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CGC1D - Settlement & Land Use

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Bianca Wellon

on 21 April 2013

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Transcript of CGC1D - Settlement & Land Use

Settlement Patterns
in Canada Population Distribution Settlement Patterns Settlement patterns can be divided into two major categories: RURAL and URBAN.

Rural settlement occurs outside cities and towns. It is characterized by low population density and a dispersed population distribution pattern. Urban Settlement Patterns Urban areas refer to towns and cities with more than 1000 people.

Before the Agricultural Revolution, about 10,000 years ago, the effort of virtually every individual was needed to find enough food for survival.
With the development of farming practices, there was a surplus of food, giving people the opportunity to pursue jobs in other areas (weaving, metal, milling grain).
This is how the first villages developed. Over time as agricultural productivity increased, and manufacturing developed, people moved into urban areas, which would eventually grow into cities. Rural VS Urban Areas Settlement Patterns
& Land Use Canada's population is not evenly distributed throughout the country. This can be seen when comparing the population distribution of different ecozones. For example, more than 15 million people live in the Mixedwood Plains. Compared to 300 people who live in the Taiga Cordillera. Over 90% of the Canadian population lives within 600km of the American border! "Population Distribution" refers to the pattern of where people live in a region or even the entire country.

The two main distribution patters are dispersed and concentrated.

Dispersed is often found in agricultural areas, where as concentrated in found near cities, natural resources, jobs, etc.

A special kind of concentrated pattern occurs when people settle in a linear form. This can occur along a major highway, ocean coasts, etc. Population Distribution - What does each one represent? Canada's Population Density Population Density: the number of people who live in each square kilometer of land (people/km) Factors that Affect Rural Settlement Resources The most important factor that determines rural settlement is the kind of resources that attracts people to the area.
Examples: agriculture, forestry, mining, recreation, etc Transportation Methods Before 1800, settlement occurred in areas where the most efficient transportation was by water. So this played a large factor in where early settlements were located.
After 1800 settlement occurred along major roads and railway tracks. As technology advanced, people have settled all over Canada and built their own transportation to the area. Government Policy In some areas the government dictated the size and shape of farms, roads, and the locations of towns so that each would have the services it would require. These are a part of the "survey system." Rural Settlement Patterns in Canada The combination of these settlement factors has resulted in three distinct rural settlement patterns in Canada that are clearly visible from aerial view.
Long Lots of Southern Quebec Settled before the development of railways and roads, and before a survey system from the government was put into place.
The "long-lot" pattern was a result of the fact that transportation was by boat (or sled in the winter). People had to have access to water for transportation.
Each piece of farm land is long and thin which gives it a distinct appearance from above. The Concession System of Southern Ontario Rich agricultural resources in southern Ontario attracted settlers to the area. However, roads were used as the major transportation route in these areas. The government had put into place a "survey system" for settlement, which organized the size and location of land that was given to settlers.

In the concession system the land was surveyed into blocks with roads surrounding each side approximately 2km apart.

A group of concession blocks is called a township, and a group of townships is called a county. Section System of the Prairies Like southern Ontario, the Prairies were surveyed by the government of Canada before settlement occurred.
The Canada-US border was used as a baseline, and the section system was modeled from the US mid-west which has similar territory.
The land was divided into blocks, each 94 square kilometers, which was divided into 36 sections, each of those was divided into four quarter sections of 64 hectares. Comparing Settlement Patterns Advantages

The Long Lots of Southern Quebec: all of the farm houses were very close to each other at the far ends of their lands.
Prairies: large farms were well-suited to newer machinery, great for farming
Ontario: the farms are less isolated than the Prairies, and the farms were easier to work than the Long Lots.

Disadvantages

Long Lots: not very efficient to work, the back of the farm was a long way from the house
Prairies: isolation, long way away from their neighbors Scattered Settlements There are a lot of other rural settlements outside of Southern Ontario, Southern Quebec, and the Prairies. This occurs in more isolated areas of Canada for two main reasons.

1. Resource Based Settlement

Rural areas that develop because of the presence of a resource (agriculture, commercial fishing, forestry, mining/energy production, or recreation)

2. Service Based Settlement

Some people settle in rural areas because they can earn a living by providing services to residents and to travelers passing through. Such as owning a gas station, motel, small restaurants, etc. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-550/maps-cartes/animations/Canada/06map.swf
Rural and urban areas have an important relationship. The goods and services produced in towns and cities are exchanged for food products produced in the rural countryside.
The rural areas around cities are known as the "hinterland."

The relationship between the rural and urban areas is still relevant in Canada today. Is it still AS important though? What advancements today would have changed this relationship? Basic & Non-Basic Industries An urban area exists because there is one or more economic activities that bring money into the community.
The functions that bring money into the community that the area depends on for its existence are known as "basic industries." These provide jobs for residents, if the job does not exist, people in the community would likely have to move.
The basic industries make up the "economic base" meaning that it is critical to the existence of the urban and surrounding rural areas.

"Non-basic industries" are those that do not bring much money to the community, and they often just recycle money that is already in the community rather than bringing in new money from outside of the community (ex. a small grocery store).

"Multiplier Effect:" basic and non-basic jobs are connected. When a new factory opens that directly hires 100 people, those are basic jobs. However, another 300 non-basic jobs will also result from the opening of the factory. This can also happen in reverse. When a factory closes and 100 jobs are lost, 300 non-basic jobs will also be lost.

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