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bee hah

on 28 April 2014

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Twilight in Delhi is about the destruction of cultural and moral values by the new foreign culture and force.
It is about love between Asghar, who is from an upper class family and Bilqees, who comes from a lower class family.
Mir Nihal struggles to protect the new generation from the disastrous effects of colonialism on their culture.
On the other hand, he himself is involved with foolish activities.
Mir Nihal does not approve the relationship between Asghar and Bilqees because of the class difference.

In Islam, men and women have equal rights and obligations and are equally rewarded by Allah.

“The believers, men and women, are protectors of one another. They enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil, and observe regular prayers, pay alms, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy, for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise. Allah has promised to the believers, men and women, gardens under which rivers flow [in Paradise]”
(At-Tawbah: 71–72)

Mir Nihal
Begam Mir Nihal
Begam Waheed
Mushtari Bai
Babban Jan
The arrival of the British colonial had changed people who were habitual living under the kings.
Mir Nihal is displaying India as a whole. He is never able to compensate with the new traditions, he wants to live according to the past.
However, the younger generation accepted the changes brought by the colonial.
E.g. Asghar, Mir Nihal’s son

Yusraa Azman 1027066
Rabihah Othman 1026962
Nur Syahira Mat Nasir 1022850
Noor Afirah Abdullah 1022724

Twilight in Delhi basically showed the decay of Mughal Kingship or the Muslim civilization.
The arrival of British has made the Muslim rulers and community faced a huge set back.
e.g: Mir Nihal, is one of the person who not able to accommodate with the changes because he felt that it is the most humiliating condition for the Muslim
Subordinated women’s life
Patriarchy - women are irrational, emotional, not allowed to take any important decision
There is no doubt that females hold a subordinate place in Asian homes but they are nevertheless the backbones of Asian families.
Men are emotionally, physically and morally dependent to the women.
Representation of women characters
Courtesan – part of Indian culture. Having secret affair with men. They fulfill the emotional and physical needs of men.
E.g. Babban Jan & Mushtari Bai
Housewives – almost blind to the needs of their husbands.
E.g. Begam Nihal & Bilqeece
Ahmed Ali was an Indian poet, novelist, critic, translator, diplomat and scholar.
Born in Delhi, India, Ahmed Ali was educated at Aligarh and Lucknow universities.
He taught at leading Indian universities including Lucknow and Allahabad from 1932 t0 1946
BBC's Representative and Director in India during 1942–1945

Whoever commits Zina should repent and turn to Allah and ask His Forgiveness, and resolve firmly never to commit such sin again.
Allah says in the Qur'an: "Say: 'O my Servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'" (Az-Zumar 39: 53)

He also says, "Allah accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and repent soon afterwards; to them will Allah turn in mercy: For Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom." (An-Nisa' 4: 17)


“Twilight” refers to the time of day just after the sunset when the sun is below the horizon.

The novel is aimed at writing about the downfall of culture and civilization of Muslim India due to the arrival of British during the early 20th century.

This twilight was experienced by every individual who went through this disastrous phase of history.

Asghar seeks help from his mother, Begum Nihal. Mir Nihal becomes extremely angry and threatens to disown Asghar if he marries Bilqees.
Asghar tries to go against the norms of his family, he gets married with his beloved and starts living in a foreign life style.
Marriage problem between Asghar and Bilqees led Bilqees suffer in her heart and ultimately forced her to die.

Asghar started planning for his second marriage with no one else but his dead wife’s younger sister Zohra. He gave an excuse that he was only getting married for the sake of his daughter.
His rebellious nature and morally bad behavior breaks Mir Nihal’s courage making him fall ill.
With the death of his elder son, all these incidents paralyze Mir Nihal and at the end he seems helplessly mopping like an owl.

I” m the light of no man’s eye,
The rest of no one’s heart am I.
That which can be of use to none
—Just a handful of dust am I.

Most of the couplets used by narrator express the ethos of the Urdu-speaking middle class.
to make a point in conversation, or to add elegance to speech and writing.
Asghar - representative of the youth
Mir. Nihal’s Family - Muslim community in India
Pigeons - culture
Cat Episode - Intruder (British)
Mir Nihal’s paralysis - The end of old orthodox beliefs.
Begum Nihal’s Blindness - blindness of women of that age

nothing is described by Ali randomly or haphazardly.
he exposes some of the hidden facts of his characters’ personal life, which were considered taboos of that time.
His protagonist Mir Nihal is habitual of going to prostitute, his son Asghar also has a keep with whom he develops intimacy.

clear and lucid.
Often translates Urdu proverbs and sentences directly into English language.
Uses some Urdu words to give an Asian effect to his novel.
AHMED ALI (1908-1994)
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