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Stop motion

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Jared Whiting

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Stop motion

Stop Motion
Animation
Presentation Fun in a bakery, was one of the first stop motion animations and was made in 1902. What is Animation An Animation is simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures, or frames. Cartoons on television is one example of animation. Animation on computers is one of the chief ingredients of multimedia presentations. There are many different types of software that enable you to create animations that you can display on a computer monitor.
The difference between animation and video is that video takes continuous motion and breaks it up into discrete frames, animation starts with independent pictures and puts them together to form the illusion of continuous motion. What is animation 12 Principles of Animation The 12 principles of animation is something that every animator has had to think about since the start of animating.
Squash and stretch
Anticipating
Staging
Pose to Pose
Overlapping
Slow in and slow out
Arcs
Secondary action
Timing
Exaggeration
Solid drawing
Appeal Different types There are many different types of animation
Traditional Animation
Stop Motion
Computer animation
2D animation
3D animation Traditional animation also known as hand-drawn animation was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, which are first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one onto motion picture film against a painted background. Traditional Animation Stop Motion Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to create the animation. Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting with each other in a constructed environment, in contrast to the real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an armature inside of them to keep them still and steady as well as constraining them to move at particular joints. Clay animation, or Plasticine animation often abbreviated as claymation, uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside of them, similar to the related puppet animation Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving 2-dimensional pieces of material such as paper or cloth Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. Intercutting, matte effects, and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other such effects. Computer Animation Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images by using computer graphics. The more general term computer generated imagery ( CGI ) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images. CGI is a often used technique in movies as this next video shows. To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer screen and repeatedly replaced by a new image that is similar to it, but advanced slightly in time (usually at a rate of 24 or 30 frames/second). This technique is identical to how the illusion of movement is achieved with television and motion pictures. This means that the images don't look like images as they move in real time. 2D Animation 3D animation is digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. The animator starts by creating an external 3d mesh to manipulate, a mesh is a geometric configuration that gives the visual appearance of form to an 3D object or 3D environment. The mesh may have a lot of vertices which are to geometric points which make up the mesh, it is given an internal digital skeletal structure called an armature that can be used to control the mesh with weights. This process is called rigging and can be programmed with movement with keyframes. 2D Animation is animation that is 2 dimensional meaning there is no depth to the animation as it is all on the same level. This type animation can be made with either hand rendered art, computer generated imagery. 3D Animation



1987: John Lasseter at Pixar publishes a paper describing traditional animation principles. "Demos" are Andre and Wally B and Luxo Jr. Ref: J. Lasseter, "Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation", Computer Graphics, 21(4), July 1987. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1987: Craig Reynolds then at Symbolics (now at Dreamworks SKG) publishes a paper on self-organizing behavior for groups. "Demos" are Stanley and Stella and Batman Returns. Ref: C. W. Reynolds, "Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model", Computer Graphics, 21(4), July 1987. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1988: Willow uses morphing in live action film

1992: Beier and Neely, at SGI and PDI respectively publish an algorithm where line correspondences guide morphing between 2D images. "Demo" is Michael Jackson video Black and White. Ref: T. Beier and S. Neely, "Feature-Based Image Metamorphosis", Computer Graphics, 26(2), July 1992. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.) v

1993: Chen and Williams at Apple publish a paper on view interpolation for 3D walkthroughs. Ref: S. E. Chen and L. Williams, "View Interpolation for Image Synthesis", Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1993. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1993: Jurassic Park use of CG for realistic living creatures

1995: Toy Story first full-length 3D CG feature film 1824: Peter Roget presented his paper 'The persistence of vision with regard to moving objects' to the British Royal Society.

1831: Dr. Joseph Antoine Plateau (a Belgian scientist) and Dr. Simon Rittrer constructed a machine called a phenakitstoscope. This machine produced an illusion of movement by allowing a viewer to gaze at a rotating disk containing small windows; behind the windows was another disk containing a sequence of images. When the disks were rotated at the correct speed, the synchronization of the windows with the images created an animated effect.

1872: Eadweard Muybridge started his photographic gathering of animals in motion.

1887: Thomas Edison started his research work into motion pictures.

1889: Thomas Edison announced his creation of the kinetoscope which projected a 50ft length of film in approximately 13 seconds.

1889: George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic film strips using a nitro-cellulose base.

1892: Emile Renynaud, combining his earlier invention of the praxinoscope with a projector, opens the Theatre Optique in the Musee Grevin. It displays an animation of images painted on long strips of celluloid.
1895: Louis and Augustine Lumiere issued a patent for a device called a cinematograph capable of projecting moving pictures.

