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Design Inquiry of Learning, The Learning Design Studio, and a Vision for Future Learning and Teaching Environments

Invited talk at the educational technologies programme, University of Haifa, 25th Dec. 2013. http://www.edtech.haifa.ac.il/Seminars/upcoming/drysymwr-yzwb-hqrsllmydhhstwdywlyzwblmydhwhzwnlsbybwtlmydhwhwrhtydnywt

Yishay Mor

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of Design Inquiry of Learning, The Learning Design Studio, and a Vision for Future Learning and Teaching Environments

Avramides, K.; Hunter, J.; Oliver, M. & Luckin, R. (under review), 'A method for teacher inquiry in cross-curricular projects: lessons from a case study', British Journal of Educational Technology
Teacher Inquiry into Student Learning
Cornell University Sustainable Design, flickr.com/photos/cusd/
Design Inquiry of Learning, The Learning Design Studio, and a Vision for Future Learning and Teaching Environments
everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into desired ones.

(Simon, 1969 / 1996: The Sciences of the Artificial)
Latour: A Cautious Prometheus? A Few Steps Toward a Philosophy of Design (With Special Attention to Peter Sloterdijk)
Objects with intent
Bad design is.. just letting things happen.

John Hockenberry (ted.com)
a mutual learning process between users and designers

Pascal Béguin
The more objects are turned into things – that is, the more matters of facts are turned into matters of concern – the more they are rendered into objects of design through and through.
Educational Design Research
Mor, Y. (2013), SNaP! Re-using, sharing and communicating designs and design knowledge using Scenarios, Narratives and Patterns, in Rosemary Luckin; Peter Goodyear; Barbara Grabowski; Sadhana Puntambekar; Niall Winters & Joshua Underwood, ed., 'Handbook of Design in Educational Technology', Routledge, pp. 189-200

Mor, Yishay (2010). Embedding design patterns in a methodology for a design science of e-Learning. In: Kohls, Christian and Wedekind, Joachim eds. Problems Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors, Problems and Solutions. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI, pp. 107–134. http://oro.open.ac.uk/30364/
Design-based research is a methodology for the study of function. Often referred to as design research or design experiments, it is concerned with the design of learning processes, taking account of the involved complexities, multiple levels and contexts of educational settings. The primary aim is to develop domain-specific theories in order to understand the learning process.
Mor, Yishay and Winters, Niall (2007). Design approaches in technology enhanced learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 15(1), pp. 61–75. http://oro.open.ac.uk/30354/
Learning by Design
Kolodner, J. L.; Camp, P. J.; Crismond, D.; Fasse, B.; Gray, J.; Holbrook, J.; Puntambekar, S. & Ryan, M. (2003), 'Problem-based learning meets case-based reasoning in the middle-school science classroom: Putting learning by design™ into practice', Journal of the Learning Sciences 12 (4) , 495--547 .
Teachers as Designers
Voogt, J.; Westbroek, H.; Handelzalts, A.; Walraven, A.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J. & de Vries, B. (2011), 'Teacher learning in collaborative curriculum design', Teaching and Teacher Education 27 (8) , 1235 - 1244

Kali, Y. & Ronen-Fuhrmann, T. (2011), 'Teaching to design educational technologies', International Journal of Learning Technology 6 (1) , 4-23
Laurillard, D. (2012), Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. , Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group .
CC BY NC SA Yishay Mor, http://yishaymor.org/
Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas

Five advantages of design:
Humble, modest
Attentive to details
Semiotic quality; meaning, interpretation of signs
To design is always to redesign
Ethical dimension
Value laden
Change oriented
Functionally organised
Context dependent
Most recent characterizations of design research suggest it is an approach with certain commitments: the production of innovative learning environments, knowledge about how such environments work in the settings for which they are designed, and, hopefully, some more fundamental knowledge about learning or teaching....

Various approaches to education research hold one or another of these commitments, but it is argued the unique attribute of design research is the simultaneous concern for all of them. Yet, this commitment to certain kinds of research outcomes without a clear description of research methods has produced considerable criticism against design research.

Sandoval, W. A. (2013). Conjecture mapping: an approach to systematic educational design research. Journal of the Learning Sciences.
Yishay Mor, Haifa, 25 Dec. 2013
Actively to participate in the making of knowledge is the highest prerogative of man and the only warrant of his freedom. When our schools truly become laboratories of knowledge-making, not mills fitted out with
information-hoppers, there will no longer be need to
discuss the place of science in education.
~ John Dewey
Dewey, J. (1910), 'Science as subject-matter and as method', Science 31 (787) , 121-127
... teaching tends to be seen as a process of delivering information and testing students for its reception and retention. Students tend to be disconnected from the commonplace understandings and competences built into their ordinary commerce with the world. Teachers, likewise, tend to be disconnected from what they already know. They may teach math, for example, in ways that have little to do with how they do math. ~ Donald A. Schön
Schön, D. A. (1992), 'The theory of inquiry: Dewey's legacy to education', Curriculum inquiry 22 (2) , 119-139
Reflective conversation with the materials of a situation (Schön)
Mode of inquiry
Making sense of some puzzling phenomenon (but first, you must let the phenomena puzzle you)
Mode of design
make things out of the materials of a situation under conditions of complexity and uncertainty
(Dewey's, according to Schön)
Combines mental reasoning
and action in the world
Challenges dichotomies of
abstract reasoning
and practical skills
Transactional, open-ended, inherently social
(systematically, rigorously, citically)
proceed from doubt to its resolution.
Erik R. Bishoff, flickr.com/photos/bishoff/
Jon Reksten, flickr.com/photos/jonhefel/
Green, L. N. & Bonollo, E. (2003) Studio-based teaching: history and advantages in the teaching of design. World Transactions on Eng. and Tech. Edu, 2, 269-272
The Learning Design Studio
The Studio
The belief that all genuine education comes about through experience does not mean that all experiences are genuinely or equally educative. ~ John Dewey
Dewey, J. (2007), Experience and education , Simon and Schuster , New York, NY
Cox, C.; Harrison, S. & Hoadley, C. (2008), Applying the "studio model" to learning technology design, in Chris DiGiano; Shelley Goldman & Michael Chorost, ed., 'Educating learning technology designers: guiding and inspiring creators of innovative educational tools', Routledge, New York, NY, pp. 145-164
Dream bazaar
Tom Kelly, flickr.com/photos/tkellyphoto/
Jon Coyne, flickr.com/photos/joncoyne/
Team Up!
Force Maps
Shannan Muskopf, flickr.com/photos/40964293@N07/
Thank You
"The course and final project opened up new possibilities.
Now, two years after the end of the course I continue to apply what I learned in the course.
My pedagogical design took a turn.
Thanks and good luck "
Conceptualise (Soryboard)
(images mostly

