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TCP/IP and the OSI Model

This presentation gives the big picture of the TCP/IP suite of protocols and how it fits in with the OSI model.
by

Eugene Blanchard

on 15 November 2013

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Transcript of TCP/IP and the OSI Model

TCP/IP and the OSI Model
A little history lesson....
Once upon a time (1990s), there were a lot of different networks, standards, computers and operating systems.
There was even
4
different types of Ethernet!

Apple used a version called Ethernet_SNAP
The Problem was..
There was
no

standard way
to communicate
between
these networks, operating systems and computers.
Arcnet
Appletalk
Novell Networks
MS LAN Manager
IBM LAN Manager
IBM OS2
MS Windows
Localtalk
TOPS
Banyan Vines
Unix
Linux
Novell had a version called Ethernet 802.3
IEEE had their IEEE802.3 and 802.2 standards
Unix used a version called Ethernet_II
That's where the
OSI Model
came in....
People wanted to share data
ISO OSI Model
I
nternational
S
tandards
O
rganization
O
pen
S
ystems
I
nterconnect
Created to
solve
this interoperability problem
Psst.
It doesn't really exist
THe OSI model is just a model
used to describe how networks work
So what is real then?
Around the year 2000, the network wars ended
TCP/IP won!
TCP/IP is a suite of protocols used by Unix and the Internet
TCP/IP is real...
Summary
OSI model was developed to
figure out how to get all these computers, networks and operating
systems to
talk to each
!
The network protocol stack
Set of rules
How data is communicated
The network devices

OSI Model describes
OSI Model - 7 Layers
7 - Application (Away)
6 - Presentation (Pizza)
5 - Session (Salami)
4 - Transport (Take)
3 - Network (Not)
2 - Data Link (Do)
1 - Physical (Please)
Way to remember read from bottom up
Each layer has a
SPECIAL
function
Layer 7 - Application
This consists of
network aware

applications like
Email
Web Browsers
File sharing services
Print servers
Network drives
Twitter
Facebook
They need the network to work properly..
Layer 6 - Presentation
Job is to
configure
the data:
encryption
compression
translation

Layer 5 - Session
It's job is to control the communication
Login rights
Permissions
Rights
Layer 4 - Transport
It's job is to guarantee

end to end

delivery of data
Layer 3 - Network
It has the
duty
to find
the
shortest path
to the
destination
network
Layer 2 - Data Link
It decides whose turn it is to talk
And
finds the
physical
device on
the network
Layer 1 - Physical
It describes the
physical part
of the network
Cables
Voltages
Frequencies
Connectors
Bits
Transfer rates
and
MORE
....
Token Ring
Ethernet
TCP/IP
vs
OSI Model
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internet Layer
Network Access Layer
Application Layer
Presentation Layer
Session Layer
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Physical Layer
4 Layers
7 Layers
Protocols and the
TCP/IP
layers:
Application Layer:
HTTP
SMTP
HTTPS
FTP
SNMP
TFTP
(OSI -Application, Presentation and Session Layer)
POP3
Telnet
SSH
NTP
DNS
IRC
Transport Layer Protocols:
Transmission Control Protocol (
TCP
)
User Datagram Protocol (
UDP
)
Guarantees end to end delivery of data
Send n Pray - hope the data arrives
Internet Layer Protocols
(OSI Network Layer)
Internet Protocol (
IP
)
Internet Control Message Protocol (
ICMP
)
Address Resolution Protocol (
ARP
)
Network Access Layer Protocols
(OSI Data Link and Physical Layers)
Ethernet
Token Ring
T1
Frame Relay
ATM
WiFi
Fiber Optics
Copper Cables
X.25
Microwave
EIA 568A/B
RJ45
RJ48
BNC
CSMA/CD
ISDN
Protocol Data Units (
PDUs
)
Each TCP/IP layer has a
PDU

