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www.aakup.com Work Cited Estuary Estuaries are partially closed off bodies of water that are a mixture of fresh water and salt water, from rivers flowing off of landmasses into the ocean tides. Estuaries are protected by coral reefs, barriers, bays, and peninsulas. There are four types of estuaries the coastal plains, fjord, bar-built, and tectonic. The location of estuaries in shallow waters all over the world allow temperatures to range greatly year round and waters to freeze at high altitudes. Estuaries only have theree seasons: spring, summer, and winter. Precipitation amounts on average in estuaries is around 60 inches per year. Description The different abiotic factors in estuaries are important for the survival of its biotic factors. Abiotic factors in estuaries consist of saltwater, freshwater, waterdepth, turbidity, nutrients, rocks, and air and water temperature. The different waterdepths found in estuaries allows the water temperature to be warm at higher levels and colder at lower levels. The different water temperatures allows different species in estuaries to find their niche. The mixture of nutrients, salt water, and fresh water affect the estuaries ecosystem to allow different species to thrive better than in anyother biome. The different water depths consisting of freshwater and saltwater allows the waters' temperature to very at different depths. The rock structures and water temperatures allows estuaries to be the nursery of the sea. The waters' turbidity in estuaries provides cloudiness from matter that blocks sunlight from underwater plants, causing problems with biotic factors. The nutrients in estuaries comes from the breaking down of pollution. Biotic Factors Biotic factors in estuaries consist of marshland many types of fish, coral reefs, algae, birds, grasses, shell fish, and multiple types of trees. The different types of living organisms in estuaries create symbiosis relationships. A mutualism relationship in an estuary would be the clown fish and the sea anemone. Mutualism is where two living organisms benefit from each others presence. Commensalism is where only one living organism benefits but the other living organisms does not care. In estuaries the barnacles and whales have a commensalism relationship. Parasitism is where only one living organism benefits and harms its host. The boring sponge and oyster hold a parasitism relationship. The biotic factors and abiotic factors in estuaries help break down pollution that comes down stream before it goes into the ocean. Without the abiotic factors and biotic factors in estuaries there would be more pollutants in the ocean. Human impact in estuaries can be seen in altered water flow. Dams that are constructed on rivers to form reservoirs cause estuaries to be destroyed each time one is build. The loss of estuaries cause fish and wildlife to decline and habitat to disappear. Without estuaries commercial fishing will be limited to areas that fishing will be allowed. With a decline in commercial fishing, jobs will decline putting more people out of work. Toxic chemicals that come off of farmland and factories are another negative human impact that is flooding into estuaries causing more population disasters. Humans' can change their way of life that is affecting estuaries severly by looking at the consequences of putting a dam on a river. When builders look at rivers to but a dam on, it is neccassary to find a river that does not flow into the ocean and what impacts it will have on the surrounding enviroments. Fish:
Pacific Sculpin Birds:
Western Sandpiper Mammals:
Manatees Sea Creatures:
Orange striped Jellyfish
Brooding Sea Anemone
Purple Shore Crab
Native Littleneck Clam
Hermit Crab Plants:
Aquatic Plant Coastal Plain are formed by an existing river valleys when the sea level rises and falls. Examples:
Chesapeake Bay, MA
Charleston Harbor, SC Tectonic The folding of land surfaces or the faulting of land causes tectonic estuaries to occur. Fjord Fjords are created from glaciers moving to form valleys. Bar-built Bar-built estuaries are created when protected lagoons and bays are protected by islands or land masses. Herbivores: Manatee
Carnivores: Crocodiles, Alligators, River Otter, Harbor Seal, birds and some fish
Omnivores: Sea Turtles
Detritivore: Crabs and Sea cucumbers Reptiles: