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# Thesis: Rice Planter Machine

Thesis For 5th year

by

Tweet## Edward Henrick Aguda

on 22 September 2011#### Transcript of Thesis: Rice Planter Machine

Aguda, Edward Henrick H.

Bondoc, Paul Laurence G.

Colon, Kenneth Algem S.

Delgado, Paul Darween P.

Salac, Juan Fernando M.

Simon, Jestoni S. Design and Fabrication of an Engine-Driven Rice Transplanter is the agricultural equipment which specialized in transplanting the rice seedlings onto paddy field. Rice Transplanter However, Net Power Output: 5.5 HP (4.1 kW)

Speed: 3,600 rpm

Dry Weight 35 lbs. (16.1 kg)

PTO Shaft Rotation Counterclockwise CHAPTER I

Problem and Its Background

staple food of the Philippines The rice industry in the Philippines has been on a steady decline in the last two years Figure 1.1 Early mechanization of rice production introduced the self-propelled rice transplanting machine internal combustion engines To have a simplified design of a rice transplanting machine increase the efficiency of traditional rice planting methods less purchase

and

maintenance costs without sacrificing its basic purpose cheaper engine-driven rice transplanting machine + primary

parts MDA SMDA SA Pre-fabrication Fabrication Post-fabrication Pre-fabrication where all the designs, data gathering and material purchasing would occur Fabrication step wherein fabrication of key components of the machine and assembling of these would take place Post-fabrication step would consist of testing the machine on the target environment, final touches and painting of the machine 1.7.1.What were the factors that could affect the efficiency of the engine-driven rice transplanting machine? 1.7.2.What was the proper design of the component elements of the machine to support the load and avoid failure? 1.7.3.What internal combustion engine capacity was to be used to successfully transmit enough power to do the purpose of the machine without failure of other machine elements? 1.7.4.What would be the design for gear assemblies, linkages and transmission elements to successfully carry out its respective tasks? 1.7.5.What are the difference between the manual method of rice planting and the proposed system? 1.7.6.What would be the proper travel speed and seeding speed combination to produce the required seedling row and hill distances? 1.7.7.How economical was the engine-driven rice transplanting machine compared to traditional manual method? 1.8 Significance of the Study decrease in rice production to increase price of the commodity and capital setbacks of farmers reduce health

risks agricultural sector in mechanizing the country’s rice planting method design and fabricate an engine-driven rice transplanting machine that is more economic and has higher efficiency than traditional manual method of planting. ICE prime mover of the machine, controls the distance travelled by

the machine per unit time holds the seedlings and feeds them

unto the seeding assembly performs the primary objective of the machine transplant seedlings 1.5. Research Paradigm "scaled down" identifying basic parts removing auxiliary and additional functions constant machine travel seeding cycle speed constant seedling density per hectare of land two rows of seedlings. basic and primary function (transplant rice seedlings) local low land rice field setting solution increase the efficiency of rice production! rice transplanting machines P120,000 There is a NEED + + = (Internal Combustion Engine) (Machine Displacement Assembly) (Seed Mat Displacement Assembly) (Seeding Assembly) CHAPTER III

Research Methodology 3.1. Research Design 3.2. Research Procedure Pre-Fabrication Process Philippine-Sino Center for Agricultural Technology

Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija SLRT- 455 120,000 pesos (year 2009). Figure 3.2 First Working Design (DRAFT) G200x 1.3. Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem farmers to deviate from the

above mentioned setbacks Dry Season

Wet Season 1.9.Scope and Delimitation Figure 3.11 Second Working Design Schematic Diagram basic functions that would be adapted to the “scaled down” model: 1. The Engine-Driven Rice Transplanting Machine would have a constant output dimensions such as seedling row distance of 30 centimeters and seedling hill distance of 15 centimeters

2. Machine Travel Speed would be one (1) meter per second.

3. Machine would plant six (6) times, roughly six revolutions per second.

4. Machine would have a “clutch mechanism” to suggest on-operation or idle mode of the motor. primary parts

& assemblies Internal Combustion Engine V-belts and Chains Gears Belt tensioner Cylindrical Cam Two (2) Seeder/Picker prime mover to transmit power and alter speed ratios to change rotation direction, alter speed ratios and transmit power to serve as “clutch”

mechanism to translate rotating motion of shaft

to reciprocating motion of the seed mat to serve as mechanical arms

that would transplant seedlings 1. The possibility of exposing v-belt unto the wet paddy field hence, increasing the chance for slippage.

2. The relative weight of the two sheaves that would be used (both 9 inches in diameter, three grooves spoke type) is too high.

3. The design does not consider the rotational direction of each shaft; hence, both wheel shaft and seeder shaft are turned “forward” instead of the latter being run “backwards”. Faults of the First Design Gearbox Seeder/Picker Seed Mat Padded Wheel V-belt Sheaves RC50 and RC60 Sprockets Spur Gears Frame Motor Fabrication using 1 inch hollow rods to form the body 1 1/8 inches wheel shaft diameter

23 inches wheel diameter Post Fabrication Process obtain necessary facts in building an engine-driven rice transplanting machine

studied the important parts needed to construct the machine

proper selection of machine elements

sourced out suppliers and fabricators where these parts would be bought

considered the possibility of having a constant output dimension Field and Seedling Preparation Double Mulching Technique alternative method to solve high investment cost in using mechanical seedling preparation equipment seedling preparation and seed sowing are done manually uses low-cost materials Design Calculations GIVEN:

Wheel Diameter = 23 inches

Maximum Power = 5.5 HP

Maximum RPM = 3600 rpm

Average Speed = 0.92 m/s

Hill Distance = 15 cm = 5.9 inches

Row Distance = 30 cm = 11.8 inches

Wheel Shaft RPM

V= π (D)N

Nwheel=V/πD=((0.92 m/s)(60sec/min))/(π)(23inches)(0.0254m/in)

Nwheel=30.08≈ 30 rpm Seeder to Wheel Ratio

Circumference= π(D)= π(23")(2.54cm/in)=183.5 cm

Seedling Hill Distance = 15 cm

Distance Traveled/Hill Distance = 183.5cm/15cm = 12.23 ≈12

Travel / Hill = Nwheel / Nseeder = 12

Nseeder = 12 (30 rpm) = 360rpm

Hill Distance

(Wheel Velocity)/Nseeder= Hill Distance

Hill Distance=(π (23 inches)(2.54cm/in)(30rev/min))/(360 rev/minute)

