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SM I Chapter 1-Introduction to Sports Medicine

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Kembra Mathis

on 24 August 2016

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Transcript of SM I Chapter 1-Introduction to Sports Medicine

Figure 1-3
Practice of Medicine
Exercise Physiology
Sport Psychology
Strength Conditioning
Sports Physical Therapy
Athletic Training
Personal Fitness Trainers
Sports Massage
Sports Podiatry/ Orthotists
Sports Dentistry
Evolution of Contemporary Athletic Trainer
Traditional setting of practice included colleges and secondary schools
Dealing exclusively with an athletic population
Today certified athletic trainers (ATC) work in a variety of settings and with a variety of patient populations
Professional sports, hospitals, clinics, industrial settings, the military, equipment sales, physician extenders
With the evolution of the profession a number of milestones have been achieved
Recognition of Acts as healthcare providers
Increased diversity of practice settings
Passage of practice acts
Third party reimbursement for athletic trainers
Constant revision and reform of athletic training education
Growth of Professional Sports Medicine Organizations
International Federation of Sports Medicine (1928)
American Academy of Family Physicians (1947)
National Athletic Trainers Association (1950)
American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (1972)
National Strength and Conditioning Association (1978)
American Academy of Pediatrics, Sports Committee (1979)
Sports Physical Therapy Section of APTA (1981)
NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguards and Medical Aspects of Sports (1985)
National Academy of Sports Medicine (1987)
Figure 1-1
Roles & Responsibilities of the Athletic Trainer
Charged with injury prevention and health care provision for an injured patient

Athletic trainer deals with the patient and injury from its inception until the athlete returns to full competition
The physician is responsible for compiling medical histories and conducting physical exams
Pre-participation screening
Diagnosing injury
Deciding on disqualifications
Decisions regarding athlete’s ability to participate based on medical knowledge and psychophysiological demands of sport
Attending practice and games
Commitment to sports and athlete
Exercise Physiologist
Sport Psychologist
Strength & Conditioning Specialist
Social Worker
Emergency Medical Technician
Physicians Assistant
Physical Therapist
Occupational Therapist
Massage Therapist
Support Health Services & Personnel
Recognition and Accreditation of the Athletic Trainer as an Allied Health Professional
June 1990- AMA officially recognized athletic training as an allied health profession
Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA)
Joint Review Committee on Athletic Training (JRC-AT)
1994-CAHEA replaced by Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) (recognized by the department of Ed.)
Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs
Entry-level athletic training education programs
In 2009, 357 undergraduate programs, 19 entry-level master’s programs

