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Instructional Supervision: Applying Tools and Concepts

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Samuel Garcia Jr.

on 8 July 2014

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Transcript of Instructional Supervision: Applying Tools and Concepts

Supervision is to work with teachers that promote life long learning skills
professional growth

The process of supervision must be cyclical and ongoing
2: Understanding Instructional Supervision
Instructional supervision aims to promote growth, development, interaction, fault-free problem solving and a commitment to build capacity in teachers.
Clinical supervision - self-analytic and self-directive
***Evaluation has supplanted the instructional supervision process***

Chapter 3: Informal and Formal Instructional Supervision
Informal Classroom Observations (walk-throughs)
10-15 minutes
Occurs different times of the day
Benefits to supervisors
motivating teachers
monitoring instruction
being informed
providing support
4:The Preobservation Conference
Defines a clear focus for the observation
Gives the teacher the opportunity to "talk through" teaching
Illuminates Context, Climate, and Culture of Classroom
Strengthens the professional relationship between supervisor and teacher
Is held within 24 hours of observation
5: The Classroom Observation
Supervisor collects data from observation
Many tools and techniques enable supervisor to collect informative value-free data
Wide-Angle and Narrow-Angle techniques
Primary objective is to promote teacher analysis, reflection, and planning
6: The Postobservation Conference
A forum where teacher and supervisor talk about the events of the classroom observation
Develop a working plan for ongoing growth and development, based on what is observed and discussed

7: Career Stages, Adult Learning, and Supervision
Instructional Supervision: Applying Tools and Concepts
S.J. Zepeda

1: Supervision, Professional Development, and Teacher Evaluation That Make a Difference
8: Motivation and Supervisory Leadership: An Overview
9: Peer Coaching
10: Action Research
11: Portfolio Supervision
12: Mentoring and Induction
13: Confronting Marginal Teaching
What is a portfolio?
A portfolio is not merely a file of course projects and assignments, nor is it a scrapbook of teaching memorabilia. A portfolio is an organized, goal-driven documentation of your professional growth and achieved competence in the complex act called teaching. (As cited in Zepeda, ).
The Process
Develop goals

Selecting artifacts

Artifact Feedback

Reflecting on Artifacts through data collected in classroom observations

Change over time based on artifacts over time
Written Documentation - Targeted Student Work or Lesson Plans



Audio Tapes

A Process
What is collected
So What?
Analysis of collected artifacts
Now What?
Recommendation and strategies to improve student learning
A Model of Portfolio Supervision
Reflection/Self-Analysis/Decision Making


Setting Goals/Rationale for Artifact Inclusion/Refocusing Goals/Captioning Artifact/Amending Artifact Based on Noted Changes in Practice
Framework to Extend Supervision
Establish Instructional Goals
Ongoing Self-Assessment & Evaluation
Refining Goals & Targeted Activities
Fostering Collaboration
Creating Conditions to Examine Practice
Needed Professional Development
Impact of Professional Development
Why Mentor?
High Turnover
Alternative Certifications
Returning Teachers to the Field
Teachers Teaching Outside their Fields
Both Directions
Mentor and Protege
Strong Collegial Skills
Effective Teaching
Flexible in Thinking
Model As An Adult Learner
Understands The Change Process
Understands the Mentoring Process
Mentor Training
Effective Communication
Problem Solving
Peer Coaching
Work With Experienced Teachers
Group Development
New Teachers
Not the most difficult school or students
Decision making power
Clear Goals - Created by Admin/Colleagues/Self
Encouragement & Acknowledgment
Culture of Seeking Advice
Talk & Observe Colleagues
School Standards that are easily Enforced
Opportunities to Participate in School Activites
Formative Approaches
Frequent Contact
Balanced Supervision
Goal Setting
Focused Classroom Observations
Differentiated Approaches
Marginal Teachers
Furr (1990) definition:
A marginal teacher is one whose performance borders on incompetency, but who is not incompetent. Many principals call this person "fence rider," a teacher whose classroom performance vacillates between good and bad - but mostly it's bad.....To protect themselves from dismissal, marginal teachers usually do just enough to get by. (As cited in Zepeda).
Students & Schools
-Students ability to learn
Student Discipline
Quality of Student Work
Parent & Student Complaints
-Contaminate School Culture
-Jeopardize Supervisor's Effectiveness as an Instructional Leader
Spotting A Marginal Teacher
Excessive Lack of Preparation
Excessive Deficiencies of Teaching Skills
Excessive Problems of Student Control
Excessive Manifestations of Poor Judgement
Excessive Absence from Work
Questions to Ask Yousef
Teacher's History
Prior Reports
What has caught your attention
Sudden Shifts
Other Data
Preparation of Administrators
Perception of Past vs. Present Leadership
Lack of Central Office Support
Time Constraints
Psychological Stressors

