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adapting the status quo

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mike harmel

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of adapting the status quo

This master plan is for a design in Bangkok, Thailand (2011 Holcim Asia Pacific Silver Award)
It shows the site from satellite views, a typical map view, images, and also with a projected population increase map
The master plan helps us to understand the site from a broad spectrum
In this plan, it is described how the city is over crowded with people and food has to be grown and shipped in from hundreds of miles away
The solution was to create an urban farm and kitchen within the city center to prevent food from being trucked into the city and also to build the community through collective farming
The site plan to the right shows existing conext and photos of existing structures while also illustrating the proposed changes to the site and building design
Design and Poche are clearly contrasted, design elements are clearly labeled and legible
This master plan is highly relevant for our design intentions in Haiti as we are also designing an urban center in the city
Using this master plan as a template will allow us to follow a set course in design that has already been mapped out so rather than using resources trying to lay out a master plan, we can focus more time on site and building design 2011 HOLCIM silver Asia Pacific Master Plan Site Plan The specifics of this site design are very comprehensive as they merge existing conditions with new design ideas
The exisitng factory is retained and the abandoned farmland is recalimed and put back into use
The exisitng pond is refurbished and the parking/roads/sidewalks are reevaluated and changed to meet the new designs needs
The pond has a walkway built around it to create a resting area and a path between the urban market and urban barn which will sell the food produced on the farm further north on the site
Public transit, a coffee shop, and a place for public food carts/kiosks are just a few ways that this site design tries and succeeds in engaging a large part of the community by giving them all an opportunity or reason to visit the site (2011 Holcim Asia Pacific Silver Award)
By thinking this way when designing for Haiti, it is possible to encompass the entire public and private realm in the targeted community
Giving people different ways to access, use, and interact with the site will be beneficial in the Haiti design Site
Agriculture Extreme
Housing &
House Bamboo
integration Human
harvesting Alternative
collection Vertical
farming Promoting Local Connections: People of all ages and from all backgrounds began working together to create “food secure communities” with more access to local, healthy food, and greater economic opportunities for local farmers, ranchers and food entrepreneurs. After 2 years of strategic work with hundreds of volunteers and dozens of federal, state and local group partners, there’s now a quickly expanding regional “healthy food hub” in Western Nevada that is being recognized nationally. Typically combining everything into one will result in disaster but in this example; combining landscape design + water storage and distribution + multicrop planting + multiple access routes, in an educated manner will result in a harvesting season of 12 months
These merged farming techniques allow access to every spot on the farmland, it allows better distribution of water, easier harvesting, and a larger selection of crops for harvest
A majority of the crops that are grown on the farm are local to this region in Thailand
The rest of the crops that are non native to this area thrive in Bangkok’s climate (2011 Holcim Asia Pacific Silver Award)
An age old concept such as farming has been analyzed and combined with multiple different ways of farming to form a harvest season all year long in a simplified manner
Applying this idea to a cultural situation in Haiti such as dancing or cooking may allow a paradigm shift in the way dancing and cooking are done or even merge the two Site
Ecology This aspect of the site plan analyzes the uses and waste from from each design proposal and also from existing infrastructure
Natural resources such as water location (wells and springs), water runoff, greenspace, and solar energy opportunities are documented and also taken advantage of
Trash produced and documented in liters/day as well as where it comes from are noted and trash receptacles/recycling areas are designed and implemented on site
Water required for irrigation and solar energy harnessed are calculated, including electrical loads on the proposed built environment (2011 Holcim Asia Pacific Silver Award)
Designing in a way that calculates exactly how much waste is generated, energy consumed and produced, water used and captured makes the project more tangible
It is something that may be overlooked during design by architects as we are so enthralled by design, but it is necessary Urban
Barn The urban barn employes a similar drip irrigation technique to the urban kitchen with a collection tank on the roof which drips into the center and is then cascaded down into the central breezeway and waters the green walls
