bashed Stalin's government policy and his personality cult. This was shocking to the general public as opposing Stalin was unheard of at the time. Presently, however, Krushchev's actions seem much more mild in comparison.

PBS. "Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://www.pbs.org/redfiles/bios/all_bio_nikita_khrushchev.htm On December 1, 1955, an African-American woman boarded bus No. 2857 of the National City Lines Bus Services in Montgomery, Alabama. She proceeded to take her seat at the front of the bus, in the section that only white passengers were permitted to ride. After being abruptly asked to forfeit her seat to a white male who boarded shortly after her, she refused and was arrested on the spot. Little did she know, hers was the first step in the ferocious battle toward equal rights for the black community of America. Following the incident, Reverend Martin Lither King Jr. spoke out against the public bus lines and encouraged blacks to boycott the buses by insisting they walk to and from work and other places. After 381 days of protest, the buses finally became desegregated on December 20, 1956.

Wikipedia. "Montgomery Bus Boycott." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery_Bus_Boycott Ho Chi Minh served as the Communist leader of Vietnam from 1945. In addition, he served to feed the Vietnamese struggle against the French. In August 1945, when Japan surrendered, its hold on Vietnam, the Vietminh immediately seized power and founded the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). Subsequently, Ho Chi Minh became president. The French were unwilling to forfeit their colonial claims in the area, and so began in late 1946 the Vietnam War. The Geneva Conference following the eight year battle divided the DRV and left only the North to the control of the Vietminh. Thus began Ho Chi Minh's Communist rule of Vietnam.

Ho Chi Minh Archive. "Biography of Ho Chi Minh." Accessed April 2, 2013.
http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/ho-chi-minh/biography.htm Adolf Eichmann was one of if not the most infamous SS leader of Hitler's Nazi regime during WWII. Beginning his career as a minor member of the Nazi SS, Eichmann soon became involved in the development of Hitler's "final solution". He was also responsible for orchestrating the containment of the Jewish population in ghettos and concentration camps, an idea of which Eichmann became quite proud and almost boastful. Probably the action for which Eichmann became the most well-known was his escape from the Nuremberg War Trials. Fleeing to South America, he planned to hide away undercover in Argentina until the whole ordeal had "blown over", so to speak. Nonetheless, Eichmann's little hideaway was discovered, and he was sentenced to death by hanging by the Israeli court for the war crimes he had committed against north of 6 million Jews and at least 4 million others.

Jewish Virtual Library. "The Capture of Adolf Eichmann." Accessed April 2, 2013.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/eichcap.html Sally K. Ride began serving as a US astronaut in the NASA program in January of 1978. In August of 1979, she successfully completed a one-year period of training, deeming her eligible for her first assignment: Capsule Communicator for the STS-2 and STS-3 missions. She later became Mission Specialist on the STS-7 mission. Of her many high achievements, one of her greatest was probably the creation of the Sally Ride Science Company. The company now sponsors science, math, and technology education for girls and young women, and heavily promotes an interest in these subjects.

NASA Biographical Data. "Sally K. Ride." Accessed April 2, 2013.
http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/ride-sk.html The Battle of Dien Bien Phu was a vicious one fought between the French colonialists, led by General Henri Navarre, and the Vietminh of Vietnam, led by Ho Chi Minh. Initially, the battle began with the Vietminh's attack on the capital Lai Chau of the T'ai Federation of Tonkin, a post which had been loyal to the French. Navarre supported his troops with Operation Castor, in which he ordered a paratroop drop on the valley of Dien Bien Phu, concluding that Lai Chau was too vast, making it nearly impossible to defend. When the T'ai army tried to escape to Dien Bien Phu in December of 1953, the Vietminh shred them to pieces. Many similar battles ensued, ending with the French presence absconding from Vietnam.