Confronting the Marginal Teacher
Focus on Behavior or Action not the person
Be Specific
Give the teacher an opportunity to respond
Be professional
Develop a Mutual Plan if Possible
Affirm the Person
Three Things to Know
Talk to Your Supervisor
Tool 24: Formal Plan of Remediation
Growth Plan

When all else fails?
Need to be familiar with the variety of standards.
grade level

Coherence: Supervision, staff development, and teacher evaluation must form a seamless web.
Chp. 2 Continued

Differentiated supervision operates on the premise that teaching is a profession
Teachers have a degree of control
Power to make choices
Developmental Supervision rests on the supervisor's ability to assess the conceptual level of teacher
Chapter 3 Continued

Formal observations (PDAS)
Longer in time 20-40 min.
pre and post observation conference

Benefits for supervisors
Observing instructional strategies
classroom management
assessment methods
teacher/student rapport

Chapter 3 cont.

Clinical supervision - greater voice is given to the teacher
pre and post conference with extended classroom observation

Benefits to supervisor
establishes relationships
teacher led
focus on one aspect
14. Professional Development
Professional Development ???
---> We've learned that it's meaningless to set high expectations for student performance unless we also set high expectations for performance of adults. We know that if we are going to improve learning, we must also improve teaching. And we must improve the environment in which teaching and learning occurs.
- National Association of Elementary
School Principals
Standards for Professional Development

Embedded within context-specific needs

Aligned with Reform Initiatives

Grounded in collaborative, inquiry-based approach to learning
Planning for PD
First Level - Global or Large-scale needs

Second Level - Meeting Individual Teacher Needs
Questions to Ask...
PD needs and by whom?
Planning that needs to be completed?
Impact of PD to student and teacher learning be evaluated?
Tool 25: Identifying PD Needs
Informal and Formal Discussions
Teachers as a Resource
Tool 26: Job-Embedded Learning: Finding Time for PD
Part of Teacher's Daily Work
Feedback is built in
Transfer of new skills

Four Conditions

Adult Learning

Trust the Process


Time within the School Day
Putting it Together
Connection between Instructional Supervision and PD

Informal and Formal Observations
Skill Set
What is working
Ongoing support
Chp. 5 cont.

Blooms taxonomy
Wait time
Selective Verbatim
No focus: generally occuring in class
Ready the teacher to set a focus in the next pre-observation conference
Conducted within 48 hours and in place where observation occured
Chp. 6 Cont.
Chp. 6 Cont.
Lesson Reconstruction
Teacher reconstructs events of lesson based on data retrieved
Learn from data
Supervisor facilitates knowledge by fostering critical inquiry and reflection on practice
Zone of Proximal Development
Encourage active participation
Introduce new concepts
Provide opportunities to implement new knowledge
Chp. 6 Cont.
Prepare for post-observation conference
Plan to organize raw data
revisit focus
resist to infuse personal values
strategy for presenting data
engage in dialogue
embrace spontaneity of discussion

Plan for future development
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