Hill Distance = 15.29 cm (approximately 15cm which is the recommended hill distance) Angle1= sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C= sin^(-1)(9-3)/(2 (15))=11.54°

Angle2= tan^(-1)d/(6.0+4.5)= tan^(-1)3/10.5=15.95°

Angle3= cos^(-1)(R+r)/C2= cos^(-1)6/10.92=56.67°

Angle4=90°-Angle2-Angle3=90-15.95-56.67=17.38°

C2= √((3)^2+(10.5)^2 )=10.92 inches

A=C cosAngle1=(15)cos11.54°=14.7"

B= πD ((180-Angle1))/360= π(3) ((180-11.54))/360=4.41"

C=4.5"

D= πD(Angle4/360)= π(3)(17.38/360)= 0.46"

E= √((10.92)^2-(6)^2 )= 9.12"

F= πD ((180+Angle1+Angle4))/360= π(9) (180+11.54+17.38)/360= 16.41"

Total Length = A+B+C+D+E+F = 14.7+4.41+4.5+0.46+9.12+16.41 = 49.6”

Total Length = 49.6”

Use Size A51 v-belt with length=52.3”

V-Belt Selection Pitch Velocity

V= π (D)N = π(3")(1/12 ft/in)(1440rpm)=1,131 fpm

V = 1,131 fpm

Belt Specifications

Design HP = Transmitted HP (SF)

SF = 1.2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Design HP = 1.8(1.2) = 2.16HP

a = 2.684, c = 5.326, e = 0.0136, k = 1.14 ( s, 4th Ed.)

HP/strand = [a(10^3/V)^0.09- c/(k(d))- (e(v)^2)/10^6 ] V/10^3

=[2.684(10^3/1131)^0.09- 5.326/(1.14(3))- (0.0136(1131)^2)/10^6 ] 1131/10^3

Hp/Strand = 1.22HP

Angle correction factor, k = 0.80

Length correction factor, kL = 0.94 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Corrected HP = 1.22(0.80)(0.94) = 0.92HP

No. of Strands = Design HP / HP per strand = 2.16/0.92 = 2.3strands

For Design purposes and material availability, use 2 strands

Use 2 Strand A51 v-belt1/2 x 5/16 inches with center distance of 15in, and pulley diameters of 3 inches and 9 inches

Gear Selection Gear Ratio = 4:1 = Tg/Tp = Dg/Dp = Np/Ng

Assume 22T for gear and 88T for pinion

Standard Diametral Pitch = 10T/in

Pinion Data:

Teeth = 22T

PD = T/DP = 22/10 = 2.2 inches

Gear Data:

Teeth = 88T

PD = T/DP = 88/10 = 8.8 inches

Available Centerline Distance = 5.5”

C= (D1+D2)/2=(2.2+8.8)/2=5.5 inches

Centerline Distance = 5.5 inches

Use 22T and 88T gears with 2.2” and 8.8” pitch diameter respectively and 10 DP Cylindrical Cam RPM Pitch = 18mm / rev

Seeder RPM = 360rpm = 6 rev/sec

Design Velocity of Seed Mat Travel = 63.5mm/sec

Cam RPM=Seed Mat Travel/Pitch

(Seed mat travel) / (pitch) = (63.5mm/sec) / (18mm/rev) = 3.5rev/sec = 210rpm

Cam RPM = 210rpm

Actual Seed Mat Velocity = Cam RPM(Pitch) = 3.5rev/sec(18mm/rev) = 63mm/sec Actual Seed Mat Velocity = Cam RPM(Pitch) = 3.5rev/sec(18mm/rev) = 63mm/sec

Gear Ratio = Nseeder / Nseedmat = 360rpm / 210rpm = 12:7

Gear Ratio = 12:7

Available Centerline Distance = 1.9 inches

Use Diametral Pitch = 20

Assume 28T for driver and 48T on driven

Driver Gear:

T = 28 teeth

DP = T/DP = 28/20 = 1.4 inches

Driven Gear:

T = 48 teeth

DP = T/DP = 48/20 = 2.4 inches

Available Centerline Distance = 1.9”

C= (D1+D2)/2=(2.4+1.4)/2=1.9 inches

Centerline Distance = 1.9 inches

Use 28T and 48T gears with 1.4” and 2.4” pitch diameter respectively and 20 DP

Wheel Chain Selection Working Load= ((2)Design Power)/((d)Small Sprocket RPM)

= (2.16HP(550 (ft*lbs/s)/HP)(2))/((2.2")(1/12ft/in)(120rpm)(2π/rev)(1min/60s))

Working Load, Fw = 1,031.32 lbf

From ANSI Standard Table for Maximum Load, RC60 has a maximum allowable load of 1950 lbf; hence, the Working Load is smaller than the allowable load

Pitch Velocity=Pitch(Teeth No.)RPM/12=(0.75")(9T)(120rpm)/12=67.5 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 67.5fpm

HP/Strand= P^2 [V/23.7- (26-25 cos180/T )(v^1.41/1050) ]

= 0.75^2 [67.5/23.7- (26-25 cos180/9 )(67.5^1.41/1050) ]

HP/strand = 1.09 HP

No.of Strands=(Design HP)/(HP per Strand)=2.16HP/(1.09HP/strand)=1.98 ≈2 Strands

No. of Strands = 2 strands

Sprocket Sizes Driver

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/27) =5.4 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/27) ]=5.7"

PD = 5.4 inches and OD = 5.7 inches

Driven

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/9) = 1.8 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.1"

PD = 1.8 inches and OD = 2.1 inches

Centerline Distance = 16”

Using Sprocket Center Distance and No. of Links Calculator

No. of Links = 70links

Corrected Centerline Distance = 16.15”

Use 70 links RC50

Angle of Contact= 180-2sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C=180-2sin^(-1)(5.4+1.8)/(2(16.15))

Angle of Contact = 154° (Greater than 120° minimum) Chain from IDLER 3 to Gearbox Working Load= ((2)Design Power)/((d)Small Sprocket RPM)

= (2.16HP(550 (ft*lbs/s)/HP)(2))/((2.2")(1/12ft/in)(360rpm)(2π/rev)(1min/60s))

Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

From ANSI Standard Table for Maximum Load, RC50 has a maximum allowable load of 1400 lbf; hence, the Working Load is smaller than the allowable load

P.Velocity=Pitch(Teeth No.)RPM/12=(0.625")(9T)(360rpm)/12=168.75 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 168.75 fpm

HP/Strand= P^2 [V/23.7- (26-25 cos180/T )(v^1.41/1050) ]

= 0.625^2 [168.75/23.7- (26-25 cos180/9 )(168.75^1.41/1050) ]

HP/strand = 1.49 HP

No.of Strands=(Design HP)/(HP per Strand)=2.16HP/(1.49 HP/strand)=1.44 ≈2 Strands

Due to design parameters, this assembly would only use 1 strand chain

This could be justified by the values of the actual working load and allowable working load of RC50 chain.

