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Overview of the Modern World
Transcript of Overview of the Modern World
At the Potsdam Conference (17 July to 2 August 1945), after Germany's unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945, the Allies divided "Occupation Zone Germany" into four military occupation zones — France in the southwest, Britain in the northwest, the United States in the south, and the Soviet Union in the east.
Increased tensions due to the Cold War resulted in the construction of the Berlin Wall...Shortly after midnight on this day in 1961, East German soldiers begin laying down barbed wire and bricks as a barrier between Soviet-controlled East Berlin and the democratic western section of the city.
Berlin Airlift - Berlin blockade and airlift, international crisis that arose from an attempt by the Soviet Union, in 1948–49, to force the Western Allied powers (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post-World War II jurisdictions in West Berlin.
Czechoslovakia uprisings in 1953, 1956 and 1968.
On 20 August 1968, 500,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia. Dubcek and three other leaders were arrested and sent to Moscow. The Czechoslovakians did not fight the Russians. Instead, they stood in front of the tanks, and put flowers in the soldiers' hair. Jan Palach burned himself to death in protest.
On March 25, 1957, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg sign a treaty in Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the Common Market.
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.
It was an agreement signed by 35 nations that concluded the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held in Helsinki, Finland. The multifaceted Act addressed a range of prominent global issues and in so doing had a far-reaching effect on the Cold War and U.S.-Soviet relations.
The Accords' or Final Act "Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States" (also known as "The Decalogue") enumerated the following 10 points:
Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty
Refraining from the threat or use of force
Inviolability of frontiers
Territorial integrity of States
Peaceful settlement of disputes
Non-intervention in internal affairs
Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief
Equal rights and self-determination of peoples
Co-operation among States
Fulfillment in good faith of obligations under international law
1.) What was the idea behind the final act?
Explain some of the benefits that were to be or could be gained from the establishment of the EEC?
2.) Why would a stablisation of the region be a positive step for the world as a whole?
What elements about decolonisation stood out in regards to the information within the clip?
Select an area to focus on in regards to decolonisation, how correct was the clip in regards to the statistics and or facts presented? What was done well? What could be improved?
When were these concepts introduced? What might have been Gorbachev hope for introducing these two concepts?
In France, the May 1968 crisis escalates as a general strike spreads to factories and industries across the country, shutting down newspaper distribution, air transport, and two major railroads. By the end of the month, millions of workers were on strike, and France seemed to be on the brink of radical leftist revolution.
What were the causes behind May 1968? What did the students and workers want? Why is it significant that they joined together?
The post–World War II economic expansion, also known as the postwar economic boom, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, was a period of economic prosperity in the mid-20th century which occurred, following the end of World War II in 1945, and lasted until the early 1970s.
American Economic Boom after World War 2. Why is this a significant factor and what role and impact would it have on shaping the world after the war?
The Nuremberg trial
In November 1945, in the German city of Nuremberg, the victors of the World War Two began the first international war crimes trial. The choice of the city was significant for it was here that the National Socialist Party held its annual rallies.
When Hermann Goering, the most senior of the National Socialist politicians captured by the Allies at the end of World War Two, was handed a copy of the statement indicting him of war crimes and crimes against humanity, he scribbled on the margins: 'The victor will always be the judge and the vanquished the accused'.
During the summer of 1945 the Allies literally devised a new body of international law to cope with the unique situation they faced. The International Military Tribunal was finally constituted on 8 August, by which time a compromise had been reached on the charges to be applied. The major war criminals were to be tried for crimes against peace, conspiracy to wage aggressive war, war crimes and crimes against humanity, including the deliberate murder of populations on grounds of race.
In 1949, the prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955. The alignment of nearly every European nation into one of the two opposing camps formalized the political division of the European continent that had taken place since World War II (1939-45). This alignment provided the framework for the military standoff that continued throughout the Cold War (1945-91).
The formation of the Warsaw Pact was in some ways a response to the creation of NATO, although it did not occur until six years after the Western alliance came into being. It was more directly inspired by the rearming of West Germany and its admission into NATO in 1955. In the aftermath of World War I and World War II, Soviet leaders felt very apprehensive about Germany once again becoming a military power–a concern that was shared by many European nations on both sides of the Cold War divide.
The Paris accord 1973
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. After a period of political crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unsolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars.
