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Human Trafficking

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Melissa Quinn Teferra, LCSW

on 5 August 2015

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Transcript of Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking
is a form of modern-day slavery where people profit from the control and exploitation of others
Identify Victims
Needs/ Services
There are an estimated 27 Million slaves in the world today
More than any other time in history
More than over the course of the trans-Atlantic slave trade
Total market value of illicit human trafficking is estimated to be in excess of
$32 Billion
After drug dealing,
human trafficking
is tied with the illegal arms industry as the
second largest criminal industry
in the world today, and it is the
fastest growing
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)
Unlike drugs and arms traffickers, human traffickers can
continue to exploit
their victims after the initial point of sale
Slaves of the 21st century are dispensable commodities and are often seen by traffickers as readily replaceable.
Sexual Pleasure
Cheap goods/ services
has increased tremendously since 1989, leaving countless people around the world desperate to seek survival
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the subsequent end of the Cold War,
international borders have proven easier to cross
than in any other time in recent history. This has led to increased mobility for many of the world's poor.
The "Trafficking Protocol" was adopted by the United Nations in 2000.
To facilitate convergence in national cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking in persons, as well as protect and assist the victims of trafficking.
Sex Trafficking
Labor Trafficking
More U.S. citizens, both adult and children, are found in sex trafficking than labor trafficking. More foreign victims are found in labor trafficking than sex trafficking.
TIP Report 2010
As many as
2.8 Million children
run away each year in the U.S.
Within 48 hours
of hitting the streets,
of these children are lured or recruited into the
underground world of prostitution and pornography
All prostitutes are willing prostitutes
All Immigrants smuggled into the United States enter willingly
Four Part Training on DMST
How Trafficked
Rape, beatings, constraint, confinement
Includes false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, a better life
Threats of serious harm; scheme, plan or pattern to threaten; abuse or threatened abuse of legal system.
Average age of entry for children victimized in the sex trade is
13 years
At least
100,000 children
are used in prostitution every year
controlled by a pimp
who recruits them as a boyfriend, caretaker, or protector
Trafficking and Persons Act of 2000: TVPA
Campaign to promote public awareness and victim identification
Interdisciplinary and community coalitions to identify and serve victims
was enacted to
human trafficking overseas, to
protect victims
and help them
rebuild their lives
in the United States, and to
prosecute traffickers
in human beings and impose federal penalties.
National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC)
To report a tip;
To connect with anti-trafficking services in your area; or,
To request training and technical assistance, general information or specific anti-trafficking resources.
toll free, confidential, 24-7, non-governmental organization
Florida's Strategic Plan on Human Trafficking 2010
Underscores the need to coordinate an all levels among all disciplines involved with Human Trafficking cases and Victims.
1. Data collection and ongoing identification of trends
2. Creation of a statewide directory
3. Effective public awareness strategies
4. Enact effective laws to protect victims and punish traffickers
5. Strong and effective local and state programs to achieve these goals levels of law enforcement, prosecution, and victim services.
The Florida Safe Harbor Act addresses the following:

-Increases maximum fine for someone who solicits a prostitute from
$500 to
-Defines a dependent child to include children sexually exploited that have no parent or relative to provide care
-Sex abuse of a child includes prostitution and participating in sex trafficking
Rather than arresting children in child sex stings, it authorizes The Department of Children and Families (DCF) to place them into safe housing
HB 7049 covers the following:

jurisdiction of prosecutors
to include human trafficking cases
-Adds sex traffickers to a
list of sex offenders
and sexual predators
-Increases penalties for
first degree felonies
-Allows law enforcement officials to
seize property
used or intended to be used in trafficking of victims.
Often kept

and activities restricted to prevent them from seeking help
watched, escorted
or guarded by traffickers or associates of traffickers
Traffickers may

victims to answer questions with cover story about being wife, student or tourist
Victims comply and don’t seek help because of
Frequently victims:
Do not speak English and are unfamiliar with U.S. culture
to room or small space to work, eat, sleep
Fear, distrust
health providers, government, police
Fear of being deported
Unaware what is being done to them is a crime
Do not consider themselves victims
Blame themselves
for their situations
May develop
positive feelings toward trafficker as coping mechanism
May try to protect trafficker from authorities
Sometimes victims
do not know where they are
, because traffickers frequently move them to escape detection
Fear for safety of family in home country
First FL Laws Criminalizing trafficking was in 2004, with multiple revisions since.
If you think you have come in contact with victim of human trafficking, call National Human Trafficking Resource Center
This hotline will help you:
Determine if you have encountered victims of human trafficking
Identify local community resources to help victims
Coordinate with local social service organizations to help protect and serve victims so they begin process of restoring their lives
Call local police if victim is at risk of imminent harm
NHTRC- Hotline
FL Abuse Hotline
Investigator has 3 hours to respond to the report
All trafficking reports go to the Child Sexual Abuse Unit of DCF
Investigator will respond to the report with law enforcement
Investigator will take the child to the Child Protection Team, who will interview them
Will take the report for a minor even if the trafficker is not a caregiver

