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Communication skills: How to apply for a job

Maxim De Cauwer, Thomas Dekeyrel, Olivier Dumont & Anouk Philtjens
by

Olivier Dumont

on 5 June 2016

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Transcript of Communication skills: How to apply for a job

Communication skills
Principle 1: Non-verbal communication
"All behavior is communication. We cannot not communicate."
- Paul Watzlawick

Principle 2
Communication is about content and relation: what you say versus the information you give about yourself / your attitude
How to apply for a job?
Communication skills
are a
crucial part of
a
job interview
/assessment
Acquire insight in
how you are perceived
Control
the message you send
Choose
the message YOU want to send

Principle 4
"Everybody wants to be somebody. About positive and negative feedback, but please don’t ignore me!"
Principle 3: Perception
You should never try to come across as someone you’re not
The saying goes “Honesty is the best policy."
It’s about
(first) impression management
Try to avoid effects that may occur
Goal:
send a clear message
without distorted portrayal of yourself because of a too quick assessment

Emotions
happen in negotiation, even during a job interview.

You as negotiator provide a
source of stimulation
for these emotions to the other negotiator, who will likely react positively or negatively to what you say and do.

The
five main concerns
to keep in mind are:

Relationship
There's a
complementary
relationship when you apply for a job. This relationship is of unequal power, such as boss/interviewer - co-worker.
Tone of voice
Your tone of voice is more
important
than what you say
Don't be too concerned about the words you use and about getting the words right during an interview
Nonverbal communication
A little bit of theory about nonverbal communication:
nonverbal communication is a
meta-communicator
: you communicate about the communication
People tend to believe the nonverbal message instead of the verbal one
There are
intercultural differences
in nonverbal behavior (ex. bowing in Japan)
Stereotypical movements
(= movements of which you don't know you do them/tics) can cause problems
Nonverbal communication during a job interview
Giving the best answers doesn't necessarily give you the job. A big part has to do with
nonverbal communication
The interviewer will observe your nonverbal behavior through the interview
Do's
:
be confident
dress professionally
make eye contact
nod and listen
Don'ts
:
chew gum
reek of cigarettes
use too much perfume or too little deodorant
act nervous
Be observant
Nonverbal communication during a job interview
Practice your interview skills
to know which stereotypical movements you have to suppress
Know the cultural differences
when you apply for a job in a foreign country
Don't misinterpret
the content or the nonverbal communication of the interviewer
Benefit of the doubt
Building up trust (during an interview) is a slow process
Don't wait for the interviewer to say the first hello
Don't think the interviewer doesn't want to understand you
Assume that the interviewer has your best interest at heart
Sources
https://www.pauwelsconsulting.com/job-application-tips/10-tips-for-verbal-and-nonverbal-communication-in-job-interviews/
http://jobsearch.about.com/od/interviewsnetworking/a/nonverbalcomm.htm

Fisher R. & Shapiro D. (2005).
Beyond reason: Using emotions as you negotiate
. Penguin.

http://www.fishermediation.com/beyond-reason-using-emotions-as-you-negotiate/
Putting the 5 core concerns to practice: Job interview A
Evaluation interviewer
Appreciation
Affiliation
Autonomy
Status
Role
Your thoughts, feelings or actions are...
You are treated as...
Your freedom to make decisions is...
Your standing is...
Your current role and its activities are...
devalued.
acknowledged as having merit.
an adversary and kept at a distance.
a colleague.
impringed upon.
respected.
treated as inferior to that of others.
given full recognition where deserved.
not personally fulfilling.
personally fulfilling.
treated as inferior to that of others.
Putting the 5 core concerns to practice: Job interview B
Evaluation interviewer
Appreciation
Affiliation
Autonomy
Status
Role
Your thoughts, feelings or actions are...
You are treated as...
Your freedom to make decisions is...
Your standing is...
Your current role and its activities are...
devalued.
acknowledged as having merit.
an adversary and kept at a distance.
a colleague.
impringed upon.
respected.
treated as inferior to that of others.
given full recognition where deserved.
not personally fulfilling.
personally fulfilling.
treated as inferior to that of others.
Putting the 5 core concerns to practice: Job interview C
Evaluation interviewer
Appreciation
Affiliation
Autonomy
Status
Role
Your thoughts, feelings or actions are...
You are treated as...
Your freedom to make decisions is...
Your standing is...
Your current role and its activities are...
devalued.
acknowledged as having merit.
an adversary and kept at a distance.
a colleague.
impringed upon.
respected.
treated as inferior to that of others.
given full recognition where deserved.
not personally fulfilling.
personally fulfilling.
treated as inferior to that of others.
Evaluation interviewee
Appreciation
Affiliation
Autonomy
Status
Role
Your thoughts, feelings or actions are...
You are treated as...
Your freedom to make decisions is...
Your standing is...
Your current role and its activities are...
devalued.
acknowledged as having merit.
an adversary and kept at a distance.
a colleague.
impringed upon.
respected.
treated as inferior to that of others.
not personally fulfilling.
personally fulfilling.
Evaluation interviewee
Appreciation
Affiliation
Autonomy
Status
Role
Your thoughts, feelings or actions are...
You are treated as...
Your freedom to make decisions is...
Your standing is...
Your current role and its activities are...
devalued.
acknowledged as having merit.
an adversary and kept at a distance.
a colleague.
impringed upon.
respected.
treated as inferior to that of others.
not personally fulfilling.
personally fulfilling.
Evaluation interviewee
Appreciation
Affiliation
Autonomy
Status
Role
Your thoughts, feelings or actions are...
You are treated as...
Your freedom to make decisions is...
Your standing is...
Your current role and its activities are...
devalued.
acknowledged as having merit.
an adversary and kept at a distance.
a colleague.
impringed upon.
respected.
treated as inferior to that of others.
not personally fulfilling.
personally fulfilling.
given full recognition where deserved.
given full recognition where deserved.
given full recognition where deserved.
Addressing these
5 core concerns
leads to...

positive emotions
a frame of mind more prone to cooperating
thinking creatively

These concepts apply both to you and the other negotiator:

As a
job applicant
this can have an impact on your chances of success.

As an
interviewer
this can affect how the interviewee handles certain questions and can give valuable insights.

The truth is in the eye of the beholder.

Interviewers make an interpretation through their own frame of reference

Typical effects that may occur:
Similar to me effect
might happen when the interviewer is involved with the job
gives you an idea of the profile the company is looking for
The Horn effect
happens when a
negative
characteristic
reflects on the whole person
Eg.
Being too late might give the impression of being careless entirely
video:
Takes a seat on job interview and is immediately labeled as negligent for the rest of the interview
The Halo effect
happens when a
positive
characteristic
reflects on the whole person
opposite of the horn effect
strong position
for the interviewee
the interviewer might be enthusiastic, but
stay vigilant whether or not the job is a good fit
for you
Self-Fulfulling Prophecy
substantiation of own expectations by only seeing the stimuli you expect
If you think
you're not fit for the job in advance, the
interviewer will perceive you as not fit
Be
confident
Be
clear about yourself
and
what you want to achieve
Things to keep in mind
These 4 effects can happen in all contexts
Keep them in mind and anticipate
Communicate clear
and try to
avoid misjudgement

It is a matter of being very self-assertive
Assessors have to make a (quick) judgement
solely based on what they see
Don't act nervous
Be observant
Don't misinterpret
nonverbal communication
the information you give about yourself
complementary relationship
tone of voice
benefit of the doubt
Autonomy
Affiliation
Appreciation
Status
Role
Tips & Tricks: Appreciation
1. Find
merit
in what others think, feel, or do - and show it!


2. By appreciating them, you foster their appreciation of you.


3. Obstacles:

=> fail to
understand
the other side’s point of view

=> criticize the merit in what they do

=> fail to
communicate
the merit

Tips & Tricks: Affiliation
1. Propose a specific
amount of time
for them to listen to you.

2. Get him to
reflect
:


I’m not sure that I have been as clear as I can be about my perspective. Why do you think I find my own stance on these issues to be important?


3. Draw on a
metaphor
that resonates with them:


It feels as though we are dancing to different music. How can we synchronize our moves better?


4. Try to establish a
connection or bond
with the interviewee/interviewer.

Tips & Tricks: Autonomy
1. We get offended when others
limit
our autonomy.

Limiting a job applicant's thinking or discouraging them from feeling certain emotions can have an impact on the flow of a job interview.

2. Be
aware
of questions or decisions the other will respond to with...

"
I did not agree to that
"

"
I was not informed
"


The greater our autonomy, the greater the risk that others will perceive our actions as impinging on their autonomy.

Tips & Tricks: Status
1. Elevates our
self-esteem
and the esteem with which others view us.

2. High status
adds weight
to our words and deeds.

3. How do they view
their social status
in order to indicate how they expect to be treated?

=> how they describe themselves

=> level of formality

=> the words they use (tu & vous)

4. High standing in terms of your particular
expertise
.

Tips & Tricks: Role
1. Playing an unfulfilling role can lead to
resentment, anger, or frustration
.

=> clear purpose

=> personally meaningful

=> it is not a pretence


2. Become
aware
of the roles you play (besides the interview itself).


4. Become aware of
temporary
roles you play. E.g. interviewer/interviewee.


5. Don’t play a role
in response to
a role set by another person!

Express Appreciation!
Help others to understand you!
Respect autonomy!
Acknowledge status!
Choose a fulfilling role!
Putting the 5 core concerns to practice:
Who got the job?
Applicant C, "the woman", got the job!
When looking at both evaluations of her interview, we can see that she clearly scored highest on the five core concerns.

Up next? some tips & tricks!
Become a master of communication through four simple principles!
Putting the 5 core concerns to practice!
By means of three examples


Evaluation of both the interviewer AND the interviewee


Each core concern rated on an axis from left (negative) to right (positive)
Let's take a look!
Full transcript