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Rizal Final Report
Transcript of Rizal Final Report
In this module presents Rizal’s educational ideas found in some of his important writings. This includes Rizal’s
1.) Views on man, on the education of man, on education and country, and 2.] Poems on education.
These form the main contents of this module. Man’s Status in Creation Rizal on Man Rizal also regarded man as perfect in his limitations. Here, the terms perfect and limitations seem to be in contradiction.Perfection means without limitations. This is true in the case of God, and God only. In Dapitan, Rizal had a correspondence with Fr. Pablo Pastells. The correspondence centered on religious themes: judgment, God, and revelation.
Rizal expressed his view on man in his correspondence with Fr. Pastells.In his first letter to Fr. Pastells, dated September 1, 1892, Rizal said: “For me, man is the masterpiece of creation, perfect in his limitations, who can’t be deprived of any of his parts, whether moral or physical, without being disfigured and rendered miserable.” But Rizal meant something different. Man is perfect,
but he is perfect only in so far as the contour or boundary of his nature as man is concerned. Is man complete or perfect in so far as hid nature as man and only as man, is concerned?
The answer is yes. This is what Rizal meant to say in the
word perfect. However, Rizal also said that man has limitations. This means that man, although perfect in his nature as man, and only in so far as man is man, still has limitations. Man has no power over nature. Man is not omnipotent, omniscient, etc. as God is. In this sense man is said to be limited. This is what Rizal meant to say in the word limitations. Man’s Freedom Rizal’s view on man followed the Enlightenment’s assertion on human freedom.
Fr. Pablo Pastells accused Rizal’s assertion of his freedom as nothing but self- love. Rizal responded this accusation in his letter dated September 1, 1892. That man is a perfectly created being, that man must not be deprived of his moral and physical parts, that man must be perfected in his conditions – all this Rizal emphasized.
Rizal emphasized individual freedom. For him, man, “the masterpiece of creation,” can truly develop his moral and
physical conditions in freedom. For Rizal, the physical and moral conditions of man are always related to his environment, and apart from this, such conditions are meaningless. Thus an environment free of oppression is the conducive place for man’s moral and physical development or perfection Rizal recognized the status of man as the “masterpiece of creation.”
However, this masterpiece, being endowed with freedom, needs to be developed. For Rizal, this development is attainable through education. He emphasized the education of man. ON THE EDUCATION OF MAN Rizal wrote this letter in Germany. Here he gave a practical advice to
his sister Trinidad, about to turn 18 at that time.
And he described the qualities of German women to his sister. Letter to Sister Trinidad At your age, German girls appear to be twenty or twenty - four in looks as well as in manners. The German girl is serious, studious and diligent, and since her dresses are of few colors and generally few in number, she does not care much about clothes nor about jewels Rizal advised his sister Trinidad to aspire for nobler things, the greatest of which is education. Rizal then continued: It is a pity that in our country the principal ornament of all
women consists almost always in clothes and in luxury and
not in education. Rizal wanted his sister to see the value of education as the true ornament of women. TO THE YOUNG WOMEN OF MALOLOS Rizal was in London, engaged in annotating Morga’s book, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas(Historical Events of the Philippine Islands), when he wrote this famous letter to the young women of Malolos. At this time, del Pilar was in Barcelona; he wrote Rizal, asking him to write a letter to the young women of Malolos. In this letter(or rather essay), Rizal exalted the twenty women of Malolos for their courage in asking permission from Governor general Weyler to open a night school for the education of women. But later on these courageous young women obtained permission from the government. This caused a stir in the Philippines and Spain Rizal emphasized education as important for women (mothers) rearing up their children. He said: “The people cannot expect honor or prosperity so long as they will educate their children in a wrong way, so long as the woman who guides the child in his steps is slavish and ignorant.
The cause of backwardness of Asia lies in the fact that there the women are ignorant, are slaves; while Europe and America are powerful because there the women are free and well educated and endowed with lucid intellect and strong will” THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINOS In Rizal’s time, the Filipino people were being described as indolent or lazy people. Rizal reacted against this description. He defended the Filipinos by showing the real causes of the seeming indolence of Filipinos. Rizal expressed his defense in his long essay The Indolence of Filipinos. He tried to prove such accusation wrong. In the last paragraph of this essay, Rizal expressed his desire for the education of the people. He said: “Without education and liberty, which are the soil and the sun of man, no reform is possible, no measures can give the result desired. This does not mean that we should ask first for the native the instruction of a sage and all imaginable liberties, in order then to put a hoe in his hand or place him in a workshop; such a pretension would be an absurdity and vain folly. What we wish is that obstacle be not put in his way, not to increase the many his climate and the situation of the islands already created for him, that instruction be not begrudged him for fear that when he becomes intelligent he may separate from the colonizing nation or ask for the rights of which he makes himself worthy.” In this passage, Rizal argued that reform is but the result or effect of education and liberty. However, in asking for the education of the natives, he did not demand that they be immediately given the higher level of education (the instruction for the sage) proper to the intellectual or doctorate degrees. Rizal only demanded two things:
1.) is the need to stop increasing the already difficult condition of the Filipinos due to
climate and other situations.
