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Secrets to Online Teaching: Beyond the Post

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Bj Kitchin

on 18 March 2015

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Transcript of Secrets to Online Teaching: Beyond the Post

Secrets to Online Teaching:
Design Beyond the Post

Define t
of online education
Learning Objectives
Define Types of
Online Education

Describe educational
that impact the urgency to develop online course design skills
Review selected instructional design theories and best practices related to online course site and content
Demonstrate how online learners, as web users, have
of course sites
Demonstrate how the concepts in the previous objectives can be used through Blackboard to
any course
Types of Online Education
So what?
How do you know?
How is F2F teaching different from online teaching?
Supporting Theories with Examples
Can education BLOOM online?
Can it be done online?
Students? Web Users? Both?
Web Users...
scan web pages (F-pattern)
don't read thoroughly (skim)

which means we need to...
use headers, bullets, graphics, and other attention-getters
put important stuff first
repeat, reinforce, reiterate
ACTIVATE the web-experience with sound design principles
5-minute (or less)
with activated components; no talking heads (this is not your beautiful lecture...)
with a transcript, downloadable
Gameify! 1.2 million students fail to graduate high school yearly; but 28 million people harvest their FarmVille crops every day...
You will receive a comprehensive
handout with all the resources we use and
more via a Google Doc link at the end.
1. "Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States." http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/changing_course_2012
2. "ECAR STUDY OF Approx. 80% of all US Students
say they learn most in blended/hybrid courses. 2, 2012." http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/ecar-study-undergraduate-students-and-information-technology-2012

Robert M Gagne, Leslie J Briggs, Walter W Wager. "Principles of Instructional Design 4th edition"
Teaching/Learning Online Whats the Big Deal?
The proportion of all students taking at least one online course is at an all time high of 32.0 percent.
Year after year the number of online
enrollments steadily increases its proportion of total enrollments starting at 11.7% in 2003 and increasing to 32% in 2011.
Approx. 80% of all US Students
say they learn most in blended/hybrid courses.
Hybrid courses provide more instructor presence and student-to-student interaction while still providing flexibility and convenience, as compared to fully online courses (80% + online).
Gunawardena, C.N. (1995). Social Presence Theory and Implications for Interaction and Collaborative Learning in Computer Conferences. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2), 147-166. Charlottesville, VA: AACE. Retrieved August 5, 2013 from http://www.editlib.org/p/15156.
Social Presence Theory:
The degree of social presence is equated to the degree of awareness of the other person in a communication interaction.

Students who are struggling academically or developmentally show the most benefit from hybrid courses.
The more fully online the course, the
the requirement to design in social presence strategies:
Interaction, collaboration, feedback.
Interactions that create the perception in a computer mediated environment of social interaction and collaboration are possible
be designed into the experience.
The responsibility falls upon the course
to create a sense of online community in order to promote interaction and collaborative learning.
3 Critical Design Goals
To design good quality online courses we have to rethink how we ask for interaction from learners and teachers online, with three important interaction design goals in mind:

Interaction between participants and the learning management software/website.
Each of these design goals is necessarily focused sharply on facilitating and achieving the unique learning objectives for any course.
Knowles’ 5 Assumptions Of Adult Learners
In 1980, Knowles made 4 assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners (andragogy) that are different from the assumptions about child learners (pedagogy). In 1984, Knowles added the 5th assumption.
As a person matures his/her self concept moves from "dependent personality" toward "self-directed human being."
As a person matures he/she accumulates experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning.
Adult Learner Experience
As a person matures his/her readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his/her social roles.
Readiness to Learn
As a person matures his/her time perspective changes from postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and learning orientation shifts from subject- centeredness to problem centeredness.
Orientation to Learning
As a person matures the motivation to learn is internal (Knowles 1984:12).
Motivation to Learn
Knowles, M. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd Ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.
Text only course:
For instance, work this problem in your head:


Now, try this one in your head:


Everything Should Be Made as Simple as Possible, But Not Simpler.
Reasons for Satisfaction with Hybrid/Blended Courses?
Hybrid courses make use of both synchronous and asynchronous strategies by virtue of including face-to-face time in physical classrooms along side instructional content delivered online.
Hybrid courses, by their nature, make use of both synchronous and asynchronous teaching and learning strategies?
True or False?
In terms of total course enrollments, the percentage of online learning enrollments continues to fall whereas the percentage of traditional course enrollment grows?
True or False?
Designing online courses that achieve social presence includes:
A. Design strategies that achieve
student - learning system
interaction goals?
B. Design strategies that achieve
student - content
interaction goals?
C. Design strategies that achieve
student - student/instructor
interaction goals?
D. Course designers who diligently design interaction goals for their course?
E. A bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza!
F. A through D.
Its a fact! If I can't find my way around your website easily, I'm going to feel negative about it.
Clear, Relevant & Simple
Knowledge Check
As adult learners we tend to value knowledge that relates to the context of our relevant and immediate personal goals?
True or False?
Instructional content (exercises, deliverables & assessments) that engages multiple senses and enables choice is more likely to motivate rigorous engagement by the learner with the material?
True or False?
Briefly describe a strategy you might use to reduce cognitive load on an online learner, enabling them to more successfully engage with the course content.

As the amount of instructional content delivered through text and asynchronous means goes up - the course design skills to create social presence also goes up.
Interaction between participants and the course content.
Interaction between participants and other people in the course.
You got your chocolate in my peanut butter!
You got your peanut butter in my chocolate!
Provides a very easy DIY captioning option
Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance
Transactional Distance is "'the psychological and communicative space' between the teacher and the learner" (Moore, 1997, Theory of Transactional Distance)
In this "space," technology can be a bridge or a barrier to understanding.
Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction
Rule of "7"
Social Presence Strategies
To minimize transactional distance, Moore would have us focus on:
(content interaction) and
(participant interaction)
BJ Kitchin, e-Learning Specialist
Mina Matthews, Instructional Designer
Capacity is limited use wisely.
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
Request/Review retrieval of existing knowledge of topics relevant to the lesson.
Text, graphics and video to solicit recall of prior topics.
(Generally speaking - Specify)
Instructional Event
Cognitive Process
Media and Strategy Used
4. Presenting stimulus material
Selective perception
Introduce learning content
(You try - Be specific to your goals)
Online Learners are Empowered by Having the World at their Fingertips:
Online Learning Was Made for Andragogy
Ask yourself: What can we do better online than what we do face-to-face?
Design into your courses:
discovery assignments
differentiated assessment
topic exploration
social interaction
Example Design for Overcoming Transactional Distance with Discussion Boards and Navigation
Did you design for the web?
Did you design for social interaction?
Any Questions?
Dig Deeper:
Craft Assignments for the Web:
Can students tell what to do with your content?
Obvious navigation "start"
Resources clearly labeled
"Modules" less obscure than "content"
Dividers separate chunks of menu
Date for prompt and expectations clearly revealed
Iconography & larger text signal task
Date and expectations around how students should interact also clarified
White space draws attention
Student Example:
Gagne's First Event: Gain Attention with Good Design:
Limit Cognitive OVERLoad
Reduce number of technologies
Use only technology that matches learning goals
Use good web design so your students know what to do
Chunk information
Use learning modules, topics, or categories
No long video lectures
Though many people assume the opposite, new online faculty actually tend to put TOO MUCH material into an online class
Handout: http://goo.gl/LWXLdg
Full transcript