Actual Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

Allowable Working Load = 1400 lbf

Hence, the chain could handle the load

No. of Strands = 1 strand Figure 3.11 Second Working Design – Schematic Diagram Figure 3.37 Actual Seed Mat Impediments Availability

Machinability

Cost Actual assemblies/parts of PF 455S A51 standard v-belt

two grooved 3 inches pulley (Motor)

two groove 9 inches pulley (Idler 1)

1:1 Idler 2 to Idler 3

4:1 Idler 1 to Idler 2

12:7 Seeder Shaft to Cylindrical Cam Gear Ratio Figure 3.39 Actual Placement of GX200 motor Figure 3.38 Actual Seed Mat Support Figure 3.40 EDRT machine First Stage Fabrication (FRONT VIEW) Installation and Pre-mounting of Transmission Assembly Guards and Finish Coatings Installation and Pre-mounting of Transmission Assembly Improves soil moisture condition

Soil temperature and weeding effect

reduces soil compaction and erosion

improves soil fertility and thus improve crop yields Seedling preparation Preparation of seedling frames for the seedbed Seedbed Preparation Soil Preparation Seed Soaking

and incubation Sowing Preparation of plastic film Bulacan

24 X 30 inches Seedling mats

the checking of actual parameters

such as travel speed and planting

speed of the machine Field Testing Chain from IDLER 2 to Wheel Shaft Benefits Sprocket Sizes Driver

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.75/sin(180/9) = 2.2 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.75 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.5"

PD = 2.2 inches and OD = 2.5 inches

Driven

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.75/sin(180/36) = 8.6 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.75 [0.60+cot(180/36) ]=9.0"

PD = 8.6 inches and OD = 9.0 inches

Centerline Distance = 12”

Using Sprocket Center Distance and No. of Links Calculator

No. of Links = 56links

Corrected Centerline Distance = 12.13”

Use 56 links RC60

Angle of Contact= 180-2sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C=180-2sin^(-1)(2.2+8.6)/(2(12.13))

Angle of Contact = 127° (Greater than 120° minimum)

Chain from Seeder Shaft to Seeder Working Load= ((2)Design Power)/((d)Small Sprocket RPM)

= (2.16HP(550 (ft*lbs/s)/HP)(2))/((2.2")(1/12ft/in)(360rpm)(2π/rev)(1min/60s))

Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

From ANSI Standard Table for Maximum Load, RC50 has a maximum allowable load of 1400 lbf; hence, the Working Load is smaller than the allowable load

P.Velocity=Pitch(Teeth No.)RPM/12=(0.625")(9T)(360rpm)/12=168.75 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 168.75 fpm

HP/Strand= P^2 [V/23.7- (26-25 cos180/T )(v^1.41/1050) ]

= 0.625^2 [168.75/23.7- (26-25 cos180/9 )(168.75^1.41/1050) ]

HP/strand = 1.49 HP

No.of Strands=(Design HP)/(HP per Strand)=2.16HP/(1.49 HP/strand)=1.44 ≈2 Strands

Due to design parameters, this assembly would only use 1 strand chain

This could be justified by the values of the actual working load and allowable working load of RC50 chain.

Actual Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

Allowable Working Load = 1400 lbf

Hence, the chain could handle the load

No. of Strands = 1 strand

Sprocket Sizes Driver

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/9) =1.8 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.1"

PD = 1.8 inches and OD = 2.1 inches

Driven

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/9) = 1.8 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.1"

PD = 1.8 inches and OD = 2.1 inches

Centerline Distance = 12”

Using Sprocket Center Distance and No. of Links Calculator

No. of Links = 48links

Corrected Centerline Distance = 12.19”

Use 48 links RC50

Angle of Contact= 180-2sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C=180-2sin^(-1)(1.8+1.8)/(2(12.19))

Angle of Contact = 163° (Greater than 120° minimum)

Economic Study Completion Time = 12 hrs / ha

No. of Person required = 30 persons (skilled farmers)

Requirement = 30 men (12 hrs) / ha

Requirement = 360 man-hrs/ha

Manual Transplanting Method Fabricated Transplanter Planting Speed = 6 hills/sec

Row Distance = 30 cm

Hill Distance = 15 cm/hill

Rate of Covered Area = 6 hills/sec (15cm/hill) (30cm) = 2700 sq. cm = 0.000027 ha/hr

Completion Time = 1/rate = 1/0.000027 = 10.3 hrs/ha

No. of Person Required = 1 person (skilled operator)

Requirement = 1 man (10.3 hrs/ha)

Requirement = 10.3 man-hrs/ha

% PLANTING EFFICIENCY of EDRT versus Manual Transplanting Method % p. eff = (360 - 10.3) / 360 = 0.9714

% planting efficiency = 97.14%

Hence, EDRT is 97.14% more efficient than Manual Transplanting Method in terms of planting speed.