Advanced graduate athletic training education programs
Designed for individuals that are already certified ATs
CEUs are awarded for:
Attending symposiums, workshops, seminars
Serving as a speaker or panelist
Certification exam model
Participating in the USOC program
Authoring a research article; authoring/editing a textbook
Completing post-graduate work
All certified athletic trainers must demonstrate proof of current CPR/AED certification
Athletic trainers will seek specialty certifications
Expanding breadth and scope of practice
Increase in secondary school employment of athletic trainers
Increase in recognition of athletic trainers as physician extender
Potential for expansion in the military, industry, and fitness/wellness settings
With general population aging = increased opportunity to work with aging physically active individuals
Continue to enhance visibility through research and scholarly publication
Historical Perspective
Early History
Evidence suggests that coaches, physicians & therapists existed in Greek and Roman civilizations
Assisted athletes in reaching top performance
Athletic trainers came into existence in the late 19th century in intercollegiate & interscholastic sports
Early treatments involved rubs, counter-irritants, home remedies and poultices
Rapid evolution of the profession following WW I
Athletic trainers became specialists in preventing and managing injuries
Dr. S.E. Bilik wrote, The Trainer’s Bible (1917)
The Cramer brothers developed a line of liniments to treat ankle sprains (1920’s) and followed the publication The First Aider (1932)
In the 1930’s the NATA started to come into existence but then disappeared during WW II
In 1950 the NATA was reorganized and it has continued to flourish and expand
Changing Face of Athletic Training Profession
Role of the athletic trainer is more in line, today, as a health care provider
40% of athletic trainers are employed in clinics, hospitals, industrial and occupational settings
Also involved in NASCAR, performing arts, military, NASA, medical equipment & sales, law enforcement, and the US government
Has resulted in changes in athletic training education
Now Athletic trainers do not just provide medical care to athletes or those just injured during physical activity
We are Becoming more aligned as a clinical health care profession which requires terminology changes
Patients and clients vs. athletes
Athletic clinic or facility vs. athletic training room
Sports Medicine
International Federation of Sports Medicine
Federation Internationale de Medecine Sportive (FIMS)
Principal purpose to promote the study and development of sports medicine throughout the world
Made up of national sports medicine associations of over 100 countries
Organization includes many disciplines that are concerned with physically active individuals
American Academy of Family Physicians
To promote and maintain high quality standards for family doctors who are providing continuing comprehensive health care to the public
It is a medical association of more than 93,000 members
Many team physicians are members of this organization
National Athletic Trainers’ Association
To enhance the quality of health care for athletes and those engaged in physical activity, and to advance the profession of athletic training through education and research in the prevention, evaluation, management and rehabilitation of injuries
The NATA now has 32,000 members
American College of Sports Medicine
Patterned after FIMS (Umbrella Organization)
Interested in the study of all aspects of sports
Membership composed of medical doctors, doctors of philosophy, physical educators, athletic trainers, coaches, exercise physiologists, biomechanists, and others interested in sports
>20,000 members
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
To encourage and support scientific research in orthopaedic sports medicine and to develop methods for safer, more productive and enjoyable fitness programs and sports participation
Members receive specialized training in sports medicine, surgical procedures, injury prevention and rehabilitation
1,200 members are orthopaedic surgeons and allied health professionals
National Strength and Conditioning Association
To facilitate a professional exchange of ideas in strength development as it relates to the improvement of athletic performance and fitness and to enhance, enlighten, and advance the field of strength and conditioning
30,000 strength and conditioning coaches, personal trainers, exercise physiologists, athletic trainers, researchers, educators, sport coaches, physical therapists, business owners, exercise instructors and fitness directors
Accredited certification programs
Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist, (CSCS)
NSCA Certified Personal Trainer (NSCA-CPT)
American Academy of Pediatrics, Sports Committee
Dedicated to providing the general pediatrician and pediatric sub-specialist with an understanding of the basic principles of sports medicine and fitness and providing a forum for the discussion of related issues

To educate all physicians, especially pediatricians, about the special needs of children who participate in sports
American Physical Therapy Association, Sports Physical Therapy Section
To provide a forum to establish collegial relations between physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and physical therapy students interested in sports physical therapy

Promotes prevention, recognition, treatment and rehabilitation of injuries in an athletic and physically active population

Provides educational opportunities through sponsorship of continuing education programs and publications
NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguards and Medical Aspects of Sports
Collects and develops pertinent information regarding desirable training methods, prevention and treatment of sports injuries, and utilization of sound safety measures
Disseminates information and adopts recommended policies and guidelines designed to further the above objectives
Supervises drug-education and drug-testing programs
National Academy of Sports Medicine
Founded by physicians, physical therapists and fitness professionals

Focuses on the development, refinement and implementation of educational programs for fitness, performance and sports medicine professionals

Offer a variety of certifications (fitness and performance)
Other Health Related Organizations
Various aspects of health related professions have also become involved
Dentistry, podiatry, chiropractic medicine
National, state and local organizations have also emerged
Focus on athletic health and safety
All bodies have worked towards the reduction of injury and illness in sport
Sports Medicine Journals
A variety of publications exist, providing excellent resources to the sports medicine community
Journal of Athletic Training
Journal of Sports Rehabilitation
International Journal of Sports Medicine
Physician and Sports Medicine
Clinics in Sports Medicine
American Journal of Sports Medicine
Sports Health
Athletic Therapy Today
Training & Conditioning
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care
Treating Physically Active Populations
Consists of athletic, recreational or competitive activities

Requires physical skills and utilizes strength, power, endurance, speed, flexibility, range of motion and agility
The Adolescent Athlete
Focuses on organized competition
A number of sociological issues are involved
How old or when should a child begin training?
Skeletal maturity presents some challenges with respect to healthcare
Physically and emotional adolescents can not be managed the same way as adults
The Aging Athlete
Physiological and performance capability changes overtime
Function will increase and decrease depending on point in lifecycle
May be the result of both biological and sociological effects
High levels of physiological function can be maintained through an active lifestyle
The impact on long-term health benefits have been documented
Beginning an exercise program
Exercise program should be gradual and progressive as long as no unusual signs or symptoms develop

Individuals over age 40 should have a physical and exercise testing before engaging in an exercise program
Occupational Athlete
Occupational, industrial or worker “athlete” are involved in strenuous, demanding or repetitive physical activity
May result in accidents and injury
Instruction on ergonomic techniques to avoid injury associated with physical demand of job responsibilities
Intervention when injuries arise
Correcting mechanics, faulty postures, strength deficits, lack of flexibility
Injury prevention is still critical
Roles and Responsibilities: Board of Certification Domains

Injury/Illness Prevention and Wellness Protection
Clinical Evaluation and Diagnosis
Immediate and Emergency Care
Treatment and Rehabilitation
Organizational and Professional Health and Well-being
Ensure safe environment
Conduct pre-participation physicals
Develop training and conditioning programs
Select and fit protective equipment properly
Explaining important diet and lifestyle choices
Ensure appropriate medication use while discouraging substance abuse
Clinical Evaluation & Diagnosis
Recognize nature and extent of injury
Involves both on and off-field evaluation skills and techniques
Understand pathology of injuries and illnesses
Referring to medical care
Referring to supportive services
Immediate Care
Administration of appropriate first aid and emergency medical care (CPR, AED)
Activation of emergency action plans (EAP)
Treatment, Rehabilitation Reconditioning
Design preventative training systems
Rehabilitation program design
Supervising rehabilitation programs
Incorporation of therapeutic modalities and exercise
Offering psychosocial intervention
Organization & Administration
Record keeping
Ordering supplies and equipment
Establishing policies and procedures
Supervising personnel
Professional Responsibilities
Athletic trainer as educator
Athletic trainer and continuing education
Athletic trainers as counselor
Athletic trainers as researcher
Incorporation of evidence medicine and participating and acquisition of evidence for efficacy of patient care
Personal Qualities of the Athletic Trainer
Stamina and the ability to adapt
Sense of humor
Intellectual curiosity
Ethical practice
Professional memberships
Athletic Trainer and
the Athlete
Major concern on the part of the ATC should be the injured patient
All decisions impact the patient
The injured patient must always be informed
Be made aware of the how, when and why that dictates the course of injury rehabilitation
The patient must be educated about injury prevention and management

Instructions should be provided regarding training and conditioning

Inform the patient to listen to his/her body in order to prevent injuries
Athletic Trainer and Parents
Athletic trainers must keep parents informed, particularly in the secondary school setting
Injury management and prevention
The parents decision regarding healthcare must be a primary consideration
Insurance plans may dictate care
Selection of physician
The athletic trainer, physician and coaches must be aware and inform parents of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Regulates dissemination of health information
Protects patient’s privacy and limits the people who could gain access to medical records
The Athletic Trainer and the Team Physician
Athletic trainer works under direct supervision of physician
Physician assumes a number of roles
Serves to advise and supervise ATC
Physician and the athletic trainer must be able to work together
Have similar philosophical opinions regarding injury management
Helps to minimize discrepancies and inconsistencies
Potentially serve as the academic program medical director
Coordinates and guides medical aspects of program
Provides input into educational content and provides programmatic instruction
The Athletic Trainer and
the Coach
Must understand specific role of all individuals involved with the team
Coach must clearly understand the limits of their ability to function as a health care provider in their respective state
Directly responsible for injury prevention
Athlete must go through appropriate conditioning program
Coach must be aware of risks associated with sport
Provide appropriate training and equipment
Should be certified in CPR and first aid
Must have thorough knowledge of skills, techniques and environmental factors associated with sport
Develop good working relationships with staff, including athletic trainers
Must be a cooperative relationship
Referring the Patient to
Other Personnel
The athletic trainer must be aware of available medical and non-medical personnel
Patient may require special treatment outside of the “traditional” sports medicine team
Must be aware of community based services and various insurance plans
Typically the athletic trainer and team physician will consult on the particular matter and refer accordingly
CAAHEP accredited AT ed programs until 2005 with approval from the JRC-AT
JRC-AT officially became the Committee for Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) in 2006
CAATE was officially recognized by CHEA in 2007
CHEA is a private nonprofit national organization that coordinates accreditation activity in the United States
This puts CAATE on the same level as other national accreditors, such as CAAHEP

In the future, this recognition may potentially affect regulatory legislation, the practice of athletic training in nontraditional settings, and insurance considerations

Recognition will continue to be a positive step in the development of the athletic training profession
Athletic Training Education Competencies
Twelve Content Areas
Risk management
Pathology of injuries and illnesses
Orthopedic clinical examination & diagnosis
Acute care
Pharmacological aspects of injury and illness
Therapeutic modalities
Athletic Training Education Competencies
Conditioning & rehabilitative exercise
General medical conditions and disabilities
Nutritional aspects of injury and illnesses
Psychosocial intervention and referral
Health care administration
Professional development & responsibilities
Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice
“People” components of the profession
Recognizing the primary focus of practice should be the patient
Understanding that competent health care requires a team approach
Being aware of legal elements of practice
Practicing ethically
Advancing the knowledge base in athletic training
Appreciate cultural diversity
Being an advocate and model for the AT profession
Specialty Certifications
NATA is in the process of developing specialty certifications
Further enhance professional development
Aid in expanding scope of practice

Specialty certifications build on entry level knowledge
To provide the athletic trainer with advanced clinical practice credential that demonstrates attainment of knowledge and skills that will enhance patient care, enhance health-related patient quality of life, and optimize clinical outcomes in specialized areas of athletic training practice
Requirements for Certification as an Athletic Trainer
Must have extensive background in formal academic preparation and supervised practical experience

Guidelines are set by the Board of Certification (BOC)
Upon meeting the educational guidelines applicants are eligible to sit for the examination

Examination is computer based

Exam assesses the 5 domains
Evaluation and diagnosis
Immediate and Emergency care
Treatment, rehabilitation & reconditioning
Organization, administration, and professional responsibility
Upon passing the certification examination = BOC certified as an athletic trainer
Credential of ATC

BOC certification is a prerequisite for licensure in most states
Continuing Education Requirements
Ensure ongoing professional growth and involvement

Requirements that must be met to remain certified
75 CEUs over the course of three years
To encourage athletic trainers to obtain current professional development information
To explore new knowledge in specific areas
To master new athletic training related skills and techniques
To expand approaches to effective athletic training
To further develop professional judgment
To conduct professional practice in an ethical and appropriate manner
State Regulation of the Athletic Trainer
During the early-1970s NATA realized the necessity of obtaining some type of official recognition by other medical allied health organizations of the athletic trainer as a health care professional

Laws and statutes specifically governing the practice of athletic training were nonexistent in virtually every state
Athletic trainers in many individual states organized efforts to secure recognition by seeking some type of regulation of the athletic trainer by state licensing agencies

To date 49 of the 50 states have enacted some type of regulatory statute governing the practice of athletic training

Rules and regulations governing the practice of athletic training vary tremendously from state to state
Regulation may be in the form of:
Limits practice of athletic training to those who have met minimal requirements established by a state licensing board

Limits the number of individuals who can perform functions related to athletic training as dictated by the practice act

Most restrictive of all forms of regulation
Does not restrict using the title of athletic trainer to those certified by the state
Can restrict performance of athletic training functions to only those individuals who are certified

Before an individual can practice athletic training he or she must register in that state
Individual has paid a fee for being placed on an existing list of practitioners but says nothing about competency
State recognizes that an athletic trainer performs similar functions to other licensed professions (e.g. physical therapy), yet still allows them to practice athletic training despite the fact that they do not comply with the practice acts of other regulated professions

Legislation regulating the practice of athletic training has been positive and to some extent protects the athletic trainer from litigation
Future Directions for the Athletic Trainer
Will be determined by the efforts of the NATA and its membership
Ongoing re-evaluation, revision and reform of athletic training education
Further recognition of CAATE by CHEA will further enhance credibility
Athletic trainers must continue to actively seek third party reimbursement for athletic training services
Standardization of state practice acts
Continue to be available for local and community meetings to discuss health care of the athlete
Increase recognition and presence internationally
Most importantly, continue to focus efforts on injury prevention and to provide high quality health care to physically active individuals regardless of the setting in which the injury occurs
Athletic trainers specialize in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries

Function as a member of a health care team which also incorporates and involves a number of medical specialties

Provide a critical link between the medical community and physically active individuals
Principles of Athletic Training 14th Edition
William E. Prentice
Chapter 1: The Athletic Trainer as a Health Care Provider
Athletic trainers – NOT TRAINERS!!
Sports Medicine
Sport Performance/Fitness
Injury Management
1. Sports medicine refers to a broad field of medical practice related to physical activity and sport.

2. Sports Medicine encompasses specialized areas under its umbrella concerned with performance enhancement
The Field of Sports Medicine
Performance Enhancement
The 20th century brought the development of professional organizations dedicated to athletic training and sports medicine.
Goals of professional organizations
1.Upgrade the field by devising and maintaining professional standards including a code of ethics

2.Bring professionals together to exchange ideas, stimulate research and promote critical thinking

3.To give individuals the opportunity to work as a group towards obtaining objectives

4.Disseminate information to general public about safe participation in sport activities in the form of guidelines and position statements
Growth of Professional Sports Medicine Organizations
Professional Organizations
All parties must work to develop solid working relationship
Each member will have to gain trust and confidence in the skills and abilities of each other
Imperative that the athlete is kept well-informed
Coach and athletic trainer must make a point of educating the student-athlete
Compiling medical histories and conducting physical exams
Pre-participation screening
Diagnosing injury
Deciding on disqualifications
Physician must have the final say on when the athlete should return to activity
Attending practice and games
It is imperative that the team physician promote and maintain consistently high quality care
Athletic trainer works under direct supervision of physician
Physician assumes a number of roles
Serves to advise and supervise athletic trainer
Physician and athletic trainer must be able to work together
Responsibilities of the Team Physician
Must have extensive background in formal academic preparation and supervised practical experience
Guidelines are set Board of Certification
Both in academic coursework and clinical experience
Upon meeting the educational guidelines applicants are eligible to sit for the examination
Upon passing the certification examination = BOC certification as an athletic trainer
Credential of ATC
Work with athletes from time of injury to resolution
Directly responsible for all phases of health care in an athletic environment
May be employed in a variety of settings
Colleges/Universities/Secondary schools
Sports medicine clinics / Corporate settings
Amateur/Professional athletics
Military/NASA/NASCAR/Performing arts
Equipments sales/marketing
Roles and Responsibilities of the Athletic Trainer
Must also oversee and develop policies & procedures, risk management plan, and emergency action plans
Responsible for the budget and for funding all aspects of an athletic healthcare program
Salaries, supplies, equipment, insurance
Commitment of the administrator can have a tremendous impact on the success of the athletic program
Activity specialist
Provide instruction and coach groups in specialties (i.e. swimming or tennis)

Camp counselor
Lead and instruct campers in outdoor-oriented forms of recreation

Recreational therapist
Work in acute healthcare settings; working to treat and rehabilitate individuals with specific health conditions
Utilize leisure activities to improve and maintain client’s general health and well-being
May also provide interventions that help to prevent further medical problems
Recreation and Parks Directors
Serve as an advisor to local and state recreation and park commissions to manage comprehensive recreation programs in a variety of setting
Develop budgets for recreation programs

Recreation supervisors
Serve as liaisons between parks director and recreation leaders
Plan, organize and manage various activities; may also direct special activities or events

Recreation leaders
Responsible for daily operations of the recreation program
Should an injury occur to a participant, they should be able to provide immediate and correct first aid and then refer for additional medical assistance
All recreation specialist should be certified in CPR/AED1,2,3 and in basic First Aid1,2 (Red Cross1, National Safety Council2 or American Heart Association3)
The athletic trainer should dictate what the athlete can and cannot do when engaging in a strength & conditioning program
Strength & conditioning coaches are typically not available at the high school level
The athletic trainer or team coach typically assume this roles in these situations
Will require both program development and overseeing the weight room
Strength & Conditioning Coaches
Oversee fitness of an athlete
Often employed at the collegiate level for both team and individual training sessions
Typically certified by the NSCA
All strength & conditioning coaches should be certified in CPR/AED1,2,3 and in basic First Aid1,2 (Red Cross1, National Safety Council2 or American Heart Association3)
Must work with the athletic trainer when it comes to modifying a strength training program relative to injury
Strongest growth segment of the fitness industry
Providing increasing services in post-rehabilitation training, sports conditioning, special medical needs, and weight management
Working with a variety of client populations
Four primary organizations
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM)
National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)
American Council on Exercise (ACE)
These organizations have specific requirements, mandatory testing/retesting, renewal periods, and continuing education
Some even require a formal educational degree in exercise science or another related field
All personal fitness trainers should be certified in CPR/AED1,2,3 and in basic First Aid1,2 (Red Cross1, National Safety Council2 or American Heart Association3)
Personal Fitness Trainer
Responsible for designing a comprehensive exercise program to meet an individual’s needs and goals while also considering a person’s health history
Field emerged in the 1970’s and expanded tremendously in the 1980’s
Becoming an incredibly fast growing and expansive field
Work with all types of individuals
No single standard qualification for a person to practice as a fitness trainer
Provision of healthcare requires a group effort to be most effective
Involves a number of individuals
Each member of the team must perform specific functions relative to caring for the injured athlete
Recreational activity
Can be competitive but often times is done more for leisure and is much less formal
City and community-based recreational leagues and teams
Often include fitness-oriented events
Sometimes recreational athlete will hire a personal fitness trainer
If injury occurs they are more likely to consult with a family physician, athletic trainer, sports chiropractor or a sports physical therapist
Typically, care provided on a fee for care basis
International Federation of Sports Medicine (1928)
American Academy of Family Physicians (1947)
National Athletic Trainers Association (1950)
American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (1972)
National Strength and Conditioning Association (1978)
American Academy of Pediatrics, Sports Committee (1979)
Sports Physical Therapy Section of APTA (1981)
NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguards and Medical Aspects of Sports (1985)
Historical Development of Sports Medicine Organizations
Specialists listed under performance enhancement could be concerned with both performance and injury care & management
(Example: sports nutrition)
Areas of specialization that focus on health care and injury/illness management specific to the athlete
Practice of medicine (physicians & physician assistants)
Athletic training
Sports physical therapy
Massage therapy
Osteopathic medicine
Sport podiatry
Sports chiropractic
Areas of specialization that focus primarily on performance enhancement
Exercise physiology
Sports psychology
Sports nutrition
Strength & conditioning
Personal fitness training
Physical education
Sports medicine refers to a broad field of medical practices related to physical activity and sport
Defined by American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) as multidisciplinary
Includes physiological, biomechanical, psychological and pathological phenomena associated with exercise and sport
Clinical application in these areas is aimed at improving and maintaining functional capacities for physical labor exercise and sports
Sports medicines generally focuses on areas of performance enhancement, injury care, prevention and management
Injury is a part of athletics
Athletes have a right to expect that those that are overseeing their particular view their health and safety as a priority
Critical to have individuals that are aware of both treatment and prevention
Should be able to recognize injury, provide basic medical assistance and refer injured individual to appropriate medical personnel
Well-trained professionals are not always healthcare professionals and may be in violation if they attempt to provide treatment and care
Growing demand for well-educated, professionally trained personnel to supervise and oversee recreational sport and physical activity
Fitness professionals
Recreation specialists
Athletic administrators
Others interested in various aspects of exercise and sports science
Parents will also be involved at the high school and middle school level
Parent’s decision must be of a primary consideration

Athletic trainer must be prepared to deal with multiple healthcare providers at parents request
May be dictated via parent’s insurance plan

Must also be sure that athlete and family are familiar with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Family and the Sports Medicine Team
Primary concern should be that of the athlete
All individuals must work cooperatively in the best interest of the athlete
Coach should differ to the medical staff and support decisions regarding athlete health care
Close communication between all parties involved is critical
Relationship Between the Sports Medicine Team and Athlete
Coach must be aware of the responsibilities of each individual associated with the team
If there is no athletic trainer, this becomes even more critical
Coach must understand limits of their ability to function as a health care provider in the state in which they are employed
All coaches should be certified in CPR/AED1,2,3 and in basic First Aid1,2 (Red Cross1, National Safety Council2 or American Heart Association3)
Role of the Coach in the Sports Medicine Team
A recreation specialist plans, organizes, and oversees leisure activities and athletic programs in local recreation camp and park areas; in playground; in health clubs and fitness centers; in the workplace; and in theme parks
Required to ensure that the environment is safe.
How does a Recreation Specialist Relate to the Sports Medicine Team?
Focus of the group is on improving performance
Argument can be made that by an athlete achieving a higher level of fitness, injuries are less likely to occur
The relationship between performance enhancement and injury prevention is critical
How does the Fitness Professional Relate to the Sports Medicine Team?
Delivery of healthcare is dependent on whether the event is organized or recreational

Organized activity
Generally competitive
Involves teams, leagues (secondary schools, collegiate and professional teams)
Players of the sports medicine team (coach, athletic trainer, physician) are employed on full- or part-time
College setting may also have nutritionist, sports psychologist, strength & conditioning coach, massage therapist
Athletic Healthcare in Organized vs. Recreational Sports Activities
Sports medicine organizations tend to have many goals
Upgrade field by devising and maintaining a set of professional standards (code of ethics)
Bring professionals together in collegial fashion for exchange of ideas, critical thinking and research for advancement of profession
Provide opportunities for individuals to work together toward singleness of purpose
Many national organizations have state and local associations, serving as extensions of the larger body
Sports Medicine Organizations
What Is Sports Medicine ?
Chapter 1: Fitness Professionals, Coaches, and the Sports Medicine Team: Defining Roles
Essentials of Athletic Injury Management 8th Edition
William E. Prentice, PhD, PT, ATC
Essentials of Athletic Injury Management 8th Edition
Possess appropriate coaching licenses and certifications
Have understanding of skill techniques and environmental factors associated with sport
Continuing education through ASEP or NCACE
Function as a coach
Construct injury prevention conditioning programs
Must provide high quality and properly fit protective equipment
Apply proper first aid if necessary
Be CPR/AED and First Aid certified
Has a significant impact on the sports medicine team
Responsible for hiring personnel (i.e. coaches, ATC’s, strength coaches, nutritionists, team physician)
Must be sure that all individuals have the necessary credentials and are willing to work as a team
The Role of the Athletic Administrator in the Sports Medicine Team
The Players on the Sports Medicine Team
Massage therapy
Fitness Training
Athletic Training
Sports Physical Therapy
Sports Nutrition
Sport Psychology
Exercise Physiology
Injury Care
& Management
Practice of Medicine
Exercise Physiologist
Sport Psychologist
Emergency Medical Specialists
Strength & Conditioning Coach
Physicians Assistant
Sports Chiropractors
Physical Therapist
Massage Therapist
Equipment Personnel
Other Members of the Sports Medicine Team
Treatment, rehabilitation and reconditioning
Knowledge of equipment, manual therapy, therapeutic modalities
Organization & administration
Budgeting, inventory, injury records, supervision of assistants, insurance, EAP development
Professional responsibility
Educating the public through seminars, research & providing good care
Injury prevention
Ensure appropriate training, monitor environment, nutrition, maintain & fitting equipment, appropriate use of medication
Clinical evaluation and diagnosis
Recognize nature and extent of injury
Immediate care
Provide first aid and management of acute injuries
Minimum of CPR/AED and First Aid
In fact...
Employment opportunities are becoming increasingly diverse
Dramatic transformation since 1950
Due largely to the efforts of the NATA
Started out primarily in the collegiate setting, progressed to high schools and are now 30% are found primarily in hospital and clinic settings
Clinics and hospitals
Physician extenders
Industrial/Occupational settings
Corporate settings
Colleges or Universities
Secondary schools
School districts
Professional sports
Amateur/Recreational/Youth sports
Performing arts
Military & Law enforcement
Health & fitness clubs
Settings Include:
So what is an Athletic Trainer??
Glad you asked!
A certified Athletic Trainer is a highly educated and skilled professional specializing in health care for the physically active. We specialize in the prevention, immediate care, and rehabilitation of injuries sustained during physical activity.
Now I ask...What can't we do??
Trainers train animals or people how to do something...not exactly a healthcare professional!
Knowledge Check
This may be your ticket out of here so make it count!
1. What is a certified Athletic Trainer?
2. What does "Sports Medicine" mean
3. Whats the difference between Fitness
professionals and Medical Professionals?
4. Who wrote the "First Aider"?
1. What is an Athletic Trainer?
2. Who is on the Sports
Medicine team?
3. When was NATA formed?
1. What organization was formed
specifically for the betterment of
Athletic Training? In what year?
2. Which organization is charged with
Drug testing and education of collegiate
3. What is the purpose of Professional organizations.

So Who's on the
Sports Medicine Team?

All of them!
Knowledge check/bell ringer
1. What are the objectives of Professional
2. Which organization offers certifications for Strength and conditioning as well as personal Trainer?
3. How does the Adolescent athlete differ from an older teen or an adult?
4. What is the occupational AT responsible for in an occupational setting?
5. What must a person over 40 have before starting an exercise program?
1. What is the Athletic Trainer's role
with an athlete?
2. What is their role with the Physician?
3. What are the BOC Domains? (there are 5)
4. What are the personal qualities an Athletic
trainer should possess?
5. Whats the difference between sympathy and empathy?
Full transcript