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Chapter 25: The Sixties, 1960-1968

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Joseph Floyd

on 21 July 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 25: The Sixties, 1960-1968

Chapter 25: The Sixties, 1960-1968
The Civil Rights Revolution
The Rising Tide of Protest
The March on Washington
College students a force for social change
In April 1960, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) founded
Dedicated to replacing culture of segregation with "beloved community"
In 1961, Congress of Racial Equality launched Freedom Rides
Integrated groups traveled by bus to the Deep South to test compliance with court-orders
Attacked by violent mobs, bus in Anniston, Alabama firebombed
Interstate Commerce Commission ordered buses to desegregate
In September 1962 Univ. of Mississippi ordered to admit James Meredith
State police stood aside as mob rioted in Oxford, Mississippi
Firebombing, Anniston, Alabama, May 1961
Ella Baker Shaw
James Meredith
Height of protest in spring of 1963
In one week in June, more than 15,000 arrests in 186 cities
Culmination in Birmingham, Alabama
Martin Luther King Jr. had written "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
In May 1963 walk-out by thousands of black students in Birmingham
Police attacked marchers with nightsticks, fire hoses, attack dogs
In June sniper killed Medgar Evars, NAACP secretary in Mississippi
In September bomb exploded at a baptist church in Birmingham, killing 4 girls
16th Street Baptist Church bombing
4 girls killed in bombing
Attacking demonstrators with firehose
Martin Luther King, Letter from a Birmingham Jail (1963)
On August 28, 1963 250,000 people converged in March on Washington
Calls for the passage of a civil rights bill pending before Congress
Goals included public-works to reduce unemployment, increase in minimum wage, laws against job discrimination
Revealed internal tensions
Organizers ordered SNCC leader John Lewis to tone down speech
Martin Luther King Jr at the March on Washington
The Kennedy Years
Kennedy and the World
Kennedy established Peace Corps, sent young Americans abroad to aid developing countries, improve the image of the United States
After Soviets launched first man into space, plans to land a man of the moon by end of decade
Revolution in neighboring Cuba led by Fidel Castro in 1959
Nationalized American utilities, landholdings, sold Cuban sugar to the Soviet Union
In April 1961 CIA launched covert invasion by Cuban exiles known as Bay of Pigs (Playa Girón)
Invasion a total failure, U.S. denies involvement
Castro declares socialist revolution, allies with Soviet Union
Attempts to assassinate Castro fail
The Missile Crisis
In October 1962 American spy planes discovered Soviet Union was installing missiles in Cuba capable of reaching the U.S. with nuclear weapons
U.S. missiles in Turkey within reach of Soviet Union
Kennedy imposed a blockade of the island and demanded the missiles removal
After tense behind-the-scenes negotiations Soviets withdrew missiles from Cuba, U.S. withdrew missiles from Turkey, pledged not to invade Cuba
In 1963 Kennedy called for greater cooperation with the Soviet Union
Treaty banned testing of nuclear weapons in atmosphere, outer space
Kennedy and Civil Rights
Lyndon Johnson's Presidency
Civil Rights and Freedom Summer
The Conservative 60s
Voting Rights and Immigration Reform
Great Society and the War on Poverty
On February 1, 1960 4 students from black college in Greensboro, North Carolina sat down at a white-only lunch counter
Similar nonviolent demonstrations took part throughout the South
Civil rights movement elevated African-Americans to full U.S. citizenship, challenged Americans to rethink ideas of freedom
Black Americans and their white allies risked violence, inspired a host of other challenges to the status quo during the 1960s
John F. Kennedy served as President for less than three years and had few tangible accomplishments
Administration was a moment of youthful glamor and soaring hopes
Prior to 1963 Kennedy was preoccupied with foreign policy, reluctant to take forceful stand on black demands for civil rights
Events in Birmingham forced Kennedy's hand
