Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Key Theories in Career Counselinh

No description

Lauren Moss

on 12 February 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Key Theories in Career Counselinh

Goals for the evening...
1. Acquire a general understanding of Career Counseling Theory

2. Understand how Career Counseling Theory informs Models of Career Counseling
The primary goal of using assessment data was to predict job satisfaction and success.

Contemporary practices stress the relationships between human factors and work environments.

Test data is used to observe the similarity between client and current workers in a career field.
Key Terms
primarily refer to abilities and interests. Parson's 3-step model included studying the individual, surveying occupations, and matching the individual with an occupation.
Basic Assumptions
Individuals have unique patterns of ability (traits) that can be objectively measured and correlated with requirements of occupations.
Key Theories
in Career Counseling

Next Steps!
A Look at Career Counseling Models:

1. Trait-and-Factor (Super, 1957 & 1980; Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996)

2. Person-Environment-Fit (Super, 1957 & 1980; Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996)

3. Developmental (Super, 1957 & 1980)

4. Learning Theory (Mitchell& Krumboltz, 1996)

5. Cognitive Information Processing (Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 1991)

Tiedeman's Decision Making Model
Basic Assumptions
Life-Span, Life-Space
Tiedeman's Decision Making Mode
Circumscription & Compromise:
A Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations
Ann Roe:
A Needs Approach
John Holland:
A Typology Approach
Learning Theory
Sociological Perspectives
Ginzberg & Associates
Basic Assumptions
Individuals bring requirements to a work environment, and the work environment makes its requirements of individuals. To survive, individuals and work environment must achieve some degree of congruence.
Key Terms
Personality structure
- a stable characteristic made up of abilities and values.
Ability dimensions
- indicate levels of work skills.
- considered as work needs.
- clients who are more achievement-oriented.
- more self-fulfilled oriented clients.
Work adjustment
- refers to a worker's attempt to improve fit in a work environment.
Client abilities (work skills) and values (work needs) are criteria used for selecting work environments. Work requirements determine reinforcers available by occupations. Knowledge of clients who are more achievement (satisfactoriness) or self-fulfillment (satisfaction) oriented enhances career choice.
Ginzberg & Associates
Basic Terms
Occupational choice is a
process covering 6-10 years, beginning at age 11 and ending shortly after age 17. As tentative occupational decisions are made, other choices are eliminated.
Ginzberg and Associates
Key Terms
Stages of career development
play becomes work oriented
recognition of work requirements and one's traits, and
career choices are narrowed
Ginzberg and Associates Outcomes
Career choice is a developed precept of occupations subjectively appraised in sociocultural milieu from childhood to early adult. There are 3 stages age >11- young adult.
Life-Span, Life Space
Basic Assumptions
Career development is multidimensional.
There are developmental tasks throughout the life span.
Vocational maturity is acquired through successfully accomplishing developmental tasks within a continuous series of life stages.
Individuals implement their self-concepts into careers that will provide the most efficient means of self-expression.
Success in one life role facilitates success in another.
1990 - 'recycling' developmental tasks
Life-Span, Life Space
Key Terms
Stages of vocational Development
: Growth, Exploratory, Establishment, Maintenance, and Decline
Development tasks
: Crystalization, Specification, Implementation, Stabilization, Consolidation
: driving force that establishes a career pattern
Attitudes and competencies
are related to career growth and identified as career
Life-Span, Life Space
Career development is a lifelong process occurring in stages. Self-concept is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles: child, student, leisurite, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. all life roles affect one another. In development, societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
Career development unfolds within the general process of cognitive development as one resolves ego-relevant crises . Ego identity is of central importance in career development. New decisions begin with exploration and gradually reach integration.

Erikson (1950) psychosocial crises:
1) trust
2) autonomy
3) initiative
4) industry
5) identity
6) intimacy
7) generativity
8) ego integrity
Tideman's Decision Making Model
Key Tems
the process of evaluating self-in-world from contextual experiences (within career decision making)
- process of integrating within society, yet retaining individuality
- involves exploration, crystallization, choice, and clarification
- induction, reformation, and integration
Tiedman's Decision Making Model
Career decision making is a process involving the client's total cognitive abilities, uniqueness, and knowledge of the changing world of work.
Decisional process involves differentiation (evaluating self-in-world) and integration (congruency with work).
Circumscription and Compromise
Basic Assumptions
A key factor in career decision is self-concept (determined by social class, level of intelligence, and experiences with sex-typing).
Individual's progress through 4 stages and learn to compromise based on generalizations of cognitive maps of occupations.
Individuals are less willing to compromise job level and sex-type.
Circumscription and Compromise
Key Terms
: one's view of self
Cognitive maps
: schema of occupations that reflect dimensions of prestige level, masculinity/ femininity, and field of work
Social space
: a zone or view of where one fits in society
: the process of narrowing one's territory of social space/ creating alternative
: suggests individuals will settle for a 'good' choice (not hold out for 'best')
Circumscription and Compromise
Individual development consists of 4 stages:
1) orientation to size and power
2) orientation to sex roles
3) orientation to societal valuation
4) orientation to internal, unique self