Bill of Materials POWER TRANSMISSION 1 Piece Honda GX200 Motor 10,000.00 10,000.00

1 Piece RC60x2x9T 428.00 428.00

1 Piece RC60x2x36T 3,487.00 3,487.00

1 Piece RC50x2x27T 1,442.00 1,442.00

1 Piece RC50x2x9T 310.00 310.00

4 Pieces RC50x1x9T 130.00 520.00

1 Piece Pulley 3x2Ax3/4 171.00 171.00

1 Piece Pulley 9x2Ax1 513.00 513.00

2 Pieces A51 V-Belt 110.00 220.00

2 Pieces 3.75Dx29T 500.00 1,000.00

1 Piece DF 50x2x70links 359.00 359.00

1 Piece DF 60x2x56links 493.00 493.00

2 Pieces Hit.50x1x48links 176.00 352.00

1 Set 10DP Gears 8,000.00 8,000.00

Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount FABRICATION OF GEARBOX 1 Piece C.Spring #17x1/2x1/2 220.00 220.00

1 Piece C. Spring #13x3/8x12 460.00 460.00

1 Set Cam Shoe and Gears 2,598.00 2,598.00

1 Piece Cylindrical Cam 3,000.00 3,000.00 FABRICATION OF SEEDER 8 Pieces SS Flat Bar 1/4x1.5x2.75 48.00 384.00

1 Piece SS Square Bar 1x2x2 218.00 218.00

1 Piece SS Square Bar 1/2x1/2x7 86.00 86.00

1 Piece SS Square Bar 1.5x1.5x6 737.00 737.00

1 Piece SS Flat Bar 1/4x1.5x30 409.00 409.00

1 Piece SS Rod 1/4Dx9 20.00 20.00

1 Piece SS Rod 1/4Dx15 25.00 25.00

1 Piece SS Rod 1/4Dx6 253.00 253.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 1/4x2x3.5 84.00 168.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 1x1/2x3 215.00 430.00

2 Pieces SS Rod 3/8Dx2.75 15.00 30.00

2 Pieces SS Rod 1.5Dx2 137.00 274.00

2 Pieces SS Rod 3/8x3 20.00 40.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 3/4x1.5x4.25 226.00 452.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 1/4x1.25x4.5 63.00 126.00

BODY AND ASSEMBLY 15 Pieces SS Welding Rod 110.001 650.00

2 Feet Shafting 1Dx24 120.00 240.00

1 Piece Flatt Bar 3/16x2 450.00 450.00

1 Piece Tube 1x1 340.00 340.00

3 Pieces Plain Bar 3/4 275.00 825.00

2 Pieces Plain Bar 1/4 85.00 190.00

3 Pieces Sand Blade 60.00 180.00

3 Pieces Grinder Stone 100.00 300.00

1 Piece Shafting 3/4x20 980.00 980.00

1 Piece Shafting 1/2x20 750.00 750.00

2 Pieces Pillow Block 1 1/8 280.00 560.00

2 Pieces Pillow Block 1 inch 190.00 380.00

2 Pieces Flat Bar 1/4x3x20 550.00 1,100.00

2 Pieces Flat Bar 1/4x2x20 460.00 920.00

1 Set BI Schedule 40 Pipe 1x20 (3 pcs.) 400.00 400.00

1 Piece BI Pipe 1/2x20 275.00 275.00

3 Meters 1 1/8 Shafting 400.00 1,200.00

1 Meter 3/4 Shafting 328.00 328.00 Wire Cutting and EDT 2,417.00

Mechanic and Machinist 15,000.00

Painter 2,000.00

LABOR

TOTAL: 67,710.00 Php

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Rice production is a major sector in agriculture greatly increase the production volume per time

reducing labor costs

efficiency compared to manual labor

Reduced body stresses on farmers while increasing area covered unit time Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount TOTAL 19,417.00 TOTAL 11,068.00 TOTAL 3,652.00 TOTAL 6,278.00 TOTAL 27,295.00 stainless steel due to the

nature of its operation RC50 and RC60 to produce desired

speed ratios

4:1 Idler 2 to Wheel

1:1 Gear Box to Seeder Unit

1:3 Idler 3 to Seeder Shaft 5.3 Recommendations Engine driven rice transplanting machine must only be used on wet low land terrain and must have a water depth range of 7.5-9 inches.

Improving the features of the engine-driven rice transplanting machine so as to add a variable speed mechanism and increase the seeder units.

Instead of using an oscillating motion on the seeder assembly, the group suggests to come up with a new design using rotating motion for the seeder unit. 5.1 Summary 5.2 Conclusion Fabricating an engine-driven rice transplanting machine is a time-consuming process requires in depth knowledge on machine elements, agricultural standards, material selection and overall machine design concepts Gear Material, AISI 4140 = 270,000 psi ultimate strength (Faires, 4th Ed)

Gear Ratio = 4:1

Power Transmitted = 2.16HP

Efficiency, n = 100%

Diametral Pitch, DP = 10 teeth/inch

Driver Number of Teeth = 22 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 2.2 inches

Shaft RPM = 480rpm

Face width, b = 0.75 inches

Driven Number of Teeth = 88 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 8.8 inches

Shaft RPM = 120rpm

Face Width, b = 0.75 inches

Base Stress Analysis on the Pinion (smaller gear)

Velocity= π(D)N= π(2.2")(480rpm)(1/12)(1/60) = 4.61 ft/sec = 276.5 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 4.61 ft/sec

Working Load=(Power(550))/Velocity= (2.16HP(550))/(4.61 fps)=258 lbf

Working Load, Fw = 258 lbf

Dynamic Load,Fd=Fw+ (0.05V(b+Fw))/(0.05V+√((b+Fw)))

= 258+ (0.05(276.5)(0.75+258))/(0.05(276.5)+√((0.75+258)))

Dynamic Load, Fd = 378 lbf

Strength of Teeth

Lewis Form Factor = 0.559 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Strength Reduction Factor, kf = 2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Fs= Sby/(k_f (DP))= (270,000psi(0.75in)(0.559))/(2 (10T/in) )= 5,660 lbf

Strength of teeth = 5,660 lbf

Strength of gear teeth is greater than dynamic load; hence, the gears could handle the load

Stress Analysis Idler 1 to Idler 2 Gear Gear Material, Steel = 80,000 psi ultimate strength

Efficiency, n = 97%

Gear Ratio = 1:1

Number of Teeth = 29 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 3.75 inches

Maximum RPM = 120rpm

Power Transmitted = 2.16HP

Face width, b = 0.75 inches

Diametral Pitch,DP=Teeth/(Pitch Diameter)= 29T/3.75=7.7T/in

DP = 7.7 Teeth/inch

Velocity= π(D)N= π(3.75")(120rpm)(1/12)(1/60) = 1.96 ft/sec = 117.8 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 1.96 ft/sec

Working Load=(Power(550))/Velocity= (2.16HP(550))/(1.96 fps)=605 lbf

Working Load, Fw = 605 lbf

Dynamic Load,Fd=Fw+ (0.05V(b+Fw))/(0.05V+√((b+Fw)))