Dien Bien Phu. "Dien Bien Phu." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://www.dienbienphu.org/english/ Doris Day is remembered by many as the epitome of an all-American girl. A born actress and singer, Day became interested in song and dance at a very early age. However, a severe car accident later caused damage to her right leg, curtailing her ambitions to be a professional dancer. Yet by the age of 15, Doris had begun performing locally, which later landed her a deal with Columbia Records in 1947. She went on to become a legend in Hollywood.
Location: Cincinnati, Ohio

Doris Day. “About Doris.” Accessed March 23, 2013.
http://www.dorisday.com/about Harry Truman became the 33rd US president in 1945 after the death of his predecessor, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. All the wartime problems Roosevelt had been dealing with suddenly came crashing down on the shoulders of the new president, causing much chaos in the White House and leaving Truman feeling as if the fate of the world were balancing on his shoulders. In theory, this was true. The development of the atomic bomb had been taking place during the final months of Roosevelt’s presidency, and upon completion, the decision of whether to utilize the bomb fell to Truman. In the end, Truman approved, and so came about the US bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Location: Washington, D.C.

Presidents. “Harry S. Truman.” Accessed March 23, 2013.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/harrystruman The Communist Bloc of Europe lasted for nearly half a century from 1945 to 1989. It encompassed the division of Europe into Eastern and Western portions, with the Eastern division representing communism and the Western side representing anti-communism. The Eastern division, united under the Warsaw Pact in 1955, was generally held under Soviet control. Later on, the construction of the Berlin Wall began to unfold as a means to restrict the flow of refugees from communist East to non-communist West Berlin.

Think Quest. "20th Century Russia: Life in the Communist Bloc 1945-1989." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://library.thinkquest.org/27629/themes/society/rsbloc.html In December of 1984, Bernie Goetz, was riding in a Manhattan subway, when allegedly four men threatened and tried to rob him. Subsequently, Goetz shot each of the men, an act that would become quite a controversial incident. Many people felt supportive of Goetz's actions, as they each had their own fears of subway mugging and the like. Nonetheless, in contrast many thought his actions to be racist as the four men were black. In the end, Goetz escape convictions of attempted murder and assault but suffered 250 days of jail time for criminal possession of an unlicensed weapon.

Heroism. "Bernard Goetz." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://www.heroism.org/class/1980/goetz.htm Joe McCarthy served as a US senator for ten years from 1947 until 1957. Well-known among Americans for his radical anti-communism, McCarthy is remembered by his Lincoln Day speech in Wheeling, West Virginia on February 9, 1950. Speaking to the Republican Women's Club, McCarthy stated that he knew of at least 200 politicians of the State Department who were in fact registered Communists. His exact words were left up to debate; however his claims led to what became known as McCarthyism, or the practice of making uninformed accusations of disloyalty against a person or party without proper evidence.

Wikipedia. "Joseph McCarthy." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_McCarthy John Fitzgerald Kennedy served as the 35th United States president from 1961 until his tragic death by assassination in 1963. Of his many accomplishments, his dedication to country and to world peace was no doubt a great asset to his presidency. After his slip-up with the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy gave a public formal apology to all those involved and was also determined to institute a common accord between the US, the Soviets, and the Cubans via the Peace Corps. Kennedy wished to establish common ground with these governments so as to prevent a future nuclear blowout, should one nation feel threatened by another. In the time following the Cuban Missile Crisis, peace negotiations showed much improvement, and eventually things would be resolved; however, not in Kennedy's lifetime. The President was shot in the head while on procession through Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963.

Presidents. "John F. Kennedy". Accessed April 2, 2013.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy On June 27, 1976 Air France passenger aircraft carrying 248 passengers was hijacked by German and revolutionaries and Palestinian liberation forces. The plane's passengers were held hostage for some time, yet a few hours later, 47 non-Israeli hostages were released. The next day, another 101 non-Israeli hostages were set free; however, the hijackers held over 100 Jewish passengers and the non-Jewish pilot for ransom. This led to the formation of Operation Entebbe by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Once the IDF had become privy to the situation, they quickly set their plan into action. Overnight, planes carried a hundred commandos to Uganda to begin the rescue mission. Although, all hostages were rescued, three were killed in the fight which last only an hour and a half. Also killed were five Israeli commandos, 45 Ugandan soldiers, and the commander of the operation, Lieutenant Colonel Yonatan Netanyahu.

