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Cause and effect
Transcript of Cause and effect
By Enid Blyton 2. leaping jumping 3. scurrying running 4. tugged pulled 5. bristling stiffening in anger 6. hedgehog a small insect-eating mammal with sharp spines at the back One early morning, just as the sun was going up, a long fat worm wriggled over the grass to his hole. He had been out all night long, enjoying himself and now he was tired and wanted to rest in the little round room at the end of his hole.
Suddenly, he heard the tippy-tip noise of bird feet on the grass. He wriggled even more quickly, for he knew that it was time for the early birds to be about!
Then he heard the hoppity-hop noise of a frog jumping about the edge of the hole.
“That’s a frog leaping along!” thought the worm in a fright. “Oh dear, where’s my hole gone to? I know it’s somewhere about there!” Then there came the noise of scurrying feet, and the worm listened in alarm. “A hedgehog! A prickly hedgehog! My goodness me, what a lot of my enemies are about this morning!”
He felt a tug at his tail. That was the blackbird. He felt a nip at his waist. That was the hedgehog! He felt a sticky tongue at his head. That was the frog!
“Leave me alone! Leave me alone!” cried the worm. But the blackbird, the hedgehog, and the frog took no notice of him at all. They all glared at one another.
“This is my worm!” whistled the blackbird through his bright orange beak.
“Pardon me – mine you mean!” croaked the frog, his eyes nearly staring out of his head with rage.
“My dear friends, you are both making a mistake,” said the hedgehog bristling all over. “I smelled this worm first, long before either of you did.” “Ah, but I saw him first!", cried the frog.
“I spied him from the topmost branch of that tree,” said the blackbird angrily. “He was wriggling along fast, trying to find his hole. I flew down at once. He is my breakfast, so go away and leave him to me.”
“I am going to make my breakfast of him,” said the frog, and he flicked out his long, sticky tongue. It was fastened to the front of his mouth, instead on his back, so he could flick it out quite a long way. The worm was nearly lifted into the frog’s wide mouth. He would have disappeared down the frog’s throat if the hedgehog hadn’t knocked him aside with his nose. “I shall eat him,” said the hedgehog, and he ran at the worm with his sharp muzzle. But the blackbird pecked him so hard that he drew back.
“Do you want to fight?” he asked, all his prickles standing straight up. “I can tell you Blackbird, it is no joke to fight a prickly hedgehog like me! No animal dares to do that!”
“Oh, fiddlesticks to you!’ said the blackbird rudely. I’m not going to fight you. I’m going to eat my worm. If you try any tricks on me. I can easily spread my wings and fly off.”
“And then I shall gobble up my worm,” said the hedgehog.
“You two fight and settle it,” said the frog hopefully. “I’ll watch and tell you who wins.” “Yes and eat the worm while we’re fighting,” said the hedgehog scornfully. “We are not quite as stupid as that, thank you.”
“Look, here’s a mouse, said the frog suddenly. Let us ask him to be our judge.”
So they called the tiny mouse, who came over most politely and bowed to all three.
“Listen, said the hedgehog. We want you to settle something for us. We each think we ought to have that worm. But we can’t decide which of us shall eat it. You shall do the judging.”
“Well,” said the mouse politely, scratching his left ear as he thought hard. Well it seems to me that it would be a good idea if you all run a race for a worm. The blackbird mustn’t fly. He must hop. The frog cannot hop, too, and the hedgehog cannot run. “What shall be the winning post?” said the blackbird.
“The worm’s hole is the winning post, said the mouse. Now all of you go to the wall right over there and wait for me to say,one, two, three, go!”
So they all went over to the wall. But when they got there, the hedgehog called loudly to the mouse.
“Hi, Mouse! I can’t see the hole! Stick something in it, so that I can see it.”
The mouse looked around for something, but he could see nothing.
The worm spoke to the mouse.
“May I help you?” he said. “I could if you like, stick myself in the hole and stand up straight with half of my body out of the hole, so that I look like a winning post.” Good idea, said the mouse.
So the worm slid into his hole, and stood halfway out of it, very straight and stiff, for all the world to see, like a little winning post.
“Can you see now?” shouted the mouse.
“Yes!” called back the others.
“Then, one, two, three. go!” shouted the mouse.
The frog leapt high. The blackbird hopped for all he was worth. The hedgehog ran as if moved by clockwork. All his four legs working together. And they all arrived at the winning post, at exactly the same moment!
“Who won, who won?” cried the frog. “All of you, said the mouse. You, Blackbird, can have the end of the worm. You, the head, Frog and you, the middle, Hedgehog. Goodbye!”
He scurried off. The Blackbird, the hedgehog, and the frog turned to the worm-hole. But the worm was gone. He no longer stuck out stiff and straight. He had wriggled down to his little room and was coiled up there, laughing to himself.
“Come out worm!” shouted the frog in rage “I want the middle of you!” cried the hedgehog.
“And I want my share of you, too!” cried the blackbird.
“Well, I’m sorry, called back the worm, but I’m afraid I want the whole of me. Now, go away. I’m sleepy.”
The three looked at one another.
“Why didn’t we share him between us when we had the chance?” said the frog. “Well, well, never mind. We’ll do that next time we catch him.”
“But that worm is going to be very careful now – so I don’t expect there will be any next time, do you?” Comprehension Check-Up
Answer the following questions.
a. Do early birds always catch worm?
b. What was the worm doing outside his hole?
c. Who saw him?
d. What did the bird, the frog and hedgehog want to do with the worm?
e. Where did the three start the race?
f. When did they realize that the worm was gone?
g. Do you agree with the way the mouse judged the race?
h. How would you describe the worm?
i. If you were the worm, would you do the same thing he has done to save herself? Why? We learned many things from the characters of the story, “A Quarrel In The Morning”. Can you name some traits of the characters?
How do you describe the characters in the story? Exercise: Check the sentences which show kindness or helpfulness
1.Carlo has duties at home, which he does faithfully because he doesn’t want his parent and sister to be overworked.
2.When mom tells him to go to the store, he goes right away.
3.Shiela shares whatever she has with her brothers and friends.
4.She avoids spending unnecessarily.
5.The children give to their parents whatever money or valuables they find lying around the house. You were able to describe the characters in the story because of things they did and said. What they did and said have causes and effects. Let's study the following sentences from the story.
1.The worm was able to escape because
2.Because they need somebody to judge them in their race
3.They are hungry
4.Everyone became busy
5.The frog could eat anything smaller than its size
he is wise.
the frog, blackbird, and the hedgehog called the mouse.
so they want to catch the worm for their meal.
so that nobody noticed the escape of the worm.
so the worm hid from it. *The words because, so, as a result and so that can help identify cause and effect relationships in sentences.
*A cause makes something happen while an effect is the result or outcome of any action. Application:
Underline the cause and encircle the effect in the sentence.
1.Planting more trees can save us from floods.
2.Classes were suspended because of the typhoon.
3.Doing homework nowadays is easier because of the Internet access.
4.The children went to school early because they were excited about the program.
5.The party started on time as the visitors arrived early.
6.She got sick as a result of her playing in the rain yesterday B.
Complete the sentence by writing on the blank the missing effect. Choose your answer from the list in the box. thanked him there are no classes got wet helped me get up we slept I slipped 1.Typhoon signal # 2 has been announced that’s why______.
2.It rained while we were walking so we______.
3.Because I ran so fast_______.
4.A man saw me fall and he_______.
5.He took me home in his car, that is why I_______. Enrichment Activities
Read each situation below. Choose the correct answer.
1.Mother has many plants. She watered them every day and takes good care of them. One day, she goes to visit grandmother. She comes home after two weeks. Her plants are dying. Can you tell why?
a.Because they did not have enough sunshine.
b.Because they did not have any water.
c.Because they were not given fertilizer.
2.Nina could not understand her assignment in Mathematics. Lorna helped her solve one problem. Nina was able to solve the other problems so that
a.Lorna was happy.
b.Nina was happy and thanked Lorna.
c.Lorna and Nina cried.
3.Ding was looking for his pen. He saw his little sister playing with it. Ding took back his pen so:
a.His sister cried.
b.His sister looked happy.
c.His sister went out to play. IV. Evaluation
A. Underline the cause, encircle the effect.
1.Maria ate too much at the party last night that is why she has an upset stomach.
2.Mother was worried because Maria might get dehydrated.
3.The doctor gave her an injection to stop the infection.
4.Mother was so worried because of Maria’s sickness.
5.Maria realized that overeating can make her sick so she promise not to do it again. B. Match each cause with its most likely effect. Write only the letter of your corresponding answer
_____Bob stuck a pin in the balloon.
_____Traci spilled her milk.
_____My mom drove too fast.
_____The electricity went out.
_____The alarm clock did not ring. A.We could not see a thing.
B. The policeman wrote a ticket.
C. We heard a big pop.
D. We were late for school.
E. There was a puddle on the floor. Assignment:
Directions: Read each cause. Then select its possible effect from the given statements: Rewrite the sentence using because, as a result, and so that.
1.All day long it rained heavily.
a.It stopped raining in the evening.
b.Traffic was tied up for hours.
c.The children played happily in the flood.
2.Esperanza ran across the street without watching for cars coming.
a.Esperanza was in a hurry to get home.
b.Esperanza was nearly ran over.
c.Esperanza never crosses the street the way she should. A World Without Sound
by Martin L. Keen We are always surrounded by asea of sound. There is not a minute of the day when we cannot hear some sound. To get an idea of how big a part sound plays in our lives, imagine what the world would be like without sound. Imagine yourself on a busy street where traffic moves silently. Automobile engines run soundlessly, there is no screech of brakes and an automobile horn never toots. People walk with silent footsteps and close doors noiselessly. Someone drops few coins which strike the pavement, bounce and roll with out the familiar jingling sound. Some workmen unloading a truck drops crate. It strikes the ground and breaks open as noiselessly as if it were only the shadow of a crate. A man whistles to his dog, but the animal still runs about, because no shrill sounds leave his master's lips. You see a friend and call him, but he continues on his way, because no shout leaps from your mouth.
Many sounds give us pleasure. Almost everyone enjoys music and singing. Think how mournful the world would be if you could not listen to music, nor sing, nor whistle when you are happy. On a quiet summer afternoon, the songs of birds, the hum of insects, the rustle of the breeze in the leaves, and perhaps the soft murmur of a brook - all these things give us pleasure, but none of them would exist in a soundless world.
Our safety depends to a large degree of sound. The baby's cry brings his mother quickly to his aid. Everybody recognizes the cry "Help!" as a signal that someone is in danger. At traffic crossings, the shriek of a train whistle or the blast of an automobile horn warns of approaching danger. Ships in a fog warn of their presence by the croaking of foghorns. In a forest, the crackling sound of a tree about to fall warns the lumberjack to jump out of the way of danger. How difficult it would be to avoid danger in a world without sound.
The most common way mankind communicates thoughts is by talking; that is, by making the sounds we call words. Think how different our lives would be if we could not talk. We could, of course, still communicate with one another by signs, as deaf persons do.