associated with it
Generic
term used to describe
a layer's
information
Layer 7 PDU
The PDU for the Application layer is
DATA
Data can be
clear text
encrypted

compressed
Transport Layer PDU
The PDU for the Transport layer
is called a
segment
for
TCP
BUT
for
UDP
it is called a
datagram
talk about the protocols using these
terms
Internet Layer PDU
The Internet layer PDU is called a
packet
You might of heard of an IP Packet?
Network Access Layer PDU
This layer is a
little
more complicated
Need the
OSI model
to explain
Network Access Layer
Data Link Layer -
Frames
Physical Layer -
Bits
You might of heard of
Ethernet frames?
And what goes out on the wire is
bits
.
PDU Summary:
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internet Layer
Network Access Layer
Data
Segments or Datagrams
Packets
Frames
and
Bits
Layer Addressing
Each layer has an addressing
scheme
to identify services
source address and
destination address
Application/Transport Layer Addressing
use
Ports
to identify services
http
https
telnet
ftp
DNS
80
443
23
20
and
21
53
Clients are
dynamically
assigned ports from 8000 to 65535
The
Data
is broken up into
Segments
which
Internet Layer Addressing
The IP Packets use this addressing scheme:
IP Addresses
Ex. 192
.
168
.
100
.
254
Dot decimal 32 bit address
Network Access Layer Address
Mostly uses
Ethernet

Frames
Physical Address ex.
00
.
12.F4
.
AB
.
0C
.
82
00
-
12
-
F4
-
AB
-
0C
-
82
0012
.
F4AB
.
0C82
48 bit hexadecimal
number
"82" represents 1 byte
or 8 bits
Addressing Summary:
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internet Layer
Network Access Layer
Data
Segments - Ports (http: 80, DNS: 53, Telnet: 23)
Packets - IP addresses (192.168.100.254)
Frames - Physical Addresses (00.12.F4.AB.0C.82)
Also called the "
MAC address
"
So What's Next?
This is the best part:
We can
map
network
devices to the
TCP/IP

and
OSI model
!
Physical Layer
Devices that
extend
the physical network
Works on the
bits

Deals with the physical
characteristics:
Voltage, cable type, transfer rate, etc..
Devices that work at this layer:
Repeaters
- they extend the LAN
Now commonly called transceivers
Multiport Repeaters
-
HUB
used for 10BaseT
OBSOLETE
(OSI model layer)
Data Link Layer
(Still OSI Model)
The PDU is the
frame
and the addressing is the
Physical
(MAC)
address
Devices at the Data Link layer
Make
decisions
based on the
Physical
address of the source or destination address
to
forward
or
not
to forward a frame
Bridges
work at the Data Link layer and
examine
frames
A
multiport bridge
is called a
Switch
Internet/Network Layer Devices
The PDU for this layer is
Packets
and the addressing is
IP addresses
Devices
examine
the Packets
Make
decisions
based on the
IP address
to
forward
or
not
to forward the Packet
Routers
work at the
Internet/Network
layer
Layer 3 Switches
can do the job of
both
a switch
and a router (used to be called a
Brouter
!)
Transport Layer Devices
The PDU is a
Segment
and the addressing is
Ports
Devices examine the
Segments
Make
decisions
based on the
Port number
to
forward
or
not
to forward the segment
Firewalls
make decisions based on the
Port number
!
Application Layer Devices
(TCP/IP Layer)
The PDU is
Data
and there is
no
addresing
Devices
examine
the contents of the
Data
Makes
decisions
based on the
contents
to
forward
or
not
to forward the Data
Application Layer Gateway
(
ALG
) make
decisions
based
on the
content
of the data
Device Summary:
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internet/Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Physical Layer
Application Layer Gateway (ALG) - Data
Firewalls - Ports
Routers and Layer 3 Switches - IP addresses
Bridges and Switches - Physical Addresses
Repeaters (transceivers) and Hubs - Bits
Copyright
Eugene Blanchard
November 2013
Full transcript