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Transcript of 20.3
Thunderstorm- A storm with rain, lightning, and thunder, and sometimes hail and tornadoes.
All thunderstorms produce lightning. Lightning also occurs in the clouds of snowstorms, dust storms, or volcanic eruptions.
Scientists believe that thunderstorms formed by smaller and larger cloud particles collide in a cloud which makes the smaller ones become positively charged and the larger ones negatively charged.
When the positive and negative flow toward each other they make a spark, which then travels through a path of charged ions which produces a lightning bolt.
Lightning travels at 300,000 kilometers per second and can heat up to 25,000°C.
The funnel cloud of a tornado results when the air pressure in the center is low and the air gets sucked into the funnel and it expands and cools. Then the water vapor in the air condenses, which forms a funnel-shaped cloud.
If the air is drier or the pressure is higher, the tornado could have dust and debris in it and make a roaring sound.
A tornado will usually appear on the back of a parent thunderstorm.
Effects of Tornadoes
By: Sara Szuba
Meteorologists spot and predict tornadoes by using conventional radar and a Doppler radar.
A conventional radar is used to make a map of precipitation of the surrounding area.
A Doppler radar is used to identify which ways the winds are moving in a storm.
20.3 Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
Squall Line- A line of thunderstorms that occurs ahead of a front, often preceded by strong winds.
Supercell- A very large, single-cell thunderstorm with particularly strong up drafts.
Lightning- A discharge of electricity from a thunder cloud to the ground, to another cloud, or to another spot within the cloud itself.
Tornado- A violent, rotating column of air that extends down from dark clouds and moves overland in a narrow, destructive path.
Thunderstorms can include thunder, torrential rain, hail, damaging winds, tornadoes, and lightning.
A cumulonimbus cloud forms by rising air reaching the condensation level, releasing heat which makes the air less dense and warmer surrounding it, then a thunderstorm begins.
Thunderstorms have one or more convection cells that can last an hour or less. Thunderstorms with multicells can last as long as a day.
Thunderstorms most likely form along frontal boundaries because it forces air to rise.
Thunderstorms form in moist, unstable air.
The trigger to a thunderstorm can be a mountainside or a front standing in the way of unstable air.
Lightning goes best through materials that conduct electricity such as metal, water, and wet ground.
A tornado is a violent rotating column of air that visually touches the ground.
For a severe thunderstorm to create a tornado it must have a rotating updraft called a mesocyclone.
Before the tornado develops the moving clouds of the mesocyclone may be visible at the base and may form a wall cloud. 10 to 20 minutes later a tornado could come out of the wall cloud.
Only 1/3 of mesocyclones produce a tornado.
Tornado with debris and dust
The air in tornado alley warms near the ground while the higher air stays cooler in spring and early summer. The air is unstable which results in thunderstorms.
Storm or Tornado Watches and Warnings
If there's a chance a tornado/thunderstorm will form meteorologists will issue a tornado/ thunderstorm watch.
If a severe thunderstorm approaches it's a thunderstorm warning and if the conditions could create a tornado, they issue a tornado warning.