2.)is the need to stop the begrudging (thus hindering or denying) the education of the Filipinos for the simple reason that they may separate from Spain or may ask for human rights the moment they become educated. EDUCATION AND COUNTRY Rizal indeed emphasized the education of the people as individuals. He wanted to see people improve in their lives. But Rizal did not merely aim at the education of individuals. Individuals are not “no man is an island” Letter to His Countrymen Education of Peoples for the Country. Rizal expressed his great interest in education for the progress of the country. In this letter, he said: “My countrymen, I have given proofs that I am one most anxious for freedom for our country, and I am still desirous of them. But I place as prior condition the education of the people, that by means of instruction and industry out country may have an individuality of its own and make itself worth of these freedoms. I have recommended in my writings the study of civic virtues, without which there is no redemption.” False Idea of Happiness Naturally man desires and seeks for happiness. But in his search for a happy life, he usually falls into false idea of happiness. For example, “many have endeavored to be happy with the priests of God, officials of the government, and the common masses.”
In Rizal’s novel Noli Me Tangere, Capitan Tiago exemplifies this attitude. This character represents those who only think of their aggrandizement, not the development of the country. Complacent Attitude is prevalent in human society. Many men in our society, for example, feel good or happy in identifying themselves with: 1]the best athletes in the world
2] the passing beauty of the possess
3] the amount of wealth they own
4] the famous actors and actresses
5] the prestige they hold in the society, etc These are false ideas, the result of man’s giving up his rational nature. Foreigners or conquerors usually impose false ideas. And man imitates them immediately, consciously or unconsciously. Imitation is an indication of slavish or colonial mentality, the incapacity for self-thinking. Rizal appealed for a change in such mentality. His mission was that man, the Filipino in particular or society in general, may progress again, Rizal said : “I have recommended in my writings the study of civic virtue, without which there is no redemption.” Social Ideal Social malady exists in both the individual and society at large. Social structures need remodeling. But how is it possible to effect changes in society? Society is but the conglomeration of individuals, a body politic. Ricardo Pascual wrote about this topic as follows. There must be first a regeneration of the individual since the nation’s progress is more of an effect than a cause of the former’s change. The individual must have a new vision, a new ideal to strive for, despite, if not because of, the disheartening circumstances of this social malady. The only possible cure lies in the individual inhabitants because reform in the ruling classes, besides being impossible for being contrary to the principles followed by the Imperialists, is just another plaster upon a cancer, a compromise that will only prolong the agony of the patient. The individual, therefore, must strive anew under a different inspiration for the redemption of that malady-stricken society. In addition, the Sublime Paralytic Apolinario Mabini (1864 – 1903), Filipino theoretician and spokesman of the Revolution, already thought of this issue as follows: In order to build the proper edifice of our social regeneration, it is imperative that we change radically not only out institutions but also our manner of behaving and thinking. It is necessary to have both an external and internal revolution, by establishing our moral education on a more solid foundation and purging ourselves of those vices, the majority of which we have inherited from the Spaniards. Here, the Sublime Paralytic really spoke of sublime words concerning the sickness of the country (then and now). For Mabini, a radical change is needed: a change of the ways of thinking and behaving. The Filipino needs both internal and external revolutions: the purging out of vices detrimental to national development and the inculcating of moral values necessary for national development. Like Rizal and other patriots, he also strived for the freedom of the Philippines. He expressed his ideas in his work, The Philippine Revolution. Social change requires someone that serves as an exemplar or a social ideal. The life of Dr. Jose Rizal himself was a social ideal. He loved his country even to the point of death. He wanted to bring a new face to his nation. His nationalism was a social ideal. In fact, through the mouth of Ibarra, Rizal spoke: Alone, in fact, we are nothing but take the cause of
the people, unite with the people, do not ignore their voices, give example to others, give idea of what is called a country. Rizal emphasized nationalism. He was an exemplar of love of one’s country. Again, through the mouth of Ibarra, he said: But why love the country? Ibarra answers: … I, like you, love my country, not only because it is the duty of every man to the country to which he owes his being and to which he perhaps will owe the last shelter, not only because my parents have taught me so, because my mother is a Filipina, and because all of my most cherished memories live in it, but because I owe and will owe to it my happiness. And Rizal, just a few moments prior to his death, expressed his love of country or society at large in his most famous poem THE LAST FAREWELL: Thankful ye should be for me, that I rest at the end of the long day
Farewell sweet, from the stranger’s land, my joy and my comrade!
Farewell dear ones, farewell! To die is to rest from our labors. Land I adore, farewell! Thou land of the southern sun’s choosing
Pearl of the Orient seas! Our forfeited Garden of Eden!
Joyous I yield up for thee my sad life, and were it far brighter
Young, rose-strewn, for thee and thy happiness still would I give it Lovely Philippine Isles, once again adieu! I am leaving
All with thee my friends, my love, Where I go are no tyrants:
There one dies not for the cause of his faith, There God is the ruler