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India's Freedom Movement

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XswapX XswapX

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of India's Freedom Movement

British Raj and India's Freedom Movement
Company Raj
Refers to rule of the British East India Trading Company on the Indian subcontinent.
The East India Trading Company began to intervene in Indian politics in the beginning of the 18th

1757 marks the unofficial start of the Company Raj following the Battle of Plassey.

1765 – British influence quickly gave way to outright rule over Bengal, and British East India Trading Company was granted diwani, the right to administer and collect taxes in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

Governors of the Company’s commercial settlements became governors of provinces and administrators in the new British regimes.
English East India Company forms 1600

Mughal Empire dominant throughout region (and expanding)

Indian population estimated to be 100 million
1885 - The Indian National Congress was Founded
It functioned more as a debating society that met annually to express its loyalty to the British Raj, and passed numerous resolutions on less controversial issues such as civil rights or opportunities in government
Most Indians were unhappy with the rule of the British
English Education Act 1835
A legislative act that reallocated funds the East India Company was required by British Parliment to spend on education in India towards "English" education. Funds towards education and literature in India formerly supported traditional Muslim and Hindu education, but it changed to support a Western curriculum with English as the language of instruction.
Angered by social reform by the British. Outlawing child marriage and try to get rid of the caste system, it appeared that the British were imposing Christianity.

Doctrine of Lapse, 1848. This was an annexation policy that stated that any princely state or territory under the Company’s direct influence would be automatically annexed if the ruler was incompetent or died without heir. (this was widely regarded by Indians as illegitimate)

The Company initially exported finish goods out of India, but under Company Raj, it changed to raw goods. Import tariffs were kept low, so India's finished goods industries suffered.
In the Punjab the Sikhs who were divided by the line between the two new countries took up arms to defend their own community

Migration of 11 million people due to bloodshed between Hindu and Muslims and killing of hundreds of thousands

The Muslim League got their independent country, Pakistan which formally became an Islamic Republic in the constitution of 1956

Pakistan began as two parts, the eastern one, East Bengal, with nothing in common with the Western part except religion.

In 1974, the East part, supported by Indira Gandhi’s government, went its own way and become Bangladesh.

Irony of history, a large portion of the Muslim population of British India remained in independent India (though a disadvantaged part of the population).
In 1907, the Congress split into two halves, one moderate faction led by Gandhi’s mentor Gopal Krishna Gokhale and the hardline faction of Bal Gangadhar Tilak who supported direct action to overthrow the British and was imprisoned for that.
In 1906, some Muslim members split from the Congress to form the Muslim League
Partition: freedom but division
By the early 1930s it was obvious to most observers in Britain that India could not remain British.

Many Muslims saw their destinies as completely separate and thought that no fusion of the two communities (Muslim and Hindu) was possible.

Muslim separatism was pushed first of all as a bargaining counter for seats in parliament, then as a negotiation for autonomous Muslim states within a federation.

Later it became a serious demand for an independent country.

The fateful moment came in 1928, when Congress offered the League only a quarter of the seats

Partition was really the result of multiple failures: the failure of Congress and the Muslim League to make concessions; and the failure of the British to act up to their historic responsibilities

India Independence initially set for June 1948

Beset by the growing threat of disorder, the British rushed the date forward to 14 August 1947.
Post Partition violence and Birth of Bengladesh
British Raj - WWI through Independence
The Colonisation of India
The British East India Company starts to gain
1612 - First English trading outpost in India
After the decline of the Mughal Empire they
gain political power by defeating other Indian
1857 - Indian revolt against the East India
1876 - Queen Victoria is crowned
"Empress of India"
The British Raj
1858 - The British government takes over
Changes in the Rule: Secretary of State for
India and a council + a Govenor General
of India; to some extend more freedom
and equality in public service
The first non-violent struggles
1905 - Partition of Bengal arouses great protest
Indians boycott British products - Bengal is united again 1911
1919 - The Rowlatt Act: imprisonment without trial, less press freedom, convicts are forbidden to take part in cultural activities
Led by the Congress and Gandhi the Indians boycott all business in the non-coorperation movement
The Amritsar Massacre
April 13, 1919 - About 15 000 people gathered in Amritsar to protest peacefully
They were shot at for 10 minutes without warning
1000 were killed and several hundered
A significant turning point in the independence movement
The non-coorperation movement (Satyagraha)
1920 - Gandhi is dominating the political scene and the Congress is starting to get a role as active revolutionaries
February 1922 - outbreak of mob violence in Chauri Chaura, one police man is killed
Therefore the British Government arrests Gandhi,
sentencing him to six years imprisonment.
January 1924 - Gandhi is seriously ill with acute appendicitis has to undergo an operation and is released afterwards
Gandhi and the Congress start a large non-cooperation movement
The Indians stop following orders of the British government, boycott British products, for example cloths and start making their own
January 26, 1930 - Congress presents the Declaration of Independence that announces "Purna Swaraj" as the goal they want to achieve
The Purna Swaraj Declaration
For a long time the Indian were not seeking complete Independence but 'dominion status'
British government continue to enrage Indians by ignoring them and their political parties, restricting their political rights and denying reforms
Gandhi at a public rally during the Salt Satyagraha.
The Salt March
Britain had made it illegal to produce one's own salt
They charged a high tax on the British salt which many couldn't pay
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact
February 14, 1931 - the Gandhi-Irwin talks began
The Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin, releases Gandhi and other Congress members
March 5, 1931 - the Gandhi-Irwin-Pact is signed
The Congress agreed to stop the civil disobedience and take part in the Round Table Conference concerning India
The British Government agreed to stop persecuting satyagrahi activists , give them back their property and release those arrested and remove the Salt Tax
The Pact
The Round Table Conference
In January 1932 Gandhi returns to India and disappointed and continues his civil disobedience movement
The conference opened on September 7, 1931 in London and many different Indian groups were represented including the Congress
The conference fails to find a solution for the demands of the Indians
The "Quit India" campaign
World War II starts and Britain confirms India's involvement
India supports Britain with an army of 2 million soldiers
Gandhi asks the British to leave voluntary because otherwise there would be mass non-cooperation campaigns
August 8, 1942 - the "Quit India"-Resolution is signed by the Congress in Bombay
Immediately Gandhi and many other Congress members are arrested, followed by 100 000 arrested protesters - the campaign is crushed
Nevertheless Britain realizes that they have to leave India after World War II
The Cabinet Mission
The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and plan for the transfer of power from the British Government to Indian leadership, providing India with independence
The Great Killing of Calcutta
Direct Action Day, also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter in the city of Calcutta in the Bengal province of British India
The day also marked the start of what is known as "The Week of the Long Knives"
Indian Independence Act
The Indian Independence Act 1947 was as an Act of the British Parliament that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.
The Act received the royal assent on 18 July 1947, and Pakistan came into being on August 14, and India on August 15, as two new countries
British leave => immediate fighting between Muslims and Hindus
Jawaharlal Nehru => 1st Prime Minister - INC
Nehru Family will be key in early Indian development
Daughter Indira, Grandson Rajiv both become PM
Main goal - increase food production => "Green Revolution"
Revolution calls for heavy use of fertilizers and petro-chemicals
Revolution does increase food - neg. externality - pollution and run-off => pollutes water sources
Ultimately failed
"Positive Neutrality during Cold War - Non-Alignment
Fought Pakistan over Kashmir and China over borders
Died in 1964 => Indira Gandhi (no Relation to Mahatma) - 1966 became PM assassinated in 1984
Grandson Rajiv => PM - 1984 - 1989 - assassinated
Current PM - Manmohan Singh - 13th Indian PM - 1st Sikh to hold the office
Indian Independence
By Swapnil



Let's honor the patriotism of the people
Who lost their lives to free India
And deepen our love for here
Full transcript