The Marshall Plan and How It Works
The enactment of "The Foreign Assistance Act of 1948" (approved April 3, 1948), was the
culmination of nearly a year of agitation, special studies by many of the U.S. agencies and foreign
governments, congressional hearings, and debate.
When hostilities ceased at the end of World War II, it was clearly evident that the war-ravaged
nations of Europe would require extensive aid if their economies were to be re-established and
starvation, unrest and political upheavals were to be avoided.
It was equally evident that the United States of America was the only nation with the resources
and leadership capable of underwriting the rehabilitation of Europe. But it was plain, also, that the
United States could not indefinitely support the strain on its economy which would result from feeding
the starving millions of Europe--to say nothing of Asia --and that relief alone would not result in reestablishing
normal life in the world.
It had become clearly evident, too, that the foreign policies of the Soviet government were
apparently aimed specifically not at reconstruction, recovery and cooperation among nations, but the
prolongation of economic chaos in Western Europe with a view to revolutionary action by the hungry
and disillusioned populations and the assimilation of the whole of the continent into the totalitarian
De-Stalinization, political reform launched at the 20th Party Congress (February 1956) by Soviet Communist Party First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev that condemned the crimes committed by his predecessor, Joseph Stalin, destroyed Stalin’s image as an infallible leader, and promised a return to so-called socialist legality and Leninist principles of party rule. This caused profound shock among communists throughout the world—who had been taught to admire Stalin—severely damaged the prestige of the Soviet Union, generated serious friction in the international communist movement, and contributed to uprisings in 1956 in Poland and Hungary.
The Geneva Accords
The Geneva Accords reached an agreement in 1954 in order to bring the end to the first Indochina war of Vietnam against France that lasted from 1946-1954. The Accords established rules as the withdrawal of French troops from a major part of Southeast Asia. It also separated Vietnam into the North and the South. Not to mention that Vietnam would have national elections in 1956.The initial battle that was a precursor to the Indochina war was, without a doubt, Dien Bien Phu. This was such an important battle for the French to lose.
Australia's support - On 23 October 1962, Prime Minister Robert Menzies addressed parliament and declared Australia’s support for the United States. He welcomed the US decision to bring the matter before the United Nations and pledged his Government’s support for its UN resolution. The US State Department acknowledged that Menzies’ statement was “the first one received”. While this did not pre-date the privately expressed support of the British, it was clearly a swift and therefore significant response. The perceived threat of communism in South East Asia amplified Australian anxieties over regional security. In January 1962, the all-important Defence Committee stated in its paper, Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy, that “Australia cannot defend herself unaided against the military power of the communist nations”.
Australia depended on US assistance for its defence. As the Cuban crisis reached almost two weeks’ duration and tensions over Berlin simultaneously increased, External Affairs officials asserted Australia’s “need to prevent a situation arising which would concentrate US attention on the Caribbean and Europe, and thus reduce her capability to take effective action, if necessary in South East Asia”. The Menzies government was mindful of the consequences the crisis could have had in our region; a region which Britain and America advised was vulnerable.
The Space Race...
The Space Race was a competition between the USA and the USSR to explore space using artificial satellites and manned spacecraft. It can be seen as a part of the larger arms race, as developments in space research could easily be transferred to military research. Both countries started work on developing reconnaissance satellites well before the height of the Space Race.
"But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade, and do the other things – not because they are easy, but because they are hard. Because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills. Because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win." JFK
The United Nations was born of perceived necessity, as a means of better arbitrating international conflict and negotiating peace than was provided for by the old League of Nations. The growing Second World War became the real impetus for the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union to begin formulating the original U.N. Declaration, signed by 26 nations in January 1942, as a formal act of opposition to Germany, Italy, and Japan, the Axis Powers.
was a theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s, that speculated that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
Why would this be of concern to Australia?
Rights and Freedoms
Research the flow on effect, what impact did the rights and freedoms in the USA have on Australia as a country?
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines
The Australia, New Zealand and United States Security Treaty, or ANZUS Treaty, was an agreement signed in 1951 to protect the security of the Pacific. Although the agreement has not been formally abrogated, the United States and New Zealand no longer maintain the security relationship between their countries.
ANZUS Treaty 1951
Using the link explore what the Petrov Affair was and explain its significance.