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Chemistry

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Greg Horesovsky

on 9 April 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry

Atoms Defined as the study of the structure of matter and the composition of substances, their properties, and their chemical reactions
Biochemistry is the study of chemical reactions of living things CHEMISTRY






Figure 2-3 The Electron Shells of Two Atoms Electrons and Energy Levels
Electrons in the electron cloud determine the reactivity of an atom
The electron cloud contains shells, or energy levels that hold a maximum number of electrons:
Lower shells fill first
Outermost shell is the valence shell, and it determines bonding
The number of electrons per shell corresponds to the number of atoms in that row of the periodic table
Atoms “want” to fill the electron shells Electron Shells Matter is made up of atoms
Atoms join together to form chemicals with different characteristics
Chemical characteristics determine physiology at the molecular and cellular levels
Atomic Structure:
Proton
Positive charge, 1 mass unit
Neutron
Neutral, 1 mass unit
Electron
Negative charge, low mass
Nucleus:
Contains protons and neutrons
Electron cloud:
Contains electrons Atoms 32 18 18 8 8 2 The number of protons determines what element and atom will comprise
An atom has the same number of electrons as protons
Hydrogen = 1 proton, Helium = 2 protons, Carbon =6 protons Elements Trace Elements Major Elements Carbon C
Hydrogen H
Nitrogen N
Oxygen O
Phosphorous P
Sulfur S
Calcium Ca Sodium Na
Potassium K
Chlorine Cl
Iron Fe
Iodine I
Magnesium Mg Elements You Need to Know! Chemical
Bonds Covalent Bonds Involve the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms
One electron is donated by each atom to make the pair of electrons
Sharing one pair of electrons is a single covalent bond
Sharing two pairs of electrons is a double covalent bond
Sharing three pairs of electrons is a triple covalent bond
Covalent bonds are much stronger and contain much more energy than ionic bonds Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonding Some atoms (and molecules) have a tendency to gain or to lose electrons from their outermost shells
These are called ions (electrolytes)
One atom — the electron donor — loses one or more electrons and becomes a cation, with a positive charge
Another atom — the electron acceptor — gains those same electrons and becomes an anion, with a negative charge
Attraction between the opposite charges then draws the two ions together Ionic Bonds: opposites attract! Chemical bonds form molecules and/or compounds
Molecules:
Two or more atoms joined by strong bonds
Compounds:
Two or more atoms OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS joined by strong or weak bonds
Compounds are all molecules, but not all molecules are compounds:
H2 = molecule only H2O = molecule and compound Chemical Bonds pH
The concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution
Neutral pH
A balance of H+ and OH—
Pure water = 7.0
pH of Human Blood
Ranges from 7.35 to 7.45
Acidic: pH lower than 7.0
High H+ concentration
Low OH— concentration
Basic (or alkaline): pH higher than 7.0
Low H+ concentration
High OH— concentration
pH Scale
Has an inverse relationship with H+ concentration:
More H+ ions mean lower pH, less H+ ions mean higher pH pH and Homeostasis Energy
The power to do work
Work
A change in mass or distance
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Potential Energy
Stored energy
Chemical Energy
Potential energy stored in chemical bonds Basic Energy Concepts Involve the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms
One electron is donated by each atom to make the pair of electrons
Sharing one pair of electrons is a single covalent bond
Sharing two pairs of electrons is a double covalent bond
Sharing three pairs of electrons is a triple covalent bond
Covalent bonds are much stronger and contain much more energy than ionic bonds Covalent Bonds pH and Hydrogen Ion Concentration Inorganic
Molecules not based on carbon and hydrogen
Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and inorganic acids, bases, and salts
Organic
Molecules based on carbon and hydrogen
Organic compounds ALWAYS have at least one Carbon
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids Inorganic Versus Organic Compounds
(it's ALL about Carbon) Bonds between adjacent molecules, not atoms
Involve slightly positive and slightly negative portions of polar molecules being attracted to one another
Hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules cause surface tension Amazing Water! Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonding Some atoms (and molecules) have a tendency to gain or to lose electrons from their outermost shells

These are called ions (electrolytes)

One atom — the electron donor — loses one or more electrons and becomes a cation, with a positive charge

Another atom — the electron acceptor — gains those same electrons and becomes an anion, with a negative charge

