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The War on Terror
Transcript of The War on Terror
"Charlie Wilson's War" 1989 Russia withdrew => instability North - Northern Alliance Warlords South/East ultra conservative - Taliban Taliban mostly Pastun Refugees who escaped war by fleeing to Pakistan Centered in Kandahar Pashtun are largest of many different ethnic tribes Led by Mullah Mohammed Omar Taliban Opposed westernization Banned TV Movies Radio Paintings, Sculptures or Photographs of humans men wear full beards Women wear Burqas Banned from School Work outside of the home Opposed Poppy growing Major industry of many Warlords into this Mix comes
Usaama bin Laden Rich son of Saudi's largest contractor Left Saudi Arabia and helped fight Russians in Afghanistan 1989 offered an "Islamist Army" to fight Iraq's invasion of Kuwait Angered by Pro-west stand
of S.A. princes Kicked out of S.A in 1991 Member of the Islamic Brotherhood Fled to Sudan creates Al Qeada - "the Base" Second in Command - Ayman al Zawari Radical Egyptian - part of Sadat assasination and opposed Murabek => imprisoned Mid 1990's two attacks on US embassies in Africa by alQaeda Kenya Tanzania US pressure forced bin Laden
to flee Sudan In Afghanistan sets up "Training Camps" Pres. Clinton launched "Cruise Missle" attack on
Camps in Afghan Misses bin Laden 2000 - AlQeada attack on USS Cole in Yemen 2001 - 9-11 attacks on US symbols of Economic power - World Trade Center Military Power - The Pentagon Political power - Flight 93
alleged to attack either
Congress Pres. Bush announces Global War on Terror Uses Article 5 of NATO charter to get Euro support Bin Laden blamed for 9-11 US Demands Afghanistan turn in bin Laden Afghan Taliban refusal => US invasion Taliban wins War is won relatively easily in 2002 Allied forces helped by Northern Alliance
defeat Taliban Taliban flees to camps in Pakistan Alliance leader Hamid Karzai chosen as interum leader US works with warlords in
exchange for anti-Taliban efforts Warlords return to Opium trade Meanwhile US focus turns to Iraq 2003 invades Iraq for 1. Failure to meet UN agreements 2. Allegations of WMD's Afghanistan becomes NATO issue Iraqi victory => Saddam Hussein tried 8 year effort at Nation-building
in Iraq New US backed parliamentary Gov't led by Nouri Al Malaki Secular Shia leader Shia led gov't opposed by Sunnis => Sunni/Shia violence
"Death Squads" on both sides kill thousands Kurds in northen Iraq support Shia gov't Want a Kurdistan in parts of Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq By 2007 violence led to US "Surge" Over 20,000 additional US troops Invasion Opposed by UN US led "Coalition of the Willing" after almost 8 years
Troops scheduled to leave Iraq Pres. Obama refocuses war on Afghanistan Many NATO Members had withdrawn forces AllowedTaliban to re-emerge Destabilized Karzai's Control Threatened to destabilize Pakistan Pakistan has Nukes Current US plan - "Surge" to recapture Afghanistan US has begun withdrawl but Needs regional stability andsecurity of
Pakistan's Nukes bin Laden not yet found US regional relations are slipping Has become America's Longest War Key reasons
1. Allegations of WMD => False
2. Ties to Alqeada => False
3. Regional threat of Iraq => true
4. Democratic Reforms to Iraq -"Freedom Agenda" http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/EMPIRE17.swf Later Elected 1st President Current Issues Afghanistan - "Graveyard of Empires" Opium growing - key indusry for centuries Led to Civil war between Rival Warlords 3. Ties to AlQeada