Recycled materials are also employed in this design and include steel, recycled concrete rubble, plastic bottles, and reflective glass
The central breezeway is a shleter from wind and rain which ties the structure together
The sheltering aspects of the breezeway draw people inside and then they are encouraged to shop at the multiple shops located in the urban barn (2011 Holcim Asia Pacific Silver Award) Urban
Kitchen The urban kitchen design features a kitchen, a dining area, a green wall, and mushroom growing room
The skeleton of the building is made of recycled steel and polycarbonate, the lower framework and deck are constructed from reclaimed wood, lastly the mushroom growing room is lined with old terra cotta pots
The exo skeleton acts as a thermal buffer from the weather and the wind once covered in foliage, it uses a water collection tank which then drip irrigates the plants throughout the structure
The food grown on the urban farm is cooked in the urban kitchen, which provides food to locals and members of the community (2011 Holcim Asia Pacific Silver Award)
Applying this concept to Haiti is crucial, because Haiti does not have resources to gather from other places like Bagkok does in this example Building blocks of the Pallet House, which uses recycled pallets as the skeleton
The pallets are filled with concrete, grout, straw, daub, rocks, mud, and just about any material with insulative capacity that can be had relatively cheap
The Pallet House design is labor intensive and is only intended as transitional housing (1998 I-Beam Design)
The Extreme Housing Project (Deborah Gans, Matt Jelacic 1999) consists of two freestanding boxes connected in the center with beams
The center becomes a bed while one enclosure is a toilet and the other is a shower, cistern, and hearth
The design utilizes part of an existing structure as its foundation and primary wall Building
Materials/Uses Bamboo structures are very sustainable, given that it is obtainable
Bamboo is strong in tension and also in compression, it grows quickly and is relatively cheap
It can be used as a dividing barrier or wind shelter among other things while being grown Bamboo performs well in earthquakes and has minimal issues with moisture
Fastening bamboo can be as simple as using rope to bind them together; a concrete foundation isn’t always necessary
Using cob as a building material is an inexpensive option and it consists of: clay, sand, straw, water, and earth; this mixture renders it fireproof
Cob mixtures can be pressed using hand operated machines to create compressed and uniform bricks
It is much faster to make cob bricks than it is to grow and harvest bamboo (up to 5 days vs up to 7 years)
Utilizing the inherent qualities of building materials for a passive strategy such as cooling; this is easily achievable with bamboo to create air gaps for passive ventilation in humid environments
The rigid body of bamboo allows the structure to be raised above the level of flood waters in the rainy season or case of a hurricane Designing
Box Community
Building Research is very important
Understanding culture allows us to design for the people
It also allows for designs to have multiple uses
Can designs be used for more than one purpose?
Taking a bus and giving the riders an opportunity to dance while in transit
Creating a kitchen in a community center to create jobs for people to cook as well as build community: socilaizing, sharing recipes, gossip, etc
Utilizing a children’s merry-go-round to pump fresh water to a resevoir in areas where electricity may not be accesible for a pump
Composting toilets that create a place for refuse (rather than in the street or back alley) and also repurpose it to be used as fertilizers Mike Harmel.Garrett Collins.Carlos Meza.October 2012 Swiss
Cell Tents and
Tarps Concrete Strawbale Bamboo Agricultural
Board Sheet/Corrugated
Metal PROS
Easy to construct
Easy to Transport
Structural Strength
Not particularly good vs. point loads
Transmits sound
Not Secure
Requires second skin of swiss cell with insulator to be suitable
Expensive as a temporary solution
Easy to construct
Easy to Transport
Water resistant
Not structural
Transmits sound
Not Secure
Not weatherproof
Short lifespan
Susceptible to wind PROS
Great Compressive Strength
Easy to construct
Can be created on site
Tectonically stable with proper techniques and/or post/pre-tensioning
Versatility in use
Fire Resistant
Not particularly good vs. tensile loads
Transmits sound
Not good with thermal exchange
Requires skilled labor
Can require formwork
Not eco-friendly PROS
Well insulated
Structurally Sound
Easy to construct
Fire resistant
Easy to construct
Not local
Requires other construction materials
Not local PROS
Incredible tensile strength and compressive
Versatility of use
Works well in humid climates
Can be grown in Haiti
Requires extra labor to connect bamboo pieces together
Only works for skeletal structure
Not good with thermal exchange
Not currently local
Not culturally accepted by Haitians
Requires wood which must also be imported. PROS
Alternative to OSB
Easy to use
Boost to local economy
Made from waste materials
Can create an appropriate thermal exchange
Does not create an entire structure
Transmits sound
Requires chemical resin/adhesive
Has not been tested in humid climates
Would likely require additional siding
Not entirely eco-friendly