In June made televised call for law banning discrimination in all places of accommodation, major goal of civil rights movement
On November 22, 1963, shot and killed riding in a motorcade through Dallas
Assasin likely Hee Harvey Oswald, troubled former Marine
Successor Lyndon Johnson secured passage of Civil Rights Act
Kennedy's Civil Rights Address
5 days after Kennedy's assassination, Johnson called on Congress to enact civil rights bill
On July 2, 1964, Congress passed Civil Rights Act
Banned racial discrimination in employment, hospitals, schools, privately owned public accommodations
Banned discrimination on basis of sex
Johnson remarked "we delivered the South to the Republican Party"
Did not address right to vote
Civil rights groups launched voter registration drive in Mississippi, hundreds of student volunteers
35 bombings, beatings, kidnappings, murder of 3 activists by sheriff's posse
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party campaigned to take seats of all-white party
Rejected proposal by liberal Democrats for mixed delegation
Speech by Fannie Lou Hamer, Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, NJ
1964 Presidential Election
Civil rights movement, liberal Democrats supported Johnson's reelection
Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, of conservative wing of Republican Party, defeated liberal Nelson Rockefeller of New York
Criticized Johnson's Vietnam policy, suggested using nuclear weapons
Denouned New Deal welfare state as a threat to freedom and individual initiative
Opposed the Civil Rights Act
Goldwater portrayed as extremist, Johnson wins in landslide
Democrats sweep to two-to-one majorities in both houses of Congress
Decline of Republican party in Northeast, Goldwater's appeal to white Southerners produced political realignment
1960s saw origins of modern American conservatism
Young Americans for Freedom, led by William F. Buckley, conservative students
Sharon Statement summarized beliefs about personal freedom, limited government
Goldwater campaign brought new constituencies into the Republican Party
Suburbs of Southern California and the Southwest
Residents recent arrivals from Midwest who worked in defense industries
Hollywood actor, General Electric spokesman Ronald Reagan campaigned for Goldwater
Elected governor of California in 1967
Goldwater won five states of the Deep South (South Carolina to Louisiana)
Populist and segregationist governor George Wallace of Alabama rose to prominence
Conservative appeals to states rights, law and order had racial overtones
Lyndon Johnson and his Texas White House
Unlike John F. Kennedy, raised in a wealthy and powerful Eastern family, Johnson grew up in one of the poorest parts of the U.S., central Texas Hill Country
Shaped his concern with the plight of the poor
In January 1965 M.L. King launched voting rights campaign in Selma, Alabama
State police attack peaceful demonstrators during march to Montgomery
Voting Rights Act of 1965 allowed federal officials to register voters, outlawed poll tax
Hart-Celler Act of 1965 ended national origins quotas, race-neutral criteria for immigration based on reuniting families, recruiting skilled labor
Rise in immigration, from Latin America, the Caribbean and Asia
War on Poverty influenced by Michael Harrington's
The Other America
40-50 million Americans lived in poverty
Health care to poor, elderly in Medicaid, Medicare, federal funds for education, urban development
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, National Endowment for the Arts
Completed, extended social programs stalled in Congress since the 1930s
Focused on equipping poor with skills, rebuilding spirit, motivation
Did not address economic changes that reduced well-paid manufacturing jobs, left poor families in rural areas, urban ghettos with little hope of advancement
Reduced poverty rate from 22 to 13% in 1960s, 25% of black children lived in poverty
Johnson visits Martin Co., Kentucky
The Changing Black Movement
The Ghetto Uprisings
Malcolm X
The Rise of Black Power
The New Left and The Fading Consensus
Vietnam and the New Left
America and Vietnam
Lyndon Johnson's War
In mid-1960s, economic issues rose to the forefront of civil rights agenda
