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Transcript of Wetlands 4
The Beaver Defining Wetlands A wetland is any place that has mostly saturated soil, with water at or near the surface. A wetland also has aquatic plants that have adapted to wet conditions. Some wetlands can appear dry for most of the year, and others are always holding water. In Minnesota there are about 10.62 million acres remaining in Minnesota. Wetlands come in many shapes and sizes, and there are about 8 different kinds.(Wetlands) Habitat: beavers live in wetlands all over Minnesota. They often create their own wetlands by damming water sources.
Population Size: there are about .6 beaver colonies per river mile in Minnesota, each containing 8-10 beavers.(Beaver MN DNR)
Reproductive Behavior: beavers mate when they are two years old, mating seasons run from November to March, and young are born in May and June.(Beaver MN DNR)
Nutrition: Beavers eat leaves, buds, fruits, ferns, stems, and roots of water plants in the summer. In the winter, they feed on underwater cuttings from trees.(Beaver MN DNR)
Sensitivity to Environment: Beavers are mainly sensitive only to oil spills and other spills that affect water quality, because they spend most of their time in the water.(American Beaver)
Human Usefulness/Attractiveness: Humans in the 1800s used beaver pelts for hats, and warm coats. Today they are trapped for their furs, which are used in all kinds of clothing products.(Beavers)
Example of Symbiotic Relationship: An example of a symbiotic relationship would be between the beaver and the moose in northern Minnesota. The beaver dam streams, resulting in shallow ponds which grow aquatic plants, which are eaten by the moose. This is an example of mutualism.(Beaver MN DNR) Food web Types of Wetlands Bogs/peatlands: wetlands where soil is made up of peat, mostly in northern Minnesota.
Shallow/Deep Marshes: provide open water resting and food for migratory birds, found in southern and western Minnesota.
Prairie Potholes: shallow depressions created by receding glaciers. Provide breeding grounds for migratory birds.
Shrub/Wood swamps: shrubby/forested wetlands found along lakes, rivers, and streams. Mostly in northern Minnesota.
Seasonal Basins/flats: small wetlands that contain water only seasonally, then can be farmed or logged. Breeding grounds for most amphibians.
Wet Meadows: low grassy areas found along streams and marshes.(Wetlands) Producer:
Earthworm Environmental Impact Report (EIR) Energy Pyramid http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/american_toad.htm Habitat:
During spring season the American Toad is mostly found in or around wetlands all over Minnesota. Population size:
American toads are common throughout their range and often in very high amounts. After a warm spring season the numbers can even get above, as many toads will emerge to the wetlands. At this time the populations appear to be very healthy. http://www.razoo.com/story/Northwest-Minnesota-Area-Flood-Response http://sunnyside-gardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/grass-1.jpg Human usefullness / attractiveness - The American Toad is very helpful for us humans. Particularly in the gardens or other public parks, where it would benefit eating the many animals, which destroys the soil in the ground.
- Some sources also say that the Native Americans used their skin toxins to put on arrows for hunting. Nutrition:
- Hetrotroph, Carnivore.
- Feeds on insects, spiders, snails & worms. (Amirican) http://www.snail-world.com/ http://www.123rf.com/photo_10548332_red-worms-in-compost--bait-for-fishing.html Sensitivity to Environment Insults: Example of Symbiotic Relationship:
A tick digging into a toad’s skin. The tick benefits, while the toad is harmed by the loss of blood. This is called Parasitism http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/american_toad.htm http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/american_dog_tick.htm http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/wetlands/images/MinnesotaMarsh.JPG Producer Primary
Consumer Decomposer Cattails Duck Weed Beaver American Toad Earthworm Biotic and Abiotic Elements in Wetlands. http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/5297088.jpg http://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Earthworm1.jpg Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Sensitivity to Environmental Insults: Human Usefulness/Attractiveness: Example of Symbiotic Relationship: Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Example of Symbiotic Relationship: Sensitivity to Environmental Insults: Human Usefulness/Attractiveness: Wetlands are fluctuating ecosystems that are found in areas where both forest and aquatic habitats intersect. Every wetland is unique because of soil, climate, hydrology, and vegetation. Biotic factors in a wetland ecosystem include plant and animal types, diversity, and quantity of animals. Abiotic factors include water quality, soil texture and absorbtion, and geography of the surrounding land.(TPWD) Biotic Factor: Plants http://www.ehow.com/info_8506185_abiotic-factors-natural-wetlands.html Abiotic Factor: Drought http://www.sierraclub.ca/en/node/4247 Examples of Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism: In our ecosystem, an example of mutualism is between the beaver and the moose. The beaver builds an home, and the moose gets food. Reproduction Behavior:
The female toad lie up to 20.000 eggs, which hatch within one week. The maturity of the tadpoles takes within two to three years. (American) Parisitism: In our ecosystem, an example of parisitism is between the toad and the tick because the tick gets its food from the toad and the toad is harmed. Commensalism: In our ecosystem, an example of commensalism is between the worm and any of the other animals because the worm aerates the soil, and the other animals don't care either way Seed (an average of 220,000 seeds in a single brown, seedhead)
Vegetativily through clones emerging from a single rhizome. (Cattails) http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/WEEDS/ID/cattailchar.html Food Web Position: Cattails are common autotrophs in wetlands, and provide shelter, as well as food, for many wetland animanls.
Nutritional requirements: Since cattails are autotrophs they have the ability to manufacture its own food by photosynthesis so they don't necessarily. Alls they need is sunlight. (Fuller) Cattails can be found in marshes, ditches, shorelines; shallow areas of lakes, ponds, and slow streams and quiet water up to 4 feet deep. (Cattail) An environmental insult on the American Toad can for instance be changes in weather, where the toad suddenly faces drought or long-term freezing weather. This means for example that the toad is forced to adopt a new way of living such as changing diet.
Long term Freezing
Earthquake Natural disturbances: Waterfowls eat snails, but the faucet snail can kill the ducks through lesions and hemorrhage. This means once the waterfowl consumes the snail it gets infected, die and rot up in the ecosystem. This will later have an impact on the other consumers in the ecosystem. (Faucet) Impact on the producer Muskrats use rhizomes and basal partions as food and as building material for their huts. This type of symbiotic relationship is called commensalism. The muskrat benefits from the cattails while the cattails aren't being harmed. (Rook) Mitigation ideas: - Inspect for and remove aquatic plants, animals, and mud from boats and equipment before transporting from one waterbody to another.
- Spray with high-pressure hot (120 F) water for a couple minutes. (Faucet) The dead waterfowls will rot up in the ecosystem and cause a bad and unhealthy environment for the plants to survive. Impact on the Primary Consumer: Beavers need wood from trees, but with dead waterfowls causing a bad environment - leads to growth difficulties for the many trees. Impact on the
Secondary Consumer: The American Toad will end up dying of lesions and hemorrhage like the waterfowl as they feed on snails Thatch for roofing, or woven into mats, chairs, and hats.
A source of fiber for rayon and a crude, greenish brown paper.
torches and tinder; pollen used in making fireworks.
Stuffing pillows, insulation, crude flotation devices, wound dressing, and lining for diepers.
Has been proposed as a biomass crop for renewable energy.
In the spring, the emerging plant can be eaten. Slightly later in the season, in later April or early May, the tender developing spike is also edible. (Rook) Extensive colonies can form relatively quickly. A summer's growth may lead to a rhizome system 10 feet in diameter with 1000 shoots. (Boe) There is really only three things that can kill cattails darkness, no soil and drought. Cattails are very hardy plants. (Rook) Earthworms live in soil, through which they tunnel. Damp soil is a prime requirement for these worms, as is a mild climate and the availability of decaying organic material. (Needs) Food Web Position: Earthworms are heterotrophic because they feed on dead plants and animals. (Heterotroph)
Nutritional Requirements: The earthworm feeds on decomposing organic matter, which it finds underground, and plant litter above gorund. (Needs) There are about 25 earthworm per square foot of soil. That adds up to about 1 million earthworms per acre. (Earthworm) Neither male nor female
Can mate with any other adult worm in its own species that it meets.
Will mate anytime that the conditions are right.
Soil moisture content
Capsules will hatch in about 2 to 3 weeks after being laid. (About) Dry living conditions will dry their skin out and their breathing is negatively affected.
Unable to function correctly when conditions become too cold, too hot, too wet or too dry.
The ability to escape temperature extremes is important to earthworms, because they are unable to maintain a steady body temperature like people can.
Earthworms can't live in very low oxygen environments. (Needs) Aeration: helpful to humans cultivating plants.
Eats and digests leafs, excreting humus: clears the soil of leaves so that new sprouts can grow and enriches the soil.
Eat and digest small pebbles with trapped minerals inside: increase soil concentration of such valuable minerals as nitrogen, phosphorous and potash. These minerals act as a natural fertilizer for domestic crops grown by humans. (David) Earthworms have a symbiotic relationship with plants. The type of symbiotic relationship is mutualism because they are both benefitting. While earthworms eat and digest decompsed plants and animals, they are creating ideal soil conditions through their castings. (How Do) Ground Squirrel Dragonfly Plants (The Wetland) http://www.kdwpt.state.ks.us/news/Hunting/Furharvesting/Furbearer-Gallery/Beaver-Castor-canadensis http://www.pride2.org/NewPrideSite/MD/Lesson17/Lesson17_8.html