I think there is a huge prize waiting to be claimed by teachers. By collecting better evidence about what works best, and establishing a culture where this evidence is used as a matter of routine, we can improve outcomes for children, and increase professional independence. ~ Goldacre, 2013
This is not an unusual idea. Medicine has leapt forward with evidence based practice, because it’s only by conducting “randomised trials” – fair tests, comparing one treatment against another – that we’ve been able to find out what works best. ~ Goldacre
teaching is not at present a research based profession. I have no doubt that if it were, teaching would be more effective and more satisfying. ~ Hargreaves, 2007
Hargreaves, D. (2007), Teaching as a research-based profession: Possibilities and prospects (The teacher training agency lecture 1996) 'Educational research and evidence-based practice' , pp. 3-17
TISL (Teacher Inquiry into Student Learning)
Hansen, C.; Emin, V.; Wasson, B.; Mor, Y.; Rodriguez-Triana, M. J.; Dascalu, M.; Ferguson, R. & Pernin, J.-P. (2013), Towards an Integrated Model of Teacher Inquiry into Student Learning, Learning Design and Learning Analytics 'Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact' , Springer Berlin Heidelberg, , pp. 605--606
Change of physical condition
Quantifiable effects
Change of mind, practice
Complex effects
Context dependent
Education is wicked...
Papert, S. & Harel, I. (1991), Situating Constructionism, in Seymour Papert & Idit Harel, ed., 'Constructionism' , Ablex Publishing Corporation, Norwood, NJ
Social Science
Design Science
What is?
How bad is it?
How do we make it better?
13 weeks
4-10 hours / week
Google sites

17 Students, ~1/2 teachers
6 Projects
9 weeks
2420 registered
3-10 hrs / w (design)
1-3 hrs / w (actual)
100-300 u. visits / day
Google groups + MOOC site + cloudworks + participant blogs
23 posting in last week
Cross, Simon (2013). Evaluation of the OLDS MOOC curriculum design course: participant perspectives, expectations and experiences. OLDS MOOC Project, Milton Keynes, http://oro.open.ac.uk/37836/
7 wk block / 30 wk module
70 students
14 hrs / week
Google apps
+ OpenDesignStudio + VLE
11 Projects

22 students - all teachers
9 projects
Evaluation in progress
Collaborative group working as implemented in this course design did not achieve the desired result. [...]
a good number of participants [...] formed, nascent course development or study support groups these in general did not last more than a few weeks.
Participants did however value the sharing, commenting and feedback that too place in broader course space and the sense of community this engendered”
Are we measuring what we teach,
or teaching what we can measure?

(HT Mike Sharples)
Learning to teach was seen as a process of providing the beginning teacher with knowledge about teaching [...] the university provides the theory, skills, and knowledge about teaching through coursework; the school provides the field setting where such knowledge is applied and practiced; and the beginning teacher provides the individual effort that integrates it all. This tradition assumes that learning is an additive process that largely bypasses person and setting.
Wideen, M.; Mayer-Smith, J. & Moon, B. (1998), 'A critical analysis of the research on learning to teach: Making the case for an ecological perspective on inquiry', Review of educational research 68 (2) , 130-178
This emphasis on expert-knowledge (Sprinthall, Reiman, &
Thies-Sprinthall, 1996), dominant for many decades, basically
has not changed, although many studies have shown
its failure to strongly influence the practices of graduates
of teacher education programs.
Korthagen, F. A. & Kessels, J. P. (1999), 'Linking theory and practice: Changing the pedagogy of teacher education', Educational researcher 28 (4) , 4-17
Prince Albert and the 'royal children' attend Michael Faraday’s 1855 Christmas Lecture, 'The Distinctive Properties of the Common Metals'. Illustrated London News archive
"the effect size of teacher education on subsequent student outcomes is negligible" (3 meta-analysis, 53 studies)
Hattie, J. (2009), Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement , Routledge, pp. 111
OpenScience Laboratory - nQuire
"Teaching is not rocket science, it's much harder. Rocket science is about moving atoms,
teaching is about moving minds"

What is bad?
Bannan-Ritland, B. (2008), 'Teacher Design Research: an Emerging Paradigm for Teacher’s Professional Development', Kelly, AE; Lesh, RA; Baek, JY Handbook of Design Research Methods in Education: Innovations in Science, Technology, Enginnering and Mathematics Learning and Teaching. New York: Routledge
Teacher Design Research
... exposed me to powerful and useful ways of thinking about my work
... enriched my professional practice
... enhanced my theoretical understanding of Learning Design
1 Year after. OLDS MOOC: (n=28 / 1880)
A vision for the future:
the classroom as a design laboratory of learning

2 years after (n = 16 / 22)
Full transcript