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ROMANESQUE ART AND ARCHITECTURE

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by

Lourdes Rodriguez

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of ROMANESQUE ART AND ARCHITECTURE

* SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA
- the place where Saint James the Apostle was buried.
BUTTRESSES
reinforced the walls.
* JERUSALEM
- the city where Jesus Christ was crucified and came back to live.
ROMANESQUE ART AND ARCHITECTURE
The term ROMANESQUE refers to the style which was used in Europe
from the late 10th century until the 12th century,
when it changed to the Gothic style.
It was called "Romanesque" because it used the typical elements in Roman architecture:
the arch and vault.
Romanesque had common features in all Europe.
The Benedictine order adopted Romanesque in its main monastery in Cluny, France; and
from there it expanded to other monasteries of the same order founded in Europe.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dehio_212_Cluny.jpg
Abbey of Cluny
PILGRIM ROUTES
From the 10th century pilgrims started to travel to holy places.
All these people travelling across Europe
helped to spread

Romanesque.
How was it possible if communications were so bad at the time?
http://alatoz.com/images/santi_mapeu-camsg.jpg
Romanesque was mainly
RELIGIOUS ART.
Many
churches
and
monasteries
were built and decorated with paintings and sculptures.
Some
CIVIL BUILDINGS
were also built , for example castles.
Loarre castle
ARCH
VAULT
Romanesque church
BUILDINGS
ESTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
CHURCH PLAN
MAIN FEATURES OF ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
They were made of
STONE
taken from nearby areas.
This results in a
solid and massive
appearance.
All Romanesque buildings have
thick walls
and
few and small
windows.
By José Fernando Meifrén. INTEF
San Miguel de Almazán church, Soria
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abaziasanvittorefrasassi.jpg
Monastery of San Vittore, Italy
The most common elements in Romanesque architecture are
semicircular ARCHES and VAULTS.
Barrel vault
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Groined_vault_001.png
Groin vault
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Palladio_Palazzo_della_Ragione_upper.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vo%C3%BBte_en_berceau_Conques.JPG
Transverse arches
ROMANESQUE DOORWAY
ESTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
San Isidoro, Leon
Jose Alberto Bermudez. INFET
Doors and windows were semicircular with
ARCHIVOLTS.
http://recursostic.educacion.es/bancoimagenes/web/
San Miguel, Estella
Santillana del Mar, Cantabria
PILLARS
supported the structures.
COLUMNS
had very decorated
CAPITALS.
They are
square or rectangular.
In the picture columns are only decorative elements.
Santa María, Alquezar
Capitals with scenes from the Genesis.
Romanesque churches were usually
very dark
and the only light went in from behind the altar.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/raul2010/2719683580/
They were designed as spiritual fortresses.
Sant Climent de Taüll
* ROME
- the place where the Pope was.
The most important
PILGRIM ROUTES
led to:
support vaults and run from side to side.
http://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficheiro:Santiago-Catedral-Planta.gif
Aisle
Nave
Narthex
Transept
Altar
Ambulatory
Apses
Most Romanesque churches had a
latin-cross plan.
Latin-cross plan
by Jose Alberto Bermudez. INTEF
These churches usually had
one nave
and
one or two aisles on each side
of the nave
separated by a line of arches
.
The
ambulatory
was a semicircular aisle that went around the altar and separated it from the apses.
PARTS OF THE CHURCH
Transept
Apse
Nave
Aisle
Side entrance
Roof
Towers
Dome
Round arch
Barrel vault
http://silviabeneyto.blogspot.com.es/2010/02/la-iglesia-romanica_03.html
PARTS OF THE CHURCH
By Pilar Cristobal. INTEF
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Portal_moissac.jpg
Saint-Pierre de Moissac
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arles,ancienne_cath%C3%A9drale_St_Trophime,portail_roman1190.jpg
Saint Trophime, Arles
Archivolts
Tympanum
Frame
Mullion
San Miguel, Estella
ARQUITECTURE
SCULPTURE
They had a
DIDACTIC purpose
. They told stories from the Bible to illiterate people that didn't know how to read.

Their theme is religious:
scenes from the Old Testament, the life of Christ and saints, etc.

The Final Judgement scene is very common and it shows the
PANTOCRATOR
or Christ in Majesty surrounded by the apostles and evangelists.

FREE-STANDING SCULPTURE
By Javier Eleta. INTEF
Sculptures
adapt to the architectural element
they are carved on and tend to occupy
all the available space.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arles,ancienne_cath%C3%A9drale_St_Trophime,portail_roman1190.jpg
RELIEF SCULPTURE
They are not realistic, they are
rigid and inexpressive.
It depends on architecture and relieves usually appear
on doorways
of churches
and capitals.
Saint Trophime, Arles
Capital San Juan de Rabanera Soria
Chartres cathedral
MAIN FEATURES
These sculptures were made of
painted wood or ivory
.
Most sculptures represent
Christ on the cross
or the
Virgin with Child.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:Cristo_de_don_Fernando_y_do%C3%B1a_Sancha_%28anverso%29.jpg
Cristo de don Fernando y doña Sancha
Virgin, Villanua
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VIRGEN_DE_VILLAN%C3%9AA.JPG
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eunate_-_Ermita_de_Santa_Maria_20.jpg
Virgin of Eunate, Muruzabal
PAINTING
Its main function was
to decorate the temple.
They mainly appear
on the inside walls
of the apse or on the side walls.
The
PANTOCRATOR
appears on the apse with the four evangelists, angels and saints. Sometimes the Virgin appears there.
Bigger figures were more important than small ones.
Monks spent most of their time copying and
illustrating manuscripts.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pante%C3%B3nSanIsidoroLe%C3%B3n.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12th_century_unknown_painters_-_The_Annunciation_to_the_Shepherds_-_WGA19696.jpg
The Annunciation to the Shepherds
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meister_aus_Tahull_001.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wga_12c_illuminated_manuscripts_Mary_Magdalen_announcing_the_resurrection.jpg
The royal pantheon
Basilica of San Isidoro, Leon
They used
fresco

technique.
Mural paintings were done directly on internal walls of churches or on planks of wood covered with plaster
Basilica of San Isidoro, Leon
Roda de Isàvena collegiate church, Aragón
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RodaCriptaValeri.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Segovia_-_San_Justo_21.jpg
San Justo church, Segovia
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%27The_Virgin_and_Child_in_Majesty_and_the_Adoration_of_the_Maji%27,_Romanesque_fresco_by_the_Master_of_Pedret_from_the_apse_of_the_Church_of_Saint_Joan_at_Tredos,_Lleida,_Spain,_c._1100.jpg
Church of "La Mare de Deu de Cap d'Aran" (Tredòs), Lleida
Sant Climent de Taüll
There is
no perspective
.
Colours were plain
and blue and red the most commonly used.
Characters were in
rigid poses
and showed no emotion.
Illumination of
Bibles
was very common.
They
historiated initial letters
at the beginning of a section

or a paragraph.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illuminated.bible.closeup.arp.jpg
The letter P as a historiated initial
Mary Magdalen announcing the resurrection
COMMON FEATURES OF
SCULPTURE AND PAINTING

Most paintings and sculptures were
part of churches.
Full transcript