Jewish Virtual Library. " The Entebbe Rescue Mission." Accessed April 3, 2013.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/entebbe.html The desegregation and thus integration of the University of Mississippi, nicknamed "Ole Miss", took place at the hand of James Meredith in 1962. Prior to Meredith's efforts, black gentleman Clyde Kennard had tried to enroll at the school. When Meredith won a lawsuit against the school in 1962, he tried multiple times that year to enroll only to be barred from the entrance by then Governor Ross R. Barnett. Finally succeeding on his forth try, Meredith was escorted onto the campus by US Marshals on September 30, 1962. Such an act caused much rioting among those pro-segregation; however in the end, Meredith's actions proved beneficial as a great step forward in the direction of civil rights.

Wikipedia. "University of Mississippi." Accessed April 3, 2012.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Mississippi Marilyn Monroe Reagan Dien Bien Phu Falls Begin Doris Day James Dean Joseph Stalin Sally Ride The King and I Eichmann Red China Castro Harry Truman Ole Miss Terror on the Airline Ho Chi Minh Khrushchev Communist Bloc Joe McCarthy Alabama Kennedy Bernie Goetz http:// www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/alexie/deanjoplinmonroe.htm "Korean War — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts." History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/korean-war>. North Korea was highly influenced by communist Russia and China. North Korea becomes a communist nation separate from the anti-communist South Korea. The 38th parallel serves as the separation for the two nations. On June 25, 1950, the North Korean Army crossed over the 38th parallel to invade South Korea, beginning the Korean War. Kim ll Sung was the communist dictator of North Korea. By the end of the Korean War, not much territory was gained by either side and the 38th parallel still marked the separation. North Korea remained a communist state but however, was incapable of turning South Korea into a communist state. South Korea, unlike their North Korean neighbor, was anti-communistic. They didn’t believe in a communist system and accepted aid from nations such as the United States. When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, they refused to fall to the communist regime. South Korea was under the power of the anti-communist dictator Syngman Rhee. South Korea remains anti-communist, trying to coexist with their communistic northern neighbor. The two countries remain split since the Korean War and there is no indication that the Koreas will ever be one again. "Korean War — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts." History.com — History Made Every Day — American & World History. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/korean-war>. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/photos/dienbienphu.jpg http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy http://www.jamesdean.com/images/photos/torn/pics/jdrs1c2.jpg http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Images/Profiles/S/Joseph-Stalin-9491723-1-402.jpg http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/portraits/ride-s.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8f/Eichmann,_Adolf.jpg/220px-Eichmann,_Adolf.jpg http://cdn1.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/images/fidel-castro.jpg http://theredlist.fr/media/database/muses/icon/cinema_women/doris_day/019_doris_day_theredlist.jpg http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1978/begin.jpg http://qfxblog.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/the-king-and-i.jpg http://www.awesomestories.com/images/user/8cb23946d6.jpg http://i2.cdn.turner.com/dr/hln/archived-blogs/cdn/cnn/2009/images/06/16/goetz-bernard.jpg http://s3.amazonaws.com/hypertextopia/public/uploads/8274/mzd25.jpg http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jb/modern/jb_modern_parks_1_e.jpg Lebanon Crisis
July to October 1958, U.S. Marines pacified a crisis Lebanon. Begun by a revolution in Egypt, a wave of Arab nationalism led to civil strife disrupting Lebanon's affairs. The Muslim minority then attempted a rebellion, with arms believed to be supplied by the United Arab Republic. They started this rebellion because they wanted to join the UAR but the Christians wanted to keep Lebanon aligned with the Western powers.

