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Copy of Copy of Sales Promotion
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Sales Promotion
shall we? Approaches and Adhea Putri
Zwesty Aridasarie Agenda Classroom Survey Teaching Integrated English Language Skills Strategic Interaction Approach Speaking Competition Process Genre Approach Probing A number of advantages Teaching Integrated English Language Skill CTL Approach Material Development 4 Sections in a Task Ha Teaching Techniques Has Students' Constraints in Speaking Strategic Interaction Approach RESULT 64% of the respondents are comfortable with the CTL approach. Criteria of a Good Speaking Activity ? Why "Survey Activities" Teacher's Roles Speaking Competition rehearsal
engagement speaking competition why is speaking competition good? Process Genre Approach Genre-Based Literacy PROBING Model of Teaching Using Poetry Reasons for Poetry’s Unpopularity Student-Friendly Rules for Writing Poems in an English Classroom Poems do not have to rhyme.
Poems can be written in different forms.
There is no limit for a poem topic.
There is no real convention to follow in using punctuation.
There are no real rules for poems and no poem is a failure. Thanks for watching! a teaching and learning process based on philosophy Using Poetry Genre Literacy Approach Awesome use of shapes: Interviews and Chats Teaching Syntax CTL Approach A complete picture of English learning The English communication is purposeful rather artificial The system is effective, efficient, and interactive and the learning atmosphere is motivating, fun, and interesting. The role of native language for learning L2, their differences and problems. Models of the Integration of Language Skills content-based language instruction task-based instruction 3 General Models of Content-Based Language Instruction 1. Theme-Based
3. Sheltered Task-Based Instruction 1. Communicative tasks in English
2. The measurement of the learning strategies
3. Basic pair work and group work
4. Structured cooperative learning formats Contextual Teaching and Learning meaning in the instructional materials link new information with prior knowledge or experience 7 Components of CTL 1. Constructivism
4. Learning Community
6. Authentic Assessment
7. Reflection RESULTS EXPECTED ACHIEVEMENT good instructional planning good instructional implementation Comprehension Development
Speaking Practice opening input language practice skill practice Implementation of CTL Approach represented in communicative skill-based material betterment in teaching and learning process 16% is still confident with the teacher-centered.
14% prefers to study individually.
80% of the students rated that the teaching was ‘good’. The ESP teaching at the institution had been teacher-centered reading and presentation.
80% rated the teaching was ‘good’ and 20% stated ‘moderate’.
‘Conventional’ teaching method -> contextual = HARD DISCUSSION Being shy to express feelings, ideas, wishes
Being afraid of being laughed at and criticized when making mistakes
Lack of motivation The Importance of Input Research has shown that the mastery of L2 or FL relies upon the input received by a learner. Quantity of input plays an important role in whether or not a learner will master L2 or FL (Gass & Selinker, 2008). Speaking skill can also be improved by providing input from teacher, classmates, and texts. Doing so, students are expected to learn and finally speak based on/referring to the input they received. 3 Steps in Strategic Interaction Approach Rehearsal
Debrief Students' attitude towards SIA: POSITIVE: SIA helped students improving speaking skill
SIA was good to help increase vocabulary
SIA helped passive students to be willing to speak NEGATIVE: SIA causes boredom because of repetitive procedures Teachers' attitude towards SIA: Teacher is confident in applying SIA
Teacher considers SIA advantageous to activate and encourage silent students CONCLUSION SIA helps to improve speaking skills especially on students who are passive in class.