1896: Thomas Armat designed the vitascope which projected the films of Thomas Edison. This machine had a major influence on all sub-sequent projectors.

1906: J. Stuart Blackton made the first animated film which he called "Humorous phases of funny faces." His method was to draw comical faces on a blackboard and film them. He would stop the film, erase one face to draw another, and then film the newly drawn face. The Ôstop-motionÕ provided a starting effect as the facial expressions changed be fore the viewerÕs eyes.

1908: In France Emile Cohl produced a film, Phantasmagorie which was the first depicting white figures on a black background.

1910: Emile Cohl makes En Route the first paper cutout animation. This technique saves time by not having to redraw each new cell, only reposition the paper.

1911: Winsor McCay produced an animation sequence using his comic strip character "Little Nemo."

1913: J.R. Bray devised "Colonel Heeza Liar," and Sidney Smith created "Old Doc Yak."

1914: John R Bray applies for a patent on numerous techniques for animation. One of the most revolutionary being the process of printing the backgrounds of the animation.

1914: Winsor McCay produced a cartoon called "Gertie, The Trained Dinosaur" which amazingly consisted of 10,000 drawings.

1914: Earl Hurd applies for a patent for the technique of drawing the animated portion of an animation on a clear celluloid sheet and later photographing it with its matching background. [Cel animation]

1917: The International Feature Syndicate released many titles including "Silk Hat Harry","Bringing Up Father", and "Krazy Kat".

1926: The first feature-length animated film called "El Apostol" is created in Argentina.

1923: Walt and Roy Disney found Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio.

1923: Walt Disney extended Max Fleischer's technique of combining live action with cartoon characters in the film "Alice's Wonderland".

1927: Warner Brothers released "The Jazz Singer" which introduced combined sound and images.

1928: Walt Disney created the first cartoon with synchronized sound called "Steam Boat Willy".

1930: The King of Jazz is produced by Universal. In it is a short animated sequence done by Walter Lantz. It is the first animation done with the two strip technicolor process

1934: Urb Irwek creates a multi-plane camera. This camera is capable of filming several separate layers of cels giving the final frame a truly three dimensional look.

1943: John and James Whitney produced "Five Abstract Film Exercises."

1945: Harry Smith produced animation by drawing directly onto film.

1957: John Whitney used 17 Bodine motors, 8 Selsyns, 9 different gear units and 5 ball integrators to create analog computer graphics.
1963: Ivan Sutherland and SKETCHPAD at MIT/Lincoln Labs

1964: Ken Knowlton, working at Bell Laboratories, started developing computer techniques for producing animated movies.

1972: University of Utah, Ed Catmull develops an animation scripting language and creates an animation of a smooth shaded hand. Ref: E. Catmull, "A System for Computer Generated Movies", Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, 1972. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1972: University of Utah, Fred Parke creates first computer generated facial animation. >Ref: F. Parke, "Computer Generated Animation of Faces", Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, 1972. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1974: National Research Council of Canada releases Hunger/La Faim directed by Peter Foldes and featuring Burtnyk and Wein interactive keyframing techniques. Ref: N. Burtnyk and M. Wein, "Interactive Skeleton Techniques for Enhancing Motion Dynamics in Key Frame Animation", Communications of the ACM, 19(10), October 1976. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1982: Tron, MAGI, movie with CG premise 1983: Bill Reeves at Lucasfilm publishes techniques for modeling particle systems. "Demo" is Star Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn. The paper also promotes motion blur. Ref: W. Reeves, "Particle Systems -- A Technique for Modeling a Class of Fuzzy Objects", Computer Graphics, 17(3), July 1983. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1984: The Last Starfighter, CG is used in place of models

1984: Porter and Duff at Lucusfilm publish paper on digital compositing using an alpha channel. Ref: T. Porter and T. Duff, "Compositing Digital Images", Computer Graphics, 18(3), July 1984. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1985: Girard and Maciejewski at OSU publish a paper describing the use of inverse kinematics and dynamics for animation. Their techniques are used in the animation "Eurythmy." Ref: M. Girard and A. A. Maciejewski, "Computational Modeling for the Computer Animation of Legged Figures", Computer Graphics, 19(3), July 1985. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)

1985: Ken Perlin at NYU publishes a paper on noise functions for textures. He later applied this technique to add realism to character animations. Ref: K. Perlin, "An Image Synthesizer", Computer Graphics, 19(3), July 1985. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.) The End
Animation
By Jared Whiting Zoetropes are one of the oldest forms of animation so i made one myself to show how they work . The zoetrope works by the images spinning at speed so the images produces multiple frames a second to make a moving image.
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