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Transcript of Global Warming
Humanity How We Got Here Current Interventions EPA and other agencies are aiming to produce a new generation of clean vehicles along with renewable fuel standards.
- Proposed carbon pollution control for new power plants What Must Be Done? Questions? Limits, Climates, and Resources 2. There's no evidence of warming 3. Any warming is due to natural causes 4. The human impact is small and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions will be minor 5. Any changes from human effects will be good for us 6. Humans are adept at adapting, it's too late to do anything, and a technological fix is bound to come when we really need it MALARKEY What is Global Warming? Anthropogenic increase in global temperature 1. Levels of CO2 as of 2011 were 390 ppm and rising 2-3 ppm per year
3. Only when human factors are included can models reproduce observed warming
4. and 5. Coming soon
6. This is why we are here. Population Fossil Fuels Why Does This Problem Exist? Ease Lack of trust Lack of community Individualism and shortsighttedness are the greatest problems of the current social system and the deepest cause of unsustainability Selfishness and greed The Greenhouse Effect - Burning coal emits carbon dioxide, methane, and a variety of other GHGs
- Burning oil mainly releases CO2 and water vapor, along with other GHGs
- "Other GHGs" CO, SO2, SO3, NO2, NO3,
volatile organic matter, heavy metals etc. More CO2 = greater greenhouse effect Positive Feedback:
- Warming melts ice
- Less ice increases warming Deforestation Trees take up CO2 from the atmosphere, releasing O2. Transportation Sector Buildings Industry - Some sunlight is reflected off of the earth and goes back to space (depends on the albedo)
- Some is absorbed by the earth and held as thermal energy
- That heat is later released as infrared radiation and absorbed primarily by water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane Ice Sheets
and sea ice Overshooting Limits Melting Hidden Costs of Fossil Fuels Coal: Environmental concerns
- mining injuries
- acid rain, stream pollution To overshoot means to go too far,
to go beyond limits accidentally Oil: National Secutiry
- economic costs of oil dependence
- prices don't include mining and environmental costs 3 causes of overshooting: 1.) Growth, acceleration, rapid change
2.) Some form of limit or barrier, beyond which the moving system may not go
3.) A delay or mistake in the perceptions and the responses that strive to keep the system within its limits Melting The globe’s population and material economy have grown past the support capacities of this earth. Electricity Designing and building autos differently
Go electric with Renewables
Change how we use autos Mountain Glaciers
and Ice Caps Growth in population and capital generates growth in the human ecological footprint Empire State Building
Policy-led approaches Oceans Acceleration of the water cycle
a. Change in rainfall patterns
b. Change in ocean salinity
Elevated Acidity Improve sustainability - avoid overshoot and collapse! Growth in population and capital must be slowed and eventually stopped by human decisions Improve the signals "Overall what we've omitted in total so far, 45% remains in the atmosphere, 30% has been taken up by the ocean, and the remaining 25% has been taken up by the land biosphere (mostly by trees)" (Archer 100). Keeling Curve Social Necessities Visioning Re-establishing trust Learning Mass vs. EPA: regulate GHG! - Educating women in underdeveloped countries - Comparison to Holland Remake the way we make things Four Levers:
Reduce energy needed
Reduce energy losses
Improve efficiency of devices
Put energy that's now wasted into use Integrative design involving all 4 Physical necessities and social necessities Migration Patterns They're Changing! Expanding limits
Time Some don't migrate at all anymore Rate of Change Species and Ecosystems unable to adapt Human land use vs. land available for animal migration. Waters: Fresh and Oceanic Lakes + Rivers: Overabundance of Algae in historically cold lakes. Earlier bloom of Phytoplankton = the decline of Zooplankton. Warmer waters promote breeding which is troublesome for many species. Forests + Woodlands The cost of cutting trees As climate zones shift, trees shift "200 - 300 Meters per year, which is five times too slow for anticipated climate changes" Forest fires are predicted to increase What Are We In Danger of Overshooting? The Support Capacities of Our Earth: Sources and Sinks Sources:
Food, Land, Soil
Species and Ecosystem Services
Materials Sinks for Pollution and Waste:
Visible water and air pollutants
nuclear wastes, hazardous wastes, greenhouse gases
global pollutants (chlorofluorocarbons on ozone) What are the consequences? 1. A crash of some sort
2. A deliberate turnaround, a correction, a careful easing down Introduction and survival of foreign organisms stop everything NOW continue our current standards and emission rates The poorest pay
the highest price. Effects of Climate Change Evolutionary Perspective USA Industry Greed
Personal Autonomy Mutualism
Community Navigating the US economy through the end of the fossil-fuel era Four sectors
- Electricity - Water scarcity
- Electrification of cars
- Nuclear and "clean coal"
- Renewable sources What can you do? Reduce, reuse, recycle
Support energy efficiency and clean energy programs
Calculate your carbon footprint online and see where in your life you can cut back (powerpoint) 1.4°F increase over the past century
Projected: 2-11.5°F over the next 100 years - "A sustainable world can never be fully realized until it is widely envisioned. The vision must be built up by many people before it is complete and compelling." Our Solutions It starts with U.S.! (change in industry, change in values)
Mandatory Emission standards and compliance
Business Transparency with Public
Awards and incentives for environmentally cautious industries.