= 605+ (0.05(117.8)(0.75+605))/(0.05(117.8)+√((0.75+605)))

Dynamic Load, Fd = 722 lbf

Strength of Teeth

Lewis Form Factor = 0.597 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Strength Reduction Factor, kf = 2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Fs= Sby/(k_f (DP))= (80,000psi(0.75in)(0.597))/(2 (7.7T/in) )= 2,326 lbf

Strength of teeth = 2,326 lbf

Strength of gear teeth is greater than dynamic load; hence, the gears could handle the load

Gear Material, Steel = 80,000 psi ultimate strength

Efficiency, n = 100%

Gear Ratio = 12:7

Power Transmitted = 2.16HP

Diametral Pitch, DP = 20 teeth/inch

Driver Number of Teeth = 28 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 1.4 inches

Shaft RPM = 360rpm

Face width, b = 0.75 inches

Driven Number of Teeth = 48 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 2.4 inches

Shaft RPM = 210rpm

Face Width, b = 0.75 inches

Base Stress Analysis on the Pinion (smaller gear)

Velocity= π(D)N= π(1.4")(360rpm)(1/12)(1/60) = 2.2 ft/sec = 131.9 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 2.2 ft/sec

Working Load=(Power(550))/Velocity= (2.16HP(550))/(2.2 fps)=540 lbf

Working Load, Fw = 540 lbf

Dynamic Load,Fd=Fw+ (0.05V(b+Fw))/(0.05V+√((b+Fw)))

= 540+ (0.05(131.9)(0.75+540))/(0.05(131.9)+√((0.75+540)))

Dynamic Load, Fd = 659 lbf

Strength of Teeth

Lewis Form Factor = 0.597 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Strength Reduction Factor, kf = 2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Fs= Sby/(k_f (DP))= (80,000psi(0.75in)(0.597))/(2 (20T/in) )= 895.lbf

Strength of teeth = 895 lbf

Strength of gear teeth is greater than dynamic load; hence, the gears could handle the load

Design RPM = 480rpm

Material = Mild Steel

Yield Strength, Sy = 61, 886 psi

Diameter = 1 inch solid

Allowable torque,Ta=Sy(π)(D^3 )/16= (61,886psi(π)1inch^3)/16=12,151 lb*in

Ta = 12,151 lb*in

Induced Torque,Ti=P/N= (2.16HP(550 ((ft*lb)/s)/HP)(12in/ft))/480rpm(1/60)(2π/rev) = 284 lb*in

Ti = 284 lb*in

Allowable torque is greater than the induced torque; hence, the shaft could handle the load

Design RPM = 120rpm

Material = Mild Steel

Yield Strength, Sy = 61, 886 psi

Diameter = 1 inch solid

Allowable torque,Ta=Sy(π)(D^3 )/16= (61,886psi(π)1inch^3)/16=12,151 lb*in

Ta = 12,151 lb*in

Induced Torque,Ti=P/N= (2.16HP(550 ((ft*lb)/s)/HP)(12in/ft))/120rpm(1/60)(2π/rev) = 1,134 lb*in

Ti = 1,134 lb*in

Allowable torque is greater than the induced torque; hence, the shaft could handle the load

Design RPM = 120rpm

Material = Mild Steel

Yield Strength, Sy = 61, 886 psi

Diameter = 1 inch solid

Allowable torque,Ta=Sy(π)(D^3 )/16= (61,886psi(π)(1/2 inch)^3)/16=1,519 lb*in

Ta = 1,519 lb*in

Induced Torque,Ti=P/N= (2.16HP(0.97)(550 ((ft*lb)/s)/HP)(12in/ft))/120rpm(1/60)(2π/rev) = 1,100 lb*in

Ti = 1,100 lb*in

Allowable torque is greater than the induced torque; hence, the shaft could handle the load

Idler 2 to Idler 3 Gear Seeder Shaft to Cylindrical Cam Gear Idler 1 Shaft Torsion Idler 2 Shaft Torsion Idler 3 Shaft Torsion

Full transcriptBondoc, Paul Laurence G.

Colon, Kenneth Algem S.

Delgado, Paul Darween P.

Salac, Juan Fernando M.

Simon, Jestoni S. Design and Fabrication of an Engine-Driven Rice Transplanter is the agricultural equipment which specialized in transplanting the rice seedlings onto paddy field. Rice Transplanter However, Net Power Output: 5.5 HP (4.1 kW)

Speed: 3,600 rpm

Dry Weight 35 lbs. (16.1 kg)

PTO Shaft Rotation Counterclockwise CHAPTER I

Problem and Its Background

staple food of the Philippines The rice industry in the Philippines has been on a steady decline in the last two years Figure 1.1 Early mechanization of rice production introduced the self-propelled rice transplanting machine internal combustion engines To have a simplified design of a rice transplanting machine increase the efficiency of traditional rice planting methods less purchase

and

maintenance costs without sacrificing its basic purpose cheaper engine-driven rice transplanting machine + primary

parts MDA SMDA SA Pre-fabrication Fabrication Post-fabrication Pre-fabrication where all the designs, data gathering and material purchasing would occur Fabrication step wherein fabrication of key components of the machine and assembling of these would take place Post-fabrication step would consist of testing the machine on the target environment, final touches and painting of the machine 1.7.1.What were the factors that could affect the efficiency of the engine-driven rice transplanting machine? 1.7.2.What was the proper design of the component elements of the machine to support the load and avoid failure? 1.7.3.What internal combustion engine capacity was to be used to successfully transmit enough power to do the purpose of the machine without failure of other machine elements? 1.7.4.What would be the design for gear assemblies, linkages and transmission elements to successfully carry out its respective tasks? 1.7.5.What are the difference between the manual method of rice planting and the proposed system? 1.7.6.What would be the proper travel speed and seeding speed combination to produce the required seedling row and hill distances? 1.7.7.How economical was the engine-driven rice transplanting machine compared to traditional manual method? 1.8 Significance of the Study decrease in rice production to increase price of the commodity and capital setbacks of farmers reduce health

risks agricultural sector in mechanizing the country’s rice planting method design and fabricate an engine-driven rice transplanting machine that is more economic and has higher efficiency than traditional manual method of planting. ICE prime mover of the machine, controls the distance travelled by

the machine per unit time holds the seedlings and feeds them

unto the seeding assembly performs the primary objective of the machine transplant seedlings 1.5. Research Paradigm "scaled down" identifying basic parts removing auxiliary and additional functions constant machine travel seeding cycle speed constant seedling density per hectare of land two rows of seedlings. basic and primary function (transplant rice seedlings) local low land rice field setting solution increase the efficiency of rice production! rice transplanting machines P120,000 There is a NEED + + = (Internal Combustion Engine) (Machine Displacement Assembly) (Seed Mat Displacement Assembly) (Seeding Assembly) CHAPTER III