Can be made locally
Good roofing material
Easy to use
Boost to local economy
Does not create and entire structure
Transmits sound
Can create an overly hot environment
Transmits temperature between exterior and interior
Local production may not meet demand
Negative stigma (Slum Living)
• Kopernik Technology Marketplace is a website that finds a need in impoverished areas and allows anyone accross the world to make donations or purchase items to aid these people
• The purchases are technological in type and range from water filters, biomass ovens, to solar powered cell phone chargers
• Group fundraising takes place on the website and people pitch in to reach a set funding level, at that point the project is set in motion
• RainDrops is a system of water bottles which connect to a rain water runoff source such as a gutter
• The water bottles are fastened to a gutter or downspout by a threaded adaptor
• The water then sits in the bottles for 24-48 hours for the sun’s ultraviolet rays to purify the water
(Yanko Design)• Spaza-de-Move-on is a portable kiosk designed for selling and distributing goods in South Africa
• The steel kiosk fucntions as a rolling suitcase and then transforms into a chair and display table upon deployment
• The kiosk may be overly heavy and expensive
(Doug Anwar Jahangeer 2010) •Often called the poor man’s timber, bamboo is becoming an integral part of helping millions worldwide escape poverty. With the second largest concentration of bamboo forests in the world, India is reaching out for their piece of the pie of the $7.5 billion global bamboo market while at the same time, using the resource to empower low-income and isolated rural areas to gain economic independence. While India has the 4th largest fastest-growing economy, it also has one of the largest concentrations of people living below the international poverty line, and the World Bank has cited the need for rural development to help narrow that gap.
•Wood substitutes and composites their main focus is developing and validating technologies as they promote this application to existing companies.
•Construction & Structural Applications – As structural engineering advances, they are finding new and innovative uses for the lightweight and durable bamboo in their designs.
•Agro-processing – Bamboo shoots are considered a delicacy in Asia and the council is working to improve harvesting and marketing techniques to encourage small farmers in this market. •Machinery and Process Technologies – As they increase the demand for bamboo products through their promotions, the NMBA recognizes that supply must keep up. To that end, they are developing a range of low-cost but more efficient tools and machinery for the bamboo farmers to utilize.
•Propagation & Cultivation – To sustain a large production program, they are working hard to ensure that bamboo seeds and cultivation materials are available consistently and at a high quality.
•Bamboo for energy – In their commitment to working towards a greener India, the government is turning to bamboo as an energy source to replace fossil fuels. The mission is focused on researching gasifiers using bamboo and bamboo waste as a means to generate electricity and thermal energy.
•Industrial Products – With its versatility, even bamboo “waste” is a resource. The NMBA is testing technologies to bring bamboo charcoal to the mass market. •The payoff generally comes quickly. A treadle pump typically adds $100 or more to a farmer's income the first year, because it increases a family's workable farmland from about an eighth of an acre — the maximum that hand-carried water can irrigate — to an acre.
•"Treadle pumps do work," said Andrew Natsios, former Bush administration USAID administrator, who encountered them along the India-Bangladesh border. "Farmers told us that they were producing more food and making more money."
•About 2.2 million Third World farmers have bought Polak's treadle pumps since 1981, according to his nonprofit International Development Enterprises, based in Lakewood, Colo. Add to this other IDE aids to small farmers, such as drip-irrigation systems, and the total helped is 3 million. More like 15 million to 18 million, if you count their families
•For example, that cheap pumps appealed less to poor farmers than more durable ones and that big first-year payoffs were essential. He also learned how some treadle-pump users increased their incomes by $400 or more. (They diversified crops, used fertilizer better and took their crops to market early, before gluts drove prices down.) BICYCLE
•This model is designed to assist farmers and other users in rural and nonelectrified areas in their agricultural and non-agricultural uses. In addition to being a mean of transportation, the human-powered water pump is used for water pumping purposes.
•It is able to pump water to an elevation of 2.5 meters (8 feet) at 12 liters per minute (3 gallons per minute) by pedaling at normal running speed. Water is pumped through a 3/8 inch pipe to the desired elevation and then flows through a water wheel chained to an electricity generator that lights an LED lamp with no use of grid electricity.
•The model is built using an old mountain bike plugged into a frame with a 0.5 hp centrifugal pump attached to the flywheel of the back tire through a metallic chain.
