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Anatomy & Physiology: HPA Axis

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james donahue

on 28 January 2013

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: HPA Axis

XX fetuses can be markedly virilized with ambiguous genitalia
both genders may present precocious puberty
glycyrrhizinic acid (inhibits 11 - hydroxylase) CRH + The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-
Adrenal Axis (HPA) Goals:
Review the structure of the pituitary
Contrast the anterior and posterior lobes
Diagram the feedback control of hormone release
Describe the action of ACTH
Identify the functional zones of the adrenal gland
List the major actions of adrenal cortical hormones
Describe the actions of glucocorticoid hormones in stress
Explain the control of glucocorticoid secretion
Diagram the biosynthetic pathway of the adrenal cortical hormones
Predict the effects of interrupting the biosynthetic pathway on glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid production and activity Anterior
Pituitary Posterior
Pituitary Hypothalamus GHIH GHRH TRH PIH GnRH CRH OT ADH uterine contractions,
milk let-down vasoconstriction,
water conservation January 2013 Hypothalamic neurons
synthesize OT and ADH OT and ADH are transported down the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary OT and ADH are released from the axon terminals into the blood stream Posterior
Pituitary Hypothalamic neurons
synthesize and secrete releasing or inhibiting hormones into the capillaries of the hypophyseal portal system Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Hypothalamic
Hormones GHRH, GHIH, TRH, PIH, GnRH, CRH Hypothalamic hormones travel through portal vessels to stimulate or inhibit anterior pituitary hormones Anterior pituitary
secretes hormones
into circulation Anterior Pituitary
Hormones GH, TSH, FSH,
LH, PRL, ACTH Anterior
Pituitary Anterior
Pituitary Posterior
Pituitary AKA
Adenohypophysis AKA
Neurohypophysis Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Embryologic development
of the pituitary gland Nmemonic for the pituitary hormones TOGA FLAP Feedback Control of Hormone Release Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Adrenal Cortex ACTH Cortisol ACTH + - - GH TSH ACTH FSH LH PRL somatomedin release T3 and T4 release The Adrenal Cortex Glomerulosa Fasciculata Reticularis Medulla Capsule Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone Glucocorticoids Cortisol Gonadocorticoids Sex Hormones Catecholamines Epinephrine and
Norepinephrine stimulate milk production testosterone release estrogen and progesterone release follicular maturation spermatogenesis cortisol release The Biosynthetic Pathway of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones 11 -hydroxylase deficiency 17 -hydroxylase deficiency 21-hydroxylase deficiency Congenital Adrenal
Hyperplasia autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating steriodogenesis decreased cortisol
increased ACTH
increased androgens increased corticosterone
(weak corticosteroid)
increased ACTH
increased aldosterone
decreased androgens decreased aldosterone
increased androgens increased sodium retention
undervirilization in XY fetuses (hypogonadism)
appears equally in both genders, but if not checked by karyotype, most appear female most common CAH
"salt wasting"
XX fetuses may be mildly to severely virilized What if a pituitary tumor caused a hypersecretion of ACTH? Function of Cortisol? Stress hormone
Increase blood sugar
Increase sugar, fat, and protein metabolism
Suppress the immune system (anti-inflammatory) Cushing's Disease Purple/red striae due
to stretching skin Growth of fat pads
in the cervical area Hirsuitism Rapid weight gain What if there are limited
receptors for ACTH? Decerased cortisol - fatigue Decreased aldosterone - hypotension Increased MSH
- hyperpigmentation Addison's Disease http://lat.ms/L3wuhY http://bit.ly/10PQ21S Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are Axis - a linear controlled structure comprised by a series of cells secreting hormones to stimulate subsequent cells Great Attire And

Fast Cars Are

Really Sexy Attributes Granulosa - Aldosterone after Angiotensin II

Fasciculata - Cortisol after ACTH

Reticularis - Sex Hormones after ACTH Nmemonic for the Hormones
of the Adrenal Cortex Please download the free QR reader for your mobile device
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