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Transcript of Music
Musica, Musika, Musique, Mousikí̱, Muziek
Kinds of Music
What is Music?
Music is the art of combining sounds of varying pitch to produce a coherent composition that is melodious, harmonious, intelligible, and expressive of ideas and emotions.
Similar to the visual arts, the audio-visual arts have their respective elements. Music has its own set of elements; dance has another set; and drama has still anoter set.
However, there are some elements common in these three genres.
Music has for its elements the following:
is the relative higness or lowness of a tone.
Volume or Intensity
- is loudness of softness of a sound. It ranges from very soft
to very loud
Tempo or Rate -
is the speed of a composition or any of its sections. Ballads have slow tempo, whereas dance songs have faster rate. Terms such as allegro
( moderate speed)
(slower than adante),
are related to tempo.
- is the length of time during which a sound is produced. Some sounds are longer than the others.
Timbre or Tone Color -
Timbre is the quality of sound that makes it distinct from other sounds.
- is the consistent pattern or succession of identical or similar sounds. This is illustrated by the succession of similar sounds in a song, as follows, introduction, stanza one, chorus, refrain, stanza two, chorus, refrain, coda, and conclusion.
- is the series of consecutive tones that vary in pitch and duration but form a line of individual significance and expressive value. It is an orderly succession of tones or musical sounds. It is the one remembered by a listener or the one he whistles or hums, especially so when he does not know the lyrics.
- is the simultaneous sounding of two or more tones. When three or more tones are sounded simultaneously, there exists a chord.
- is the number of tones expected to be apprehended simultaneously. It is either monophonic (sounding of a single melodic line without an accompaniment), polyphonic (simultaneous sounding of two or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest), or homophonic (sounding of one main melody supported by a subordinate one, as in the performance of a folk singer with a guitar accompaniment).
- is the overall organization of the composition. It is associated with shape, structure, and coherence. All the musical elements are put together to come up with the cohesive whole called form. Jose Palma's lyrics of the Philippines National Anthem entitled "Lupang Hinirang" were arranged into a march by Julian Felipe. All the notes and all the other components of the song constitute its form.
Kinds of Music
Three types of Music
is music created by the orderly relationships found among the planets and the changing seasons of the world.
is music created by human beings, by the unity of the body and the soul.
is music created by musical instruments (Lamucho et al., 2003).
Moreover, music is, classified into vocal music, instrumental music, and a combination of the two.
- music produced by the voices of singers. The singing is done without the accompaniment of musical instruments. Vocal music is rendered a cappella.
- music produced by musical instruments. it is exemplified by an orchestra performing without a soloist or a group of singers.
Mixed Music or Mixed Ensemble
- Mixed music is a combination of vocal music and instrumental music. Mixed ensemble usually perform in Mass, Requiem Mass, opera, oratorio, and cantana. Even a symphony orchestra may employ a vocal soloist or a chorus.
- Ensemble music is music rendered by a group of performers - singers and/or players of musical instruments. Based on the number performers and the types of musical instruments used, ensemble
- An Orchestra is the most spectacular of the ensembles because of its large size. Usually performing under the direction of a conductor, the musicians playing several instruments of the same kind are given a part. It is divided into four section: the string, the woodwind, the brass, and the percussion.
- Folk music is the traditional and spontaneous music of people, race, nation, or region. It has
passed down orally
from one generation to another and is generally not a composer's work. The
typical feelings of people
from which it originated are expressed. The spirit of the time is reflected. We have a treasury of songs in folk music that reflect all phases of life in love songs, wok songs, patriotic songs, drinking songs, narrative songs, dance songs, etc.
- Musical compositions of enduring excellence, felt to be of first significance before modern times are called classical music. In Philippines, among the noted Filipino classical music composers are
. Classical compositions such as
Nasaan Ka Irog
are the examples for this.
- This is a musical drama, which for many years, has been one of the most attractuve forms of entertainment. It is a wonderful combination of vocal and instrumental music, ensembles, soloists, chorus, ballet, orchestra, scenery, pantomime and acting.