Research Methodology 3.1. Research Design 3.2. Research Procedure Pre-Fabrication Process Philippine-Sino Center for Agricultural Technology

Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija SLRT- 455 120,000 pesos (year 2009). Figure 3.2 First Working Design (DRAFT) G200x 1.3. Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem farmers to deviate from the

above mentioned setbacks Dry Season

Wet Season 1.9.Scope and Delimitation Figure 3.11 Second Working Design Schematic Diagram basic functions that would be adapted to the “scaled down” model: 1. The Engine-Driven Rice Transplanting Machine would have a constant output dimensions such as seedling row distance of 30 centimeters and seedling hill distance of 15 centimeters

2. Machine Travel Speed would be one (1) meter per second.

3. Machine would plant six (6) times, roughly six revolutions per second.

4. Machine would have a “clutch mechanism” to suggest on-operation or idle mode of the motor. primary parts

& assemblies Internal Combustion Engine V-belts and Chains Gears Belt tensioner Cylindrical Cam Two (2) Seeder/Picker prime mover to transmit power and alter speed ratios to change rotation direction, alter speed ratios and transmit power to serve as “clutch”

mechanism to translate rotating motion of shaft

to reciprocating motion of the seed mat to serve as mechanical arms

that would transplant seedlings 1. The possibility of exposing v-belt unto the wet paddy field hence, increasing the chance for slippage.

2. The relative weight of the two sheaves that would be used (both 9 inches in diameter, three grooves spoke type) is too high.

3. The design does not consider the rotational direction of each shaft; hence, both wheel shaft and seeder shaft are turned “forward” instead of the latter being run “backwards”. Faults of the First Design Gearbox Seeder/Picker Seed Mat Padded Wheel V-belt Sheaves RC50 and RC60 Sprockets Spur Gears Frame Motor Fabrication using 1 inch hollow rods to form the body 1 1/8 inches wheel shaft diameter

23 inches wheel diameter Post Fabrication Process obtain necessary facts in building an engine-driven rice transplanting machine

studied the important parts needed to construct the machine

proper selection of machine elements

sourced out suppliers and fabricators where these parts would be bought

considered the possibility of having a constant output dimension Field and Seedling Preparation Double Mulching Technique alternative method to solve high investment cost in using mechanical seedling preparation equipment seedling preparation and seed sowing are done manually uses low-cost materials Design Calculations GIVEN:

Wheel Diameter = 23 inches

Maximum Power = 5.5 HP

Maximum RPM = 3600 rpm

Average Speed = 0.92 m/s

Hill Distance = 15 cm = 5.9 inches

Row Distance = 30 cm = 11.8 inches

Wheel Shaft RPM

V= π (D)N

Nwheel=V/πD=((0.92 m/s)(60sec/min))/(π)(23inches)(0.0254m/in)

Nwheel=30.08≈ 30 rpm Seeder to Wheel Ratio

Circumference= π(D)= π(23")(2.54cm/in)=183.5 cm

Seedling Hill Distance = 15 cm

Distance Traveled/Hill Distance = 183.5cm/15cm = 12.23 ≈12

Travel / Hill = Nwheel / Nseeder = 12

Nseeder = 12 (30 rpm) = 360rpm

Hill Distance

(Wheel Velocity)/Nseeder= Hill Distance

Hill Distance=(π (23 inches)(2.54cm/in)(30rev/min))/(360 rev/minute)

Hill Distance = 15.29 cm (approximately 15cm which is the recommended hill distance) Angle1= sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C= sin^(-1)(9-3)/(2 (15))=11.54°

Angle2= tan^(-1)d/(6.0+4.5)= tan^(-1)3/10.5=15.95°

Angle3= cos^(-1)(R+r)/C2= cos^(-1)6/10.92=56.67°

Angle4=90°-Angle2-Angle3=90-15.95-56.67=17.38°

C2= √((3)^2+(10.5)^2 )=10.92 inches

A=C cosAngle1=(15)cos11.54°=14.7"

B= πD ((180-Angle1))/360= π(3) ((180-11.54))/360=4.41"

C=4.5"

D= πD(Angle4/360)= π(3)(17.38/360)= 0.46"

E= √((10.92)^2-(6)^2 )= 9.12"

F= πD ((180+Angle1+Angle4))/360= π(9) (180+11.54+17.38)/360= 16.41"

Total Length = A+B+C+D+E+F = 14.7+4.41+4.5+0.46+9.12+16.41 = 49.6”

Total Length = 49.6”

Use Size A51 v-belt with length=52.3”

V-Belt Selection Pitch Velocity

V= π (D)N = π(3")(1/12 ft/in)(1440rpm)=1,131 fpm

V = 1,131 fpm

Belt Specifications

Design HP = Transmitted HP (SF)

SF = 1.2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Design HP = 1.8(1.2) = 2.16HP

a = 2.684, c = 5.326, e = 0.0136, k = 1.14 ( s, 4th Ed.)