Violent outbreaks in black ghettos in North and West drew attention to national scope of racism, racial inequalities that the end of legal segregation left intact
First riots-battles between angry blacks, white police-erupted in Harlem in 1964
Watts riots in Los Angeles in 1965, days after Voting Right Act
50,000 people took part, 15,000 police, National Guard put down uprising, 35 dead, 900 injured, $30 million in damages
In summer of 1967, riots in Newark, Detroit
Kerner Report blamed violence on "segregation and poverty"
Black unemployment twice that of whites, income little more than half
King called for "Bill of Rights for Disadvantaged," Chicago Freedom Movement to end economic discrimination
Malcolm X spokesman of Nation of Islam, a Black separatist religious movement
Emerged in black ghettos of northern cities
X symbolized separation from African ancestry
Fiery oratory, challenges to police brutality, emphasized Black self-reliance
Broke with NOI leader Elijah Muhammad, adopted orthodox Islam, made hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca
Spoke of possibility of interracial cooperation
Assassinated in 1965, after founding Organization of Afro-American Unity
Free Huey Rally, Oakland, CA, 1968
Huey Newton and Bobby Sele
Stokley Carmichael
Malcolm X father of the "Black Power" movement
In 1966 SNCC leader Stokley Carmichael coined term
Different meanings, from political, economic power to belief that black Americans were colonized people whose freedom could only be won through revolution
Racial self-assertion in slogan "Black is Beautiful," "natural" hair, use of "Afro-American"
Black Panther Party founded in Oakland, California in 1966
Armed self-defense in response to police brutality
Openly carry guns, revolutionary communist ideology inspired by Maoism
Operated health clinics, schools, breakfast programs
Internal disputes, campaign by FBI destroyed the organization
Women's Liberation
Revival of feminism began with Betty Friedan's
The Feminine Mystique
Criticized a society that viewed marriage and motherhood as woman's goals
Gloria Steinem describes exploitation as a Playboy Bunny, illegal abortions
In 1963 Congress passed Equal Pay Act
In 1966 National Organization of Women formed, Friedan as president
Modeled on civil rights organizations
Young women who encountered sexual exploitation in organizations like SNCC, SDS established "consciousness-raising" groups
Protestors at Miss America beauty pageant in 1968 burned "objects of oppression"
Radical feminists campaigned against laws banning abortions
Chicano Movement
Movement for legal rights had long flourished among Mexican-Americans
Chicano movement saw new militancy challenging second class-status
Pride in Mexican past, new Chicano culture that originated in U.S., Southwest as "Aztlan"
Chicano activists included Ruben Salazar, Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales
Cesar Chavez, influenced by M.L. King, led nonviolent protests, hunger strike, boycott of California grapes to pressure growers to agree to labor contracts with United Farm Workers union
Red Power
Rainbow Coalition
Silent Spring
Gay Liberation
Rights Revolution
1960s witnessed an upsurge of American Indian militancy
Truman and Eisenhower administration policy of termination to integrate Indians into American society
Meant ending recognition of Indian sovereignty
American Indian movement founded in 1968 in "red ghetto" of Minneapolis
Demanded greater tribal self-government, restoration of treaties
In 1969 "Indians of All Nations" occupied Alcatraz Island
Wounded Knee occupation in 1973, site of 1890 massacre
Rainbow Coalition founded in Chicago in 1969, multiracial coalition of militant activists
Black Panthers, Puerto Rican nationalist Young Lords, Appalachian white migrants of Young Patriot Party
Black Panther leader Fred Hampton murdered in raid by Chicago police, FBI in 1969
Environmentalism called into question equation of progress with increase in consumption, faith that science, technology, growth would advance social welfare
Marine biologist Rachel Carson's
Silent Spring
(1962) described how DDT killed animals, caused sickness among humans
Sierra Club saw membership triple
Environmental groups documented dangers of pollution
