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Protein Synthesis

Reviews DNA and RNA structure and goes over the processes of transcription and translation.
by

Carolyn Sorrell

on 20 March 2012

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Transcript of Protein Synthesis

I. DNA Structure
Protein Synthesis
A. DNA is a nucleic acid
made of nucleotides
B. Matching base pairs make replication
and transcription easy.
1. Adenine = Thymine
Cytosine = Guanine
C. Genes are made of the sequence of bases on the DNA strand
1. Each gene has a specific sequence of bases.
II. Gene Expression
A. DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by controlling the synthesis of proteins.
B.
Gene expression
is the process by which DNA directs protein synthesis.
Read-C. Genes provide the instructions for making a protein, but do not make the protein directly.
Read- D.
RNA
is the nucleic acid that assists in the transfer of information from DNA to the end product (a protein).
E. Gene expression includes
transcription
and
translation
.
III. Transcription
A.
Transcription
is the synthesis of RNA using the DNA as a template.
1.
Messenger RNA
is created by “reading” the DNA and mRNA carries the genetic message from the nucleus to the ribosome.
B.
Translation
is the synthesis of a polypeptide (protein).
1. The ribosome translates the sequence of bases from mRNA into an amino acid sequence.
IV. Genetic Code
A. The genetic code is universal. Nucleotide triplets specify amino acids.
1.
Codons
- three-nucleotide “words” on mRNA
Read- B. The flow of information from a gene to a protein is based on this triplet code.
Read- 1. A cell cannot directly translate a gene’s triplets into amino acids.
V. RNA
A. RNA is a polymer of nucleotides
B. RNA has ribose sugar rather than deoxyribose
C. Uracil replaces Thymine in RNA.
A=U
Read- D. RNA links DNA’s genetic instructions for making proteins to the process of protein synthesis.
E. Types of RNA
1. mRNA- messenger RNA carries information from the nucleus to the ribosome and has codons that specify amino acids.
2. tRNA- transfer RNA that has the anticodon and carries an amino acid to the ribosome.
Read- 3. rRNA-ribosomal RNA helps bind the mRNA and tRNA during one step of protein synthesis
VI. Transcription
Read- A. The DNA strand is the template for making the mRNA.
Read-B. The same base-pairing rules that apply to DNA synthesis also apply here, but the base uracil takes the place of thymine in RNA
Read- A. The genetic message on mRNA is read as a sequence of three-letter codons
1. Each codon on the mRNA strand matches up to an anticodon (also 3 letters) on a tRNA molecule and specifies an amino acid.
C. The DNA strand opens up
and the mRNA bases match
up with the bases on the DNA
strand.

1. Transcription is making the
mRNA.
a. stays in the language of
nucleic acids

VII. Translation
Full transcript