HP/strand = [a(10^3/V)^0.09- c/(k(d))- (e(v)^2)/10^6 ] V/10^3

=[2.684(10^3/1131)^0.09- 5.326/(1.14(3))- (0.0136(1131)^2)/10^6 ] 1131/10^3

Hp/Strand = 1.22HP

Angle correction factor, k = 0.80

Length correction factor, kL = 0.94 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Corrected HP = 1.22(0.80)(0.94) = 0.92HP

No. of Strands = Design HP / HP per strand = 2.16/0.92 = 2.3strands

For Design purposes and material availability, use 2 strands

Use 2 Strand A51 v-belt1/2 x 5/16 inches with center distance of 15in, and pulley diameters of 3 inches and 9 inches

Gear Selection Gear Ratio = 4:1 = Tg/Tp = Dg/Dp = Np/Ng

Assume 22T for gear and 88T for pinion

Standard Diametral Pitch = 10T/in

Pinion Data:

Teeth = 22T

PD = T/DP = 22/10 = 2.2 inches

Gear Data:

Teeth = 88T

PD = T/DP = 88/10 = 8.8 inches

Available Centerline Distance = 5.5”

C= (D1+D2)/2=(2.2+8.8)/2=5.5 inches

Centerline Distance = 5.5 inches

Use 22T and 88T gears with 2.2” and 8.8” pitch diameter respectively and 10 DP Cylindrical Cam RPM Pitch = 18mm / rev

Seeder RPM = 360rpm = 6 rev/sec

Design Velocity of Seed Mat Travel = 63.5mm/sec

Cam RPM=Seed Mat Travel/Pitch

(Seed mat travel) / (pitch) = (63.5mm/sec) / (18mm/rev) = 3.5rev/sec = 210rpm

Cam RPM = 210rpm

Actual Seed Mat Velocity = Cam RPM(Pitch) = 3.5rev/sec(18mm/rev) = 63mm/sec Actual Seed Mat Velocity = Cam RPM(Pitch) = 3.5rev/sec(18mm/rev) = 63mm/sec

Gear Ratio = Nseeder / Nseedmat = 360rpm / 210rpm = 12:7

Gear Ratio = 12:7

Available Centerline Distance = 1.9 inches

Use Diametral Pitch = 20

Assume 28T for driver and 48T on driven

Driver Gear:

T = 28 teeth

DP = T/DP = 28/20 = 1.4 inches

Driven Gear:

T = 48 teeth

DP = T/DP = 48/20 = 2.4 inches

Available Centerline Distance = 1.9”

C= (D1+D2)/2=(2.4+1.4)/2=1.9 inches

Centerline Distance = 1.9 inches

Use 28T and 48T gears with 1.4” and 2.4” pitch diameter respectively and 20 DP

Wheel Chain Selection Working Load= ((2)Design Power)/((d)Small Sprocket RPM)

= (2.16HP(550 (ft*lbs/s)/HP)(2))/((2.2")(1/12ft/in)(120rpm)(2π/rev)(1min/60s))

Working Load, Fw = 1,031.32 lbf

From ANSI Standard Table for Maximum Load, RC60 has a maximum allowable load of 1950 lbf; hence, the Working Load is smaller than the allowable load

Pitch Velocity=Pitch(Teeth No.)RPM/12=(0.75")(9T)(120rpm)/12=67.5 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 67.5fpm

HP/Strand= P^2 [V/23.7- (26-25 cos180/T )(v^1.41/1050) ]

= 0.75^2 [67.5/23.7- (26-25 cos180/9 )(67.5^1.41/1050) ]

HP/strand = 1.09 HP

No.of Strands=(Design HP)/(HP per Strand)=2.16HP/(1.09HP/strand)=1.98 ≈2 Strands

No. of Strands = 2 strands

Sprocket Sizes Driver

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/27) =5.4 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/27) ]=5.7"

PD = 5.4 inches and OD = 5.7 inches

Driven

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/9) = 1.8 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.1"

PD = 1.8 inches and OD = 2.1 inches

Centerline Distance = 16”

Using Sprocket Center Distance and No. of Links Calculator

No. of Links = 70links

Corrected Centerline Distance = 16.15”

Use 70 links RC50

Angle of Contact= 180-2sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C=180-2sin^(-1)(5.4+1.8)/(2(16.15))

Angle of Contact = 154° (Greater than 120° minimum) Chain from IDLER 3 to Gearbox Working Load= ((2)Design Power)/((d)Small Sprocket RPM)

= (2.16HP(550 (ft*lbs/s)/HP)(2))/((2.2")(1/12ft/in)(360rpm)(2π/rev)(1min/60s))

Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

From ANSI Standard Table for Maximum Load, RC50 has a maximum allowable load of 1400 lbf; hence, the Working Load is smaller than the allowable load

P.Velocity=Pitch(Teeth No.)RPM/12=(0.625")(9T)(360rpm)/12=168.75 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 168.75 fpm

HP/Strand= P^2 [V/23.7- (26-25 cos180/T )(v^1.41/1050) ]

= 0.625^2 [168.75/23.7- (26-25 cos180/9 )(168.75^1.41/1050) ]

HP/strand = 1.49 HP

No.of Strands=(Design HP)/(HP per Strand)=2.16HP/(1.49 HP/strand)=1.44 ≈2 Strands

Due to design parameters, this assembly would only use 1 strand chain

This could be justified by the values of the actual working load and allowable working load of RC50 chain.

Actual Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

Allowable Working Load = 1400 lbf

Hence, the chain could handle the load

No. of Strands = 1 strand Figure 3.11 Second Working Design – Schematic Diagram Figure 3.37 Actual Seed Mat Impediments Availability

Machinability

Cost Actual assemblies/parts of PF 455S A51 standard v-belt

two grooved 3 inches pulley (Motor)

two groove 9 inches pulley (Idler 1)

1:1 Idler 2 to Idler 3

4:1 Idler 1 to Idler 2

12:7 Seeder Shaft to Cylindrical Cam Gear Ratio Figure 3.39 Actual Placement of GX200 motor Figure 3.38 Actual Seed Mat Support Figure 3.40 EDRT machine First Stage Fabrication (FRONT VIEW) Installation and Pre-mounting of Transmission Assembly Guards and Finish Coatings Installation and Pre-mounting of Transmission Assembly Improves soil moisture condition

Soil temperature and weeding effect

reduces soil compaction and erosion

improves soil fertility and thus improve crop yields Seedling preparation Preparation of seedling frames for the seedbed Seedbed Preparation Soil Preparation Seed Soaking

and incubation Sowing Preparation of plastic film Bulacan

24 X 30 inches Seedling mats

the checking of actual parameters

such as travel speed and planting

speed of the machine Field Testing Chain from IDLER 2 to Wheel Shaft Benefits Sprocket Sizes Driver

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.75/sin(180/9) = 2.2 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.75 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.5"

PD = 2.2 inches and OD = 2.5 inches

Driven

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.75/sin(180/36) = 8.6 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.75 [0.60+cot(180/36) ]=9.0"

PD = 8.6 inches and OD = 9.0 inches

Centerline Distance = 12”