Problems such as shyness, nothing to say, low or uneven participation, and lack of encouragement can be solved using SIA. Why is it effective? Highly motivating
Increase student’s self-confidence
Increase student’s level of intelligibility
Increase student’s fluency and accuracy cover a number of speaking abilities: asking questions, discussions and debates able to communicate with each other, to ask questions related to the theme and to have discussions produce interesting information which lead to fruitful discussions enable students to share their view about the subjects discussed Provide information and suggest alternative view of the subject being discussed
Bring in students which are not contributing
Create the class atmosphere Improve the students' vocabulary by listening to their partners while doing survey
Allow them to speak more fluently in completing the task and presenting the result of the survey
Students were not shy since everyone in the class is also speaking Steps in Speaking Competition Pre-Teaching: Students are given rules of the activities. Whilst Teaching: Students are grouped with 7-8 members to stand up / sit in front of classroom
Teacher gives statement / problem to be solved
In turns, each representative gives answers which must be different from one another. Post Teaching: Questionnaire is given to find out what students think about speaking competition. we might conclude that: STUDENTS' BARRIERS IN SPEAKING ARE: related to self
related to environment
related to teachers related to self: Being afraid of making mistakes
Feeling lacking of English ability
Feeling shy to be laughed at
Feeling that speaking practice is not important
Feeling lazy related to environment: Having no partner to practice speaking English
Environment does not stimulate or obligate them to speak English related to teachers: Teacher’s improper strategies in teaching
Teacher’s uninteresting (uninviting) personalities Understand students’ feeling and their limited ability in English
Be kind and friendly to the students and see them the way they are
Use English when teaching
Motivate them to practice speaking in English through stimulation, asking, training, and subconsciously force students to practice speaking STUDENTS' EXPECTATION OF THEIR ENGLISH TEACHER INTERVIEWS and CHATS why interviews and chats? They are more initially courageous to ask new topis and persistent to ask when they don’t understand
The foreigners never laugh at the language problems made by the learners
They are psychologically encouraged and interested in making conversation Speaking Difficulties Interlanguage and interference of the mother tongue
Grammatical problem persisted
The difficulties in creating proper structure questions Advantages of Chatting They could imitate the utterances of foreigners
Communication in the chatting session could go on although there was interruption
The chats provide more practices for functional expressions rather than the interviews TEACHING WRITING problems in teaching writing: A strong emphasis on teaching grammar
The students’ dealing with the complexity of writing
Less exposure in writing activities
Less knowledge on how the students move their concepts, thoughts, and ideas to written texts.
Inadequate skill of reasoning
Restricted opportunities to construct the students’ own ideas APPROACHES IN TEACHING WRITING PRODUCT APPROACH
GENRE APPROACH Product Approach Focuses on the ability to produce correct texts or products.
Involves linguistic knowledge and the vocabulary choices, syntactic patterns, and cohesive devices. Process Approach Concentrates on the form and structure of writing.
Involves a number of writing stages: prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing. Genre Approach Concerns on the certain goals, intentions, or purposes of writing. as the synthesis of the three approaches mentioned previously. involves the knowledge about language, knowledge of the context and purpose of the writing, and skills in using language. in Argumentative Writing focuses on the students' communicative competence to interpret and produce texts using their critical thinking skills Genre-based Literacy Approach helps the students’ to develop their writing ability in exploring three learning elements: subject matter knowledge, critical thinking skills, and language skills Probing questions are follow-up questions asked after a student responds to the initial question. The types of questions used are those that belong to cognitive domain comprising of knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis. strength: it enables students to accommodate and construct their own knowledge. weaknesses: the precise time planning since the answers given by the students often do not meet the expected and planned answers.
the boredom resulted from overloaded series of questions and helplessness due to their incapability in answering questions. Process Genre Approach stages: Modeling of text
Joint construction of text
Independent construction of text Genre-Based Literacy stages: Modeling
Building knowledge of the field Probing Questions stages: The students analyze the text to find out the facts
The students are probed with a series of related questions TEACHING SYNTAX why syntax? Syntax as the study of the way in which phrases and sentences are structured out of words. (Radford, 2004) Syntax as determining the relevant component parts of a sentences and describing these parts grammatically. (Weeker and Haegerman, 1985) Syntax deal with constituents, categories, functions as relevant topics in the treatment of sentence structures and their meanings or semantic aspects. (Robert, 1997) TWO RULES TO STUDY IN A SYNTAX CLASS Phrase-Structure Rules
Sentence Type HOW TO TEACH SYNTAX IN AN INTERESTING WAY? Theoretically, as a system syntax covers several elements (Morsey, 1976). A system is composed of four integral constituents:
1. Goal (objective)
4. Evolution Teaching syntax based upon fun learning materials can be of several benefits: First – Teaching is not far from reality.
Second – Motivation and involvement are increased whenever students are interested in such materials. why poetry? It is part of literacy texts.
A poem can tell a story.
A poem can persuade people.
A poem can describe a person, a nature. Poetry is difficult to understand and write.
It has poetic devices to face.
It has potential problems in understanding a poem due to various meanings. Why Should Include Poetry in an English Class? We are said to have some part of a poet hidden somewhere in our mind or heart.
Poetry “expresses feelings and impressions of life.”
Poetry is not just something the students have to memorize and recite in front of the class. Benefits of Using Poetry in the English Classroom Reading and rereading aloud support proficiency.
A poem’s short lines are less frightening to reluctant readers.
A poem can provide a short but powerful source of character portrayal, settings, and incidents.
A poem can function as a brief introductory set before other longer literary forms.
Reading and writing a poem can provide a relaxing and enjoyable way to practice the language. some kinds of poems Acrostic
Using letters of the subject
Using numbers of words (1-2-3-4-1)
Using numbers of syllables (5-7-5)
Using numbers of syllables (5-7-5-7-7)