AU. "Marines in Lebanon 1958." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/usmchist/lebanon.txt
Wikipedia. "1958 Lebanon Crisis." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanon_Crisis_of_1958 http://www.notablebiographies.com/images/uewb_06_img0404.jpg http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2009/12/ho_chi_minh_1946_cropped.jpg Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle was a French General who returned to politics as president in 1958 to lead France. He was chosen because it was feared civil war would erupt over the Algerian War. However, in relation to France's foreign affairs, De Gaulle was quite stubborn and would not work with what had been previously allies to France. America and Britain had stopped testing nuclear weapons, and had started working together on nuclear security. Charles de Gaulle didn't listen when they warned him to stop testing, and he later decided for France to leave NATO military command.

BBC. "1958: De Gaulle returns to tackle Algeria." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/1/newsid_2995000/2995283.stm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_de_Gaulle Moonshot
July 16th, 1969 was the day that the Saturn V flew from Earth on the Apollo 11 mission with the Moon as its destination, and three human astronauts on board. This was the flight that put man on the moon, for the first time. It is important in our history because President Kennedy had dedicated money and resources to space flight, with this as an ultimate goal. He did this because it was a race against the Russians, and a competition between Western capitalism, and Eastern Communism.

Reason Check. "The Moon Shot: Like Yesterday." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://www.reasoncheck.com/2009/07/16/the-moon-shot-like-yesterday/ Russians in Afghanistan
In December of 1979, Russian soldiers landed in an already war occupied Afghanistan. A civil war was started when prime minister Amin wanted to allow his country to be more influenced by western culture, and the majority of the population, that was strongly Muslim disagreed with this. A jihad (holy war) was declared on Amin's supporters, but Amin was replaced when Russian soldiers assassinated him. The new ruler Babrak Kamal was in power only with support from the Russian soldiers, because the jihad placed by the Mujahdeen continued on to him. Russia eventually pulled out from Afghanistan because they realized they had no chance against the Taliban, and with no support from the U.N., and America using this invasion as an opportunity to watch Russia for any new military technology, with no assistance promised to a Communist country, had no allies they could count on.

History Learning Cite. "Russian Invasion of Afghanistan." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/russia_invasion_afghanistan.htm http://www.zeitgeistyreport.com/2010/02/24/joe-mccarthy-then-and-now/ China's under martial law
Chinese government transferred to martial law to
put an end to the protests in Tiananmen Square. There were protesters in Tiananmen Square because they wanted the regin
of Deng Xiaoping. Despite martial law implemented, protesters starting putting up concrete blocks and barricades to prevent armed forces from stopping them, nothing could be done to prevent armed forces now, because they had no fear of causing bodily harm or using violence, and there was a great potential for violence.

ABC News. "May 20, 1989: China Declares Martial Law." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/20-1989-china-declares-martial-law-13629321 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman http://www.heeve.com/modern-history/communist-countries-during-the-cold-war.html http://llphfreedom.blogspot.com/2011/07/video-raid-on-entebbe-full-length-movie.html Hypodermics on the Shore
In 1988 large amounts of debris and pollution was found on beaches in New Jersey. At first, people were puzzled by what the source of this trash could be, but after analysis it was discovered that this was medical waste, and needles originating from New York. This happened commonly according to a police officer. The cause of this was illegal dumping of medical waste into the ocean, and was a crucial cause of environmentalism.

Philly. "Garbage Washes Up At Shore, Debris Includes Needles, Syringes." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://articles.philly.com/1988-05-23/news/26261136_1_bags-of-medical-waste-marine-police-medical-debris http://www.gol.ge/index.php?cat=music&details=4215 Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser first had power before he became president of Egypt. He was minister of interior under Muhammd Naguib. But he also held power in the RCC which meant that it was actually him that made governmental decisions, many of which Naguib did not approve of or agree with. In 1954 Nasser was accused by Naguib of harboring the Muslim Brotherhood which was recently outlawed. There was a power struggle, Nasser won and became president of Egypt. His presidency would initiate a wave of Arab nationalism, and the creation of the United Arab Republic.