Using Sprocket Center Distance and No. of Links Calculator

No. of Links = 56links

Corrected Centerline Distance = 12.13”

Use 56 links RC60

Angle of Contact= 180-2sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C=180-2sin^(-1)(2.2+8.6)/(2(12.13))

Angle of Contact = 127° (Greater than 120° minimum)

Chain from Seeder Shaft to Seeder Working Load= ((2)Design Power)/((d)Small Sprocket RPM)

= (2.16HP(550 (ft*lbs/s)/HP)(2))/((2.2")(1/12ft/in)(360rpm)(2π/rev)(1min/60s))

Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

From ANSI Standard Table for Maximum Load, RC50 has a maximum allowable load of 1400 lbf; hence, the Working Load is smaller than the allowable load

P.Velocity=Pitch(Teeth No.)RPM/12=(0.625")(9T)(360rpm)/12=168.75 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 168.75 fpm

HP/Strand= P^2 [V/23.7- (26-25 cos180/T )(v^1.41/1050) ]

= 0.625^2 [168.75/23.7- (26-25 cos180/9 )(168.75^1.41/1050) ]

HP/strand = 1.49 HP

No.of Strands=(Design HP)/(HP per Strand)=2.16HP/(1.49 HP/strand)=1.44 ≈2 Strands

Due to design parameters, this assembly would only use 1 strand chain

This could be justified by the values of the actual working load and allowable working load of RC50 chain.

Actual Working Load, Fw = 343.8 lbf

Allowable Working Load = 1400 lbf

Hence, the chain could handle the load

No. of Strands = 1 strand

Sprocket Sizes Driver

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/9) =1.8 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.1"

PD = 1.8 inches and OD = 2.1 inches

Driven

Pitch Diameter= Pitch/sin(180/T) = 0.625/sin(180/9) = 1.8 inches

Outside Diameter=Pitch [0.60+cot(180/T)]=0.625 [0.60+cot(180/9) ]=2.1"

PD = 1.8 inches and OD = 2.1 inches

Centerline Distance = 12”

Using Sprocket Center Distance and No. of Links Calculator

No. of Links = 48links

Corrected Centerline Distance = 12.19”

Use 48 links RC50

Angle of Contact= 180-2sin^(-1)(D-d)/2C=180-2sin^(-1)(1.8+1.8)/(2(12.19))

Angle of Contact = 163° (Greater than 120° minimum)

Economic Study Completion Time = 12 hrs / ha

No. of Person required = 30 persons (skilled farmers)

Requirement = 30 men (12 hrs) / ha

Requirement = 360 man-hrs/ha

Manual Transplanting Method Fabricated Transplanter Planting Speed = 6 hills/sec

Row Distance = 30 cm

Hill Distance = 15 cm/hill

Rate of Covered Area = 6 hills/sec (15cm/hill) (30cm) = 2700 sq. cm = 0.000027 ha/hr

Completion Time = 1/rate = 1/0.000027 = 10.3 hrs/ha

No. of Person Required = 1 person (skilled operator)

Requirement = 1 man (10.3 hrs/ha)

Requirement = 10.3 man-hrs/ha

% PLANTING EFFICIENCY of EDRT versus Manual Transplanting Method % p. eff = (360 - 10.3) / 360 = 0.9714

% planting efficiency = 97.14%

Hence, EDRT is 97.14% more efficient than Manual Transplanting Method in terms of planting speed.

Bill of Materials POWER TRANSMISSION 1 Piece Honda GX200 Motor 10,000.00 10,000.00

1 Piece RC60x2x9T 428.00 428.00

1 Piece RC60x2x36T 3,487.00 3,487.00

1 Piece RC50x2x27T 1,442.00 1,442.00

1 Piece RC50x2x9T 310.00 310.00

4 Pieces RC50x1x9T 130.00 520.00

1 Piece Pulley 3x2Ax3/4 171.00 171.00

1 Piece Pulley 9x2Ax1 513.00 513.00

2 Pieces A51 V-Belt 110.00 220.00

2 Pieces 3.75Dx29T 500.00 1,000.00

1 Piece DF 50x2x70links 359.00 359.00

1 Piece DF 60x2x56links 493.00 493.00

2 Pieces Hit.50x1x48links 176.00 352.00

1 Set 10DP Gears 8,000.00 8,000.00

Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount FABRICATION OF GEARBOX 1 Piece C.Spring #17x1/2x1/2 220.00 220.00

1 Piece C. Spring #13x3/8x12 460.00 460.00

1 Set Cam Shoe and Gears 2,598.00 2,598.00

1 Piece Cylindrical Cam 3,000.00 3,000.00 FABRICATION OF SEEDER 8 Pieces SS Flat Bar 1/4x1.5x2.75 48.00 384.00

1 Piece SS Square Bar 1x2x2 218.00 218.00

1 Piece SS Square Bar 1/2x1/2x7 86.00 86.00

1 Piece SS Square Bar 1.5x1.5x6 737.00 737.00

1 Piece SS Flat Bar 1/4x1.5x30 409.00 409.00

1 Piece SS Rod 1/4Dx9 20.00 20.00

1 Piece SS Rod 1/4Dx15 25.00 25.00

1 Piece SS Rod 1/4Dx6 253.00 253.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 1/4x2x3.5 84.00 168.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 1x1/2x3 215.00 430.00

2 Pieces SS Rod 3/8Dx2.75 15.00 30.00

2 Pieces SS Rod 1.5Dx2 137.00 274.00

2 Pieces SS Rod 3/8x3 20.00 40.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 3/4x1.5x4.25 226.00 452.00

2 Pieces SS Square Bar 1/4x1.25x4.5 63.00 126.00

BODY AND ASSEMBLY 15 Pieces SS Welding Rod 110.001 650.00

2 Feet Shafting 1Dx24 120.00 240.00

1 Piece Flatt Bar 3/16x2 450.00 450.00

1 Piece Tube 1x1 340.00 340.00

3 Pieces Plain Bar 3/4 275.00 825.00

2 Pieces Plain Bar 1/4 85.00 190.00

3 Pieces Sand Blade 60.00 180.00

3 Pieces Grinder Stone 100.00 300.00

1 Piece Shafting 3/4x20 980.00 980.00

1 Piece Shafting 1/2x20 750.00 750.00