In early 1970s Congress passed Clean Air and Water Acts, Endangered Species Act
Surprising rise of protest movement among white college students due to rise of a New Left
Old Left of labor unions, communists spoke of economic equality
New Left spoke of alienation, powerlessness
By 1968, 7 million college students, more than farmers or steelworkers
Black freedom movement catalyzed white student activism
Students for Democrat Society founded 1962, Port Huron statement of social change
Books in 1962-63 challenged 1950s consensus
James Baldwin
The Fire Next Time
gave voice to Black Civil Rights movement
Rachel Carson
Silent Spring
described environmental pollution
Michael Harrington
The Other America
documented poverty
Jene Jacobs
The Death and Life of Great America
criticized urban renewal
Truman, Eisenhower regime sponsored creation of non-communist South Vietnam
Government of Ngo Dinh Diem resists land reform, favors Catholic minority, persecutes Buddhists, influenced by sister-in-law Madame Nhu
Policies inspire fear and resentment, rebellion by Viet Cong communist guerillas
Kennedy administration sends 17,000 American military advisers to Vietnam
After large Buddhist demonstrations against his regime in October 1963, U.S. backs military coup against Diem, Kennedy assassinated following month
Rights revolution achieved constitutional legitimacy through the Supreme Court
Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, Court expanded rights enjoyed by all Americans
Placed them beyond the reach of legislative and local majorities
New York Times vs. Sullivan
(1964) overturned libel judgement by an Alabama jury
Loving vs. Virginia
overturned state laws prohibiting interracial marriage
Imposing on states the obligation to respect the Bill of Rights
Miranda vs. Arizona
(1966) held that an individual in police custody must be informed of rights
Griswold vs. Connecticut
(1965) overturned state law banning contraceptives
Led to 1973
Roe v. Wade
ruling which overturned abortion
Perhaps greatest surprise was emergence of a movement for gay liberation
Gay men and lesbians long stigmatized as sinful, mentally disordered
Most states made homosexual acts illegal, police harassed gay subculture
1969 police raid on Stonewall Bar in New York's Greenwich Village, where gays fought back, led to five days of rioting
Gay men and lesbians stepped out of the "closet"
Insisted sexual orientation a matter of rights, power, identity
Gay Liberation Day rallies held in major cities
New Rights Revolution
Civil rights revolution followed by rise of New Left, inspired other Americans to voice grievances and claim their rights
Freedom, Easy Rider (1969)
Charlie Don't Surf, Apocalypse Now (1979)
The Counterculture
New Left's definition of freedom initially centered on participatory democracy
As 1960s progressed, understanding of freedom expanded to include cultural freedom
By late 1960s millions of young people openly rejected values and behaviors of their elders
"Hippie" counterculture defined freedom as right to individual choice
Personal liberation meant search for way of life centered around friendship and pleasure
Underground newspapers, Youth International Party (yippies)
Rock festivals like Woodstock brought together hundreds of young people
Flowering of religious and spiritual creativity
Jesus People (Jesus Freaks), Hindu, Buddhist practices like yoga, meditation
Jimmy Hendrix, Along the Watchtower (1968)
Beatles First Appearance on Ed Sullivan Show (1964)
Coverage of Selma-to-Montgomery march
Underground newspaper, Atlanta
Jesus Freaks
Smoking marijuana
Kennedy with Peace Corps volunteers
Castro enters Havana, 1959
Captured Cuban rebels
Range of Soviet missiles in Cuba
U-2 missiles
Naval blockade of Cuba
Barry Goldwater's Acceptance Speech, Republican National Convention, 1964
"Daisy," political ad by Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson anounces War on Poverty
War on Poverty commercial
Vietnam combat footage
Young Americans for Freedom rally, 1967
Goldwater campaigning in Indiana
Lester Maddox and his segregated restaurant, 1964 Maddox was Governor of Georgia from 1967 to 1971
James Brown, I'm Black and I'm Proud (1968) Soul Train 1974