Wikipedia. "Muhammad Naguib." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Naguib#Presidency http://historyofthemafia.blogspot.com/2011/01/history-of-beginning-of-mafia.html http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/projects/suez/suez.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_Around_the_Clock http://www.blackyouthproject.com/2013/02/on-this-day-48-years-ago-malcolm-x-was-assassinated/ http://www.milsurps.com/showthread.php?t=30145 http://www.chilternsaonb.org/ccbmaps/1347/137/charles-de-gaulle.html http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/13/iran-khamenei-mousavi-karroubi-khomeini Bardot
Brigitte Bardot was a French actress born in 1934. In world - famous film "And God Created Women" (created in 1957) she became famous in America as a sex symbol with none to equal her. However the popularity of her film brought more then just sex appeal, it created a venue for foreign films. The bikini was not seen before she started wearing it, and its fame came from her. She also became an activist for animal rights.

Wikipedia. "Brigitte Bardot." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brigitte_Bardot http://www.minnpost.com/politics-policy/2008/08/russias-attacks-reviving-cold-war-worries http://karlomongaya.wordpress.com/2011/12/26/the-filipino-youth-and-social-transformation-1/ http://astronomy.meta.org/monatlich/0907_monatsthema.html http://merkwerk-1964-1989.blogspot.com/2009/06/hypodermic-needles-on-shore_992.html Chou en - Lai
Chou en - Lai born in 1898, was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China. He served under Mao Zedong, and was China's foreign minister. In relation to America, he was very effective in maintaining peaceful relations. For example, he might have been instrumental in the rise of Communism in China, but he also advocated peaceful coexistence with western powers.

Wikipedia. "Zhou EnLai." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhou_Enlai http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamal_Abdel_Nasser http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brigitte_Bardot http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhou_Enlai Belgians in the Congo
In 1960, what is now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo gained independence from Belgium. However this did not mark a time of peace, but quite the opposite. For sixteen years Congo suffered a period of wars occurring. At first the U.S. had nothing to do with these wars, however when Lamamba asked the Soviet Union for assistance, and they sent soldiers there, the U.S. became worried that this was the beginning of another Communist takeover, such as the one in Cuba particularly. Eisenhower authorized the CIA to assassinate Lamamba, however this plan was aborted.

Wikipedia. "Congo Crisis." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congo_Crisis#Soviet_.26_US_interventions Nixon Back Again
Richard Nixon was president in 1950, but lost re - election to Kennedy in 1960. However, despite many beliefs, including Nixon's, he came back to politics and won the presidential election in 1968. During Nixon's term the Vietnam War was occurring. Nixon created the policy "Vietnamization". He believed that the locals of South Vietnam should be fighting the war, and not America. He wanted to train the Vietnamese, and pull out American troops.

Wikipedia. "Richard Nixon." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon Foregin Debts
Following World War 2, the U.S. was ambivalent about international trade, particularly considering that they had experienced times of wealth during this period. However in the 1970's inflation started ballooning because other countries started flooding American markets with imports, but closing their markets to exports. Also the value of the U.S. dollar started to rise, decreasing the prices of foreign imports, but increasing prices of exports therefore discouraging the purchase of U.S. goods but encouraging the purchase of foreign goods.

Economics. "The US Trade Defecit." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://economics.about.com/od/foreigntrade/a/trade_deficit.htm Palestine
Palestinians, and Israel had long conflicted and disputed over whom Palestine belonged to. This controversy began as a religious issue, but led to many wars and has become a social issue. In 1974 designated the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) as the controllers of Palestine. Legal justification for this decision was the mandate by U.N. General Assembly meeting in 1947.

Wikipedia. "Palestinian Declaration of Independence." Accessed April 4, 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_Declaration_of_Independence http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestine http://www.progressiveavenues.org/Campaign_68.html http://www.census.gov/history/www/programs/economic/foreign_trade.html http://imperialism-period1.wikispaces.com/Belgium+and+Africa THE END
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