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World War 1
Transcript of World War 1
Causes of War - "M.A.I.N" causes
European build up of military over time
1890 - Germany has strongest army
Investment in the Navy
territory and resources
Congress of Vienna - 1814/
Russia protects the Serbs
Imperialism and Industrialization
world-wide economic and political control
competition fueled over resources
secret and open relationships between countries
During war (initially):
Triple Entente (Allies): France, Britain, and Russia
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Eventually form "Central Powers"
Serbia / The Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
interests in the Balkans
Austria-Hungary accused Serbia of subverting rule over Bosnia
June 1914 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) assassinated in Serbia by Gavrilo Princip
Alliance System Leads to Full-Scale War
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia and pulls in Russia
August 1 - Germany, obligated by Austria-Hungary, declares war on Russia
August 3 - Germany declares war on France
Germany invades Belgium -> Britain declares war
Two Front War
Machine guns, tanks
"No man's land"
The Us and World War I
Neutrality and Isolationism
What was the major attitude towards war of those of immigrant heritage?
How did US trade change overtime?
Economic successes and fears
Wilson re-elected, "He Kept Us Out of the War"
What was the historical significance of the Zimmermann Note?
What is important about how Americans initially perceived the note?
US Enters War in 1917
Meanwhile in Russia
1917 - prior to US entry into war
Provisional government takes control
"Red Guards" - "Red Army"
Bolsheviks led by Lenin
League of Nations Debate
Henry Cabot Lodge was suspicious for joint economic and military action against aggression
"The League of Nations was the world's best hope for lasting peace."
"The League of Nations posed a threat to US self-determination"
Sinking of the Lusitania and British Blockade
What were American attitudes towards Britain prior to submarine warfare?
What was significant about the sinking of the Lusitania?
What do the images imply about Germans during WWI?
Are these images effective?
If you were a member of the American public during this time period, would you support entry into the war? Why would you take this position?
War bonds to support the Allies
How does America identify with the rest of Europe? What "isms" does America portray?
What major social and technological changes were identified from the video?
How has America changed heading off to war?
Mobilization for War
US initially has 200,000 men
Selective Service Act - May 1917
By the end of the war, 2.7 million men were drafted, and another 1.3 men enlisted willingly
Women in the war
women from all socioeconomic classes served; a first!
middle and upper class fund-raised, organized drives
lower class replaced men in factories and served as nurses overseas
Mobilization for War - cont.
Needed massive shipping fleet
Exempted shipyard workers from draft
Encouraged shipyard jobs
Ships sent by "convoy" system
Turn to a neighbor, based on what we learned thus far, what were the major contributions that American troops made to the Allied war effort?
Americans with German names lost jobs
Flogging and smearing
Changing of names
Espionage and Sedition Acts - 1917-1918
Person fined up to $10,000 and 20 years in jail for saying anything disloyal or abuse about government or war
Targeted socialists and labor leaders (Industrial Workers of the World)
Social Changes - The Great Migration
African Americans move to the North
Escape racial discrimination
Southern floods and weevils
Job opportunities in North
Women in the War
Moved into traditionally male positions
Jane Addams - peace movement
1919 / ratified 1920 - Nineteenth Amendment
Schenck v. US - 1919
Official of US Socialist party
Protested against the draft
Compared draft to slavery
Sentenced to prison
Stated "violated free speech"
"Protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting 'Fire!' in a theatre and causing a panic."
The War Front - United States
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
General John J Pershing
Tank and airplane technology
Americans Push Forward
US pushed back Germany and changed tide of war
November 3rd, 1918 - Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies
German sailors mutinied, socialist party overthrows Kaiser
11th hour, 11th day, 11th month of 1918 - agreed to armistice
End of War - Final Toll
22 million people perished, more than half civilians
20 million wounded
10 million+ became refugees
War Industries Board
Established in 1917 under Bernard M. Baruch
Encouraged companies to mass-produce
Retail prices doubled - price fixing
Wages increased slightly - food administration
Treaty of Versailles
Severely punish Axis
Germany - 50 billion in war debt
Took away almost all of military and colonial land
Spreading Democracy - Citizens have the freedom to choose to become a democracy
Open Markets - Nations should work towards having free and open trade
Intl Organization to Keep Peace - By joining together and protecting each other, could maintain peace
Active Global United States - US should be a leader in world affairs
Take each section of the 14 points and place it in one of the four categories
Wilson's 14 Points Rejected
Georges Clemenceau - France - rejected offer
David Lloyd George - Make Germany Pay!
Peace conference did not include Central Powers
Rejected racial equality clause
Treaty of Versailles Debate
Two sides - either punish Germany or too harsh?
Based on what you've learned in class - write your version of the Treaty of Versailles. Name at least 3 key ideas for your treaty (from most > least important)
End of War - Wilson's 14 Points
Wilson's Plan for world peace
Delivered before Congress