Attraction between the opposite charges then draws the two ions together Ionic Bonds: opposites attract! Chemical bonds form molecules and/or compounds
Molecules:
Two or more atoms joined by strong bonds
Compounds:
Two or more atoms OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS joined by strong or weak bonds
Compounds are all molecules, but not all molecules are compounds:
H2 = molecule only H2O = molecule and compound Chemical Bonds Carbohydrates








Figure 2-11c Glycogen: a polysaccharide






Figure 2-11b Hydrolysis (catabolism)






Figure 2-11a Dehydration Synthesis (anabolism)







Figure 2-10 Glucose Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio (CH2O)
Monosaccharides:
Simple sugars with three to seven carbon atoms
Glucose, fructose, galactose

Disaccharides:
Two simple sugars condensed by dehydration synthesis
Sucrose, maltose

Polysaccharides:
Many monosaccharides condensed by dehydration synthesis
Glycogen, starch, cellulose Carbohydrates Lipids Fatty Acids Long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxylic acid group (COOH) at one end

Are relatively nonpolar, except the carboxylic group
Because they are nonpolar, they are not soluble in water

Fatty acids may be
Saturated with hydrogen (no double bonds)
Unsaturated (one or more double bonds):
Monounsaturated = one double bond
Polyunsaturated = two or more double bonds Fatty Acids Mainly hydrophobic molecules such as fats, oils, and waxes
Made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms
Include
Fatty acids
Fats
Steroids
Phospholipids Lipids Diglycerides attached to a phosphate group (phospholipid)

Have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails and are structural lipids, components of plasma (cell) membranes Phospholipids Four rings of carbon and hydrogen with an assortment of functional groups
Types of steroids
Cholesterol
Estrogens and testosterone
Corticosteroids and calcitriol
Bile salts Steroids Fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule

Triglycerides are the three fatty-acid tails
Also called triacylglycerols or neutral fats
Have three important functions:
Energy source
Insulation
Protection Fats Proteins Buffering
Regulation of pH
Metabolic regulation
Enzymes
Coordination and control
Hormones
Defense
Antibodies Support
Structural proteins
Movement
Contractile proteins
Transport
Transport (carrier) proteins Protein Functions Proteins are the most abundant and important organic molecules
Contain basic elements
Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N)
Basic building blocks
20 amino acids Proteins A Simplified View of Enzyme Structure and Function Protein Shape
Primary structure:
The sequence of amino acids along a polypeptide
Secondary structure:
Hydrogen bonds form spirals or pleats
Tertiary structure:
Secondary structure folds into a unique shape
Quaternary structure:
Final protein shape:
– several tertiary structures together Proteins Long chains of amino acids Protein Structure Buffering
Regulation of pH
Metabolic regulation
Enzymes
Coordination and control
Hormones
Defense
Antibodies Support
Structural proteins
Movement
Contractile proteins
Transport
Transport (carrier) proteins Protein Functions Proteins are the most abundant and important organic molecules

Contain basic elements
Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N)
Basic building blocks

20 amino acids Proteins Nucleic Acids Biochemical building blocks form functional units called cells
Your body recycles and renews all of its chemical components at intervals ranging from minutes to years Chemicals Form Cells DNA is a double-stranded molecule

RNA is a single-stranded molecule The Structure of Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are large organic molecules found in the nucleus which store and process information at the molecular level

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA):
Determines inherited characteristics
Directs protein synthesis
Controls enzyme production
Controls metabolism

Ribonucleic acid (RNA):
Controls intermediate steps in protein synthesis Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA are strings of nucleotides

Nucleotides
Are the building blocks of DNA and RNA

Have three molecular parts:
A sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base (A, G, T, C, or U) Structure of Nucleic Acids The Chemical Level Of Organization Khan Academy
Introduction to the Atom WATCH THIS! Chemistry To properly understand Biology, we must first have an understanding of Chemistry.

To understand Chemistry, we must first have an understanding of Physics.

To understand Physics, we must first have an understanding of Philosophy. Our Understanding of the
Universe through Quantum Physics
(as of April 9, 2013) 4 Forces of Nature:
Gravity
Electromagnetic
Strong Nuclear Force
Weak Nuclear Force 12 Particles of Matter:
6 Quarks
up, down, strange, charm, top, bottom
6 Leptons
electron, electron neutrino, muon, muon neutrino, tau, tau neutrino Quantum Physics merges Philosophy and Science
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