Demonstrations at the Miss America Pageant, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1967
Rodolfo Gonzales, I Am Joaquin/Yo Soy Joaquin
Russell Means, (Wanbli Ohtika (Brave Eagle) and the occupation of Wounded Knee, 1972
In August 1964 North Vietnamese vessels encountered American spy ship in Gulf of Tonkin Incident
Congressional resolution authorized president to take "all necessary measures to repel armed attack"
After Johnson's election, U.S. began air strikes against North Vietnam, ground troops to prop up unstable South Vietnamese military governments
22,000 troops put down rebellion in Dominican Republic, success bolstered Johnson's determination
By 1968 500,000 American troops in Vietnam
More bombs dropped on Vietnam than were used in all of World War II, agent orange, napalm
Viet Cong built networks of tunnels, transport weapons,supplies on Ho Chi Minh trail
Brutal treatment of captured American prisoners of war by North Vietnamese
A Year of Turmoil
The Global 1968
Legacy of the Sixties
In late January 1968 Viet Cong, North Vietnamese launched Tet offensive
Caught American military off-guard, shattered confidence that U.S. was winning Vietnam War
Antiwar senator Eugene McCarthy wins New Hampshire primary, Johnson does not seek reelection
Martin Luther King Jr. organized Poor People's March to Washington
In Memphis, Tennessee to support garbage workers strike, King assassinated on April 4,
Riots swept black neighborhoods
In June, Robert F. Kennedy, JFK's brother, antiwar candidate for President, killed in Los Angeles
In August tens of thousands of protestors at Democratic convention in Chicago are attacked by police
1968 was a year of global upheaval
A younger generation challenged existing power structures
Demonstrations against Vietnam War, U.S. military bases in Europe and Japan
In May, strikes by students and workers in Paris led to resignation of Charles de Gaulle, who had dominated post-WWII France
In Northern Ireland, police attacked civil rights demonstrations by Irish Catholics
In Czechoslovakia period of liberalization ends with Soviet invasion in August
In October before Olympic Games in Mexico City soldiers fire on student demonstrators
The social and political changes of the 1960s reached their climax with the upheavals of 1968
Ronald Reagan in 1961
George Wallace's Inaugural Address, 1963
Announcing the War on Poverty
Johnson visiting eastern Kentucky
Black children in Washington, D.C.
Watts Riots, August 1965
Malcom X speaking in Los Angeles on police brutality, 1962
Stokley Carmichael, Black Power Speech, Jackson, Mississippi, December 1966
Bob Dylan, All Along the Watchtower (1967)
Sam Cooke, Change Gonna Come (1964), from Malcolm X (1992)
Signing the Civil Rights Act
Fannie Lou Hamer at DNC
Selma March
Bloody Sunday attacks
Signing Hart Celler act
Eisenhower and Diem
Madame Nhu
Wounded South Vietnamese soldier
Newsreel, Bay of Pigs Invasion
Cuban Missile Crisis
Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr., Atlanta
Betty Friedan leading a demonstration
Gloria Steinem at Playboy Club
Protesting Miss America, Atlantic City
Betty Friedan on Women's Rights
First Gay Liberation Day, 1970
Gay Liberation Day, Christopher Street, Greenwich Village, New York 1970
Corky Gonzales
Ruben Salazar leading demonstration
Cesar Chavez
Occupying Alcatraz
Indians of All Nations
Occupying Wounded Knee
Fred Hampton and Rainbow Coalition
Young Patriot Newspaper
Young Patriots at United Front Against Fascism Conference
Young Patriots, outgrowth of SDS, originated in Uptown, Chicago, a poor community of Appalachian migrants
Rachel Carson
Mildred and Richard Loving
Ernesto Miranda
Executing prisoner in Saigon
Martin Luther King in Memphis
Robert Kennedy
Demonstrations in Paris, Belfast, Prague and Mexico City
1960 transformed American life
Produced new rights, new understanding of freedom
Made possible entrance of racial minorities into mainstream of American life, while leaving unsolved problems of poverty and racism
Rise of conservatism backlash against social changes of 1960s
Thích Quang Đuc, Vietnamese Buddhist monk burning himself in Saigon June 11, 1963
Conservative William F. Buckley and left-wing writer Gore Vidal, 1968 Democratic convention
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