•The prototype is placed at the Science Village Expo in Dbayeh Lebanon. A scientific exposition and scientific resort open all year round for students and families to learn about science, technology, and engineering. The village receives around 3000 visit per month mainly between the ages of 6 and 16. •When I’m alone in the wilderness, I like to imagine what I’d have to do to survive if I found myself in dire straits. I’d eat gnats and toads and catch rainwater using a low-tech system I’d devise with Maple Leaves, rocks, fishing line, and a canteen. Or, I could just bring the fog and dew harvesters designed by British inventor Alon Alex Gross. (Given the stack of evidence against my survival skills, this is probably a good idea.)
•Gross’s prototype is more efficient than its predecessors because it’s made of lightweight, modern materials and is far more high-tech. Now, contemporary castaways can connect Goss’s collector to the Internet to determine the best spot to catch moisture and to monitor the device from afar. (Waaay cooler than my fancy water pump.) •The invention isn’t just for spoiled Westerners; afar, those who are unfamiliar with high-tech gadgetry can use it to collect clean drinking water. The device may prove a boon in the water-scarce Third World , where disease and infection borne through contaminated drinking water are a leading cause of death. It is a whole lot cheaper than some of the fancy-schmancy water collectors we’ve seen lately, hanging out instead with the other easy-to-use concepts.•Goss’s dew collector weighs less than a pound and can collect just under half a gallon per night. It features a special laminate foil that attracts dew, and a sensor that reacts to atmospheric changes and opens/closes the device, depending on conditions. His fog harvester can collect just over 2.5 gallons in 24 hours •Developing agricultural spaces within or near urban areas has a great potential to reduce food transportation costs and environmental effects, as well as provide opportunities for economic development and diminish the disparities in access to healthy foods. In order to become a viable option to food production for the masses, urban agriculture must overcome challenges of scalability, energy efficiency and labor costs.•To understand the capacity of New York City’s crop production, UDL’s report aims to answer how much land could be productively used for agriculture and how much crop could realistically be grown in the given land. When it comes to the benefits of urban agriculture in New York City, the study also considers factors like food security, storm water runoff and sewer overflow mitigation, urban heat island effect, energy consumption, waste reduction, as well as opportunities for composting for agricultural purposes.•The study highlights key findings as summarized below:• Urban agriculture can play a critical role as productive green urban infrastructure. Urban agriculture can serve as an critical environmental service to the city through stormwater runoff mitigation, soil remediation, and energy use reduction. • Urban agriculture can play an important role in community development. Urban agriculture can be a means of transforming underutilized or neglected space into a public resource, providing opportunities for social interaction, greater community cohesion and self-sufficiency, and engagement for young people in underserved neighborhoods.
• Intensive growing methods adapted to urban spaces can result in yields per acre which greatly exceed those of conventional production techniques. Employing high-yield or “biointensive” production techniques characteristic of urban agriculture can make the best use of available land.
• While urban agriculture cannot supply the entire city with all of its food needs, in certain neighborhoods it can significantly contribute to food security. Areas with low access to healthy food retail, high prevalence of obesity and diabetes, low median income, and comparatively high availability of vacant and other available land are where urban agriculture could have the greatest impact on food security.
• There is a need for cost/benefit analyses that reflect the full complexity of the city’s social and environmental challenges. In addition to environmental benefits, urban agriculture has the potential to generate revenue and provide long-term employment. Urban Edible Gardens solve many problems simultaneously. It helps reduce gas, cost, water (depending on system used), while increasing social justice and community connection. Challenges typically include space and scale. However, there are alternative ways of imagining our cities. The hub addresses local hunger, boosts the local economy and expands opportunities for youth and adults to teach and learn sustainable agriculture and gardening skills. Community members, farmers, schools, food co-ops, students, parents, nonprofits, businesses and the Coalition’s garden center, Community Roots, have helped implement and maintain 8 organic school gardens, 6 community gardens and composts, 6 community hoop houses. The impact on reducing local hunger and increasing food security and self-reliance has been immediate and meaningful: during the summer of 2011, one of the community gardens produced nearly 7,000 pounds of produce that was donated to local food pantries.

Stopping Hunger with Volunteer-Powered Food Pantries: The Coalition’s unique food hub includes two “volunteer-powered” food pantries in Dayton and Silver Springs where people in need of the service help operate the pantries with Coalition staff management. Excess fresh food from the farmers’ markets is incorporated into the food boxes packed at the pantries, so that people have more access to nutritious food
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