Socioeconomic background and intellect influence self-concept
Occupational choices are determined by social space, intellectual level, and sex-typing
Career choice is a process of eliminating options through cognitive maps
Individuals compromise occupational choice because of accessibility
Circumscription of occupations occurs through self-awareness, sex-type, and social class

Ann Row:
A Needs Approach
Early childhood experiences and parental style affect the needs hierarchy and the relationship of those needs to adult lifestyle.
Those who choose nonpersonal-type jobs are meeting lower-level needs for safety and security.
Those who choose to work with other people have strong needs for affection and belonging.
Ann Rowe:
A Needs Approach
Key Terms
Examples of
person-oriented occupations
: service, business contact, managerial, teaching, entertainment.

Examples of
nonperson-oriented occupations
: technology, outdoors, science.
Ann Rowe:
A Needs Approach Outcomes
Original position
: individuals who enjoy working with people were raised by warm, accepting parents and those who avoid contact with others were reared by cold, rejecting parents.

Current position
: there are multiple important factors that determine occupational choice which were not accounted for in original theory.
John Holland:
A Typology Approach
Basic Assumptions
Career choice is an expression/ extension of personality into the world of work.
Individuals search for environments that will let them express their attitudes and values and take on agreeable challenges and roles.
There are 6 occupational environments and 6 matching personal orientations.
John Holland:
A Typology Approach
Key Terms
6 Categories for individuals and work environments:

- those who have poorly defined personality styles
- the degree to which one identifies with a work environment
- a good match between individual and work environment
John Holland:
A Typology Approach
Individuals are products of their environment.
Stability of career choice depends on dominance of personal orientation.
Individuals who fit a pure personality type will express little resemblance to other types.
Clients who have many occupational goals have low identity - congruence occurs when client's personality type matches the corresponding work environment.
Krumbolt's Learning Theory Approach
Basic Assumptions
Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice
Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills.
Krumbolt's Learning Theory Approach
Key Terms
Genetic Endowments
- inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice.
Environmental Conditions
- contextual interactions that influence individual choice.
Instrumental learning experiences
- acquired through observation, consequences, and reaction of others.
Associative Learning Experiences
- negative or positive reactions to neutral experiences.
Task Approach Skills
- work habits, mental sets, emotional responses, and cognitive responses.
Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach
Learning experiences should increase the range of occupations in career counseling.
Assessment is to be used to create new learning experiences.
Clients need to prepare for changing work tasks.
Career decision making is a learned skill.
Clients need to be empowered as active participants in career search.
Sociological Perspective of Work and Career Development
Basic Assumptions
Individual characteristics that are responsible for career choice are biologically determined and socially conditioned through family influences, social position and relations, and developed social role characteristics.
Sociological Perspective of Work and Career Development
Key Terms
Status Attainment Theory
- suggests parental status greatly influences career choice.
Sociology of Labor Markets
- refers to institutional practices that limit career aspiration (i.e.: jobs that have limited access for minorities/ women)
Race and gender effects
- refers to minority populations being assigned to low-status jobs and women being given less status than men.
Sociological Perspectives of Work and Career Development
Organizations and market forces constrain career choices.
Clients are to learn to cope with social environments they encounter.
Clients are to learn about the realities of the work world.
Marginalized populates are to be encouraged to complete educational programs and increase education aspirations.
EX: 7 point plan
1. physical make-up – health, physique, appearance, bearing and speech;
2. attainments – education, qualifications, experience;
3. general intelligence – fundamental intellectual capacity;
4. special aptitudes – mechanical, manual dexterity, facility in the use of words or
5. interests – intellectual, practical, constructional, physically active, social, artistic;
6. disposition – acceptability, influence over others, steadiness, dependability,
7. circumstances – domestic circumstances, occupations of family.
Donald Super (student of Ginzberg's! 1970's)- self identified as developing segments of future theories integrating educational and vocational development
More currently used for individual application/ reflection and classroom curriculum to increase self-awareness.
Full transcript