• Between
18,000 and 20,000
victims trafficked
into United States annually
• More than
of victims trafficked into United States are
thought to be children
; victims are probably about equally women and men.
• Victims can be trafficked into the U.S.
from anywhere in the world
. Victims have come from, among other places, Africa, Asia, India, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Russia, and Canada.
• Within the U.S.,
both citizens and non-citizens
fall prey to traffickers.
Approximately 800,000 to 900,000 victims annually trafficked across international borders worldwide
Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
MISSION STATEMENT: To identify, rescue, and restore victims of human trafficking in Northeast Florida through professional training, community awareness, coordinated services, and to support the investigation/prosecution of traffickers.
Northeast Florida Human Trafficking Coalition
While trafficking is largely a hidden social problem, victims are in plain sight if you know what to look for
Very few places where someone from outside has opportunity to interact with victim
Social service providers play important role identifying and helping trafficking victim
Understanding Mindset
• Is potential victim

by another person who seems controlling?
• Does person accompanying potential victim insist on giving information to you?
• Can you see or detect any
physical abuse
• Does potential victim seem
submissive or fearful
• Does potential victim have
difficulty communicating

because of language or cultural barriers?
• Does potential victim have any
Questions to Ask Yourself
• Can you leave your work or job situation if you want?
• When you are not working, can you come and go as you please?
• Have you been threatened with harm if you try to quit?
• Has anyone threatened your family?
• What are your working or living conditions like?
• Where do you sleep and eat?
• Do you have to ask permission to eat, sleep or go to the bathroom?
• Is there a lock on your door or windows so you cannot get out?
Questions to Ask a Potiential Victim
• Immediate assistance
– Housing, food, medical, safety
and security, language
interpretation and legal services
• Mental health assistance
– Counseling
• Income assistance
– Cash, living assistance
• Legal status
– T visa, immigration, certification
• Substance abuse problems or addictions
• Psychological trauma from daily mental abuse and torture, including depression, stress-related disorders, disorientation, confusion, phobias and panic attacks
• Feelings of helplessness, shame, humiliation, shock, denial or disbelief
• Cultural shock from finding themselves in strange country
Common Struggles
Physical and psychological problems stemming from:
– Inhumane living conditions
– Poor sanitation
– Inadequate nutrition
– Poor personal hygiene
– Brutal physical and emotional abuse
– Dangerous workplace conditions
– General lack of quality medical care
• Preventive health care virtually non-existent
• Health problems typically not treated in early stages
– Tend to fester until they become critical,
Life-endangering situations
Health care frequently administered at least initially by unqualified “doctor” hired by trafficker with little regard for well-being of “patients” – even less regard for disease, infection or contamination control
Common Health issues

Sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, pelvic pain, rectal trauma and urinary difficulties

Unwanted pregnancy,
resulting from rape or prostitution

from chronic untreated sexually transmitted infections or botched or unsafe abortions

Infections or mutilations
caused by unsanitary and dangerous medical procedures performed by unqualified individuals

Chronic back, hearing, cardiovascular or respiratory problems
from endless days toiling in dangerous agriculture, sweatshop or construction conditions
• Weak eyes and other
eye problems
from working in dimly lit sweatshops

Malnourishment and serious dental problems
• These are especially acute with child trafficking victims who often suffer from
retarded growth and poorly formed or rotted teeth
• Infectious diseases like
• Undetected or
untreated diseases
, such as diabetes or cancer
• Bruises, scars and other
signs of physical abuse and torture
• Sex-industry victims often
beaten in areas that will not damage their outward appearance
, like lower back
– Victims can be found working in massage parlors, brothels, strip clubs, escort services
• Prevention
– Public awareness and education
• Protection
– T visa, certification, benefits and services
to help victims rebuilt their lives
• Prosecution
– Created Federal crime of trafficking, new
law enforcement tools and efforts
How Law Protects Victims
• Enables trafficking victims to obtain medical care, witness protection, other types of social service assistance
• Enables victims to obtain legal immigration status
• Criminalizes trafficking
• Permits prosecution where victim's service compelled by confiscation of documents
Increases prison terms for all slavery violations from 10 years to 20 years; adds life imprisonment for death, kidnapping or sexual abuse of victim
Areas of Focus:

Commercial sex act induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which person performing the act is under age 18.
Using force, fraud or coercion to recruit, harbor, transport, obtain or employ a person for labor or services in involuntary servitude, debt bondage or slavery
– Victims can be found in domestic situations as nannies or maids, sweatshop factories, janitorial jobs, construction sites, farm work, restaurants, panhandling
1. Applicable Laws
2. How Vulnerability is Exploited
3. Role of Pimps
4. Effective responses
Latest revisions to legislation in 2012
§787.06, generally
criminalizes human trafficking
in the state. The Statute defines human trafficking as the “
transporting, soliciting, recruiting, harboring, providing, or obtaining another person for transport
Labor trafficking
is categorized as
second degree felony
Sex trafficking
of adults is categorized as a
second degree felony
prove force, fraud or coercion
Sex trafficking
of minors is categorized as a
first degree felony
§895.02 allows for the prosecution of all human trafficking offenses as
Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) offenses
. Prosecution under the RICO statute allows for
greater criminal penalties
Most cases still prosecuted federally.
HB 7049
The penalty for trafficking would increase from a maximum of
15 years in prison to

30 years
. The maximum for human smuggling would go from o
ne year in jail to
five years
in prison. And additional trafficking offenses would be created with some having maximums of
life in prison

The bill also
authorizes the statewide prosecutor
to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases. Another provision would allow wire taps in such cases.
Law enforcement task force

to investigate cases, defend victims, and prosecute traffickers
Professional service providers coalition
to connect survivors to needed services and build awareness so service providers can identify victims
Community Action Team
is grassroots and faith baised organizations building awareness of trafficking issues in the community
Bi-annual community awareness events
to educate the community to facilitate the identification of victims and a community response
Center for the Advancement of Human Rights - Florida State University
First victim based research assessment on Human Trafficking funded by the DCF
Designed human trafficking curricula for federal and state agencies
Assisted in drafting anti-trafficking laws
Conducts training
Pro bono legal representation for survivors of trafficking
Drafted Florida’s Strategic Plan on Human Trafficking commissioned by FL Legislature
The Trafficking in Persons Report -- the world's most comprehensive resource of governmental anti-human trafficking efforts -- published by the U.S. State Department.
It identifies countries that the U.S. says meet minimum standards of anti-trafficking efforts, countries working towards them, and countries that appear to be doing little to stop trafficking.
Florida is considered the third highest state in Human Trafficking
"Florida is ground zero. It's one of the points of entry."
Homeless populations
have also led to an increase in domestic child sex trafficking. In Florida, close to 50,000 children are homeless today, and
1,300 in Duval County
Since 2008 the JSO Integrity/ Special Investigations Unit (ISIU) has made
27 arrests
(working with the FBI and US attorney's office) related to Human Trafficking
-Popular number, difficult to identify a credible source to substantiate
In 2010,
foster care runaways were identified by DCF as being
potential victims of DMST
Trends in FL
1. Labor Trafficking is Most Prevalent
a. Agricultural Sector
b.Tourism and Hospitality Industries (seasonal workers)
2. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
3. Sex Trafficking
Under reported and under-prosecuted
Often dealt with as criminals
Between 30,000 and 40,000 pre-teen and teen runaways in FL at any given moment
Secure housing, and intensive recovery and supportive services are needed
Less stationary brothels and more “mobile brothels,” to avoid law enforcement
Florida has become part of a circuit that keeps victims moving frequently
refugee population
in the nation. Based on state data between 2008 and 2010,
eligible refugees, entrants, asylees, parolees, and certified victims of human trafficking arrived to Florida.
The physical movement of the victim is not a requisite.
The TVPA protects both U.S. citizens and non-citizens.
Transportation hub
, victims are easily moved through the city with the intersection of 95 and I-10 as well as the ports.
Professional sporting events that frequently create a demand
Call 911 for emergencies
Call 904-306-2100 during business hours for the Integrity Unit, who has received special training regarding Human Trafficking
Prime Destination States: Florida, Texas, New York, and California.
Florida also continues to see high profile child trafficking cases. One reason for this is that it is a
popular destination state
for U.S. teenage runaways and also for foreign national minors fleeing poverty, sexual abuse, or violence in their homelands.
Please note that smuggling may be part of a trafficking scheme and smuggling may turn into human trafficking.
strip clubs
food/ produce
landscaping/ construction
Planned to come to the U.S
Freedom of movement
No continued relationship with smuggler/”coyote” after arriving in the destination country
Smuggling is the unauthorized crossing of a border
Human Trafficking
May or may not have planned to come to the U.S.
Restricted movement
Unable to flee from the trafficker’s control
Labor or services obtained through force, fraud, or coercion (if a child is a victim of sex trafficking, force, fraud or coercion need not be proven)
Does not always involve physical movement
What to Look for
US Department of Health and Human Services
In 2012, the JSO SIU/ FBI Civil Rights Task Force interviewed
28 potiential victims
of Human Trafficking; of the 28 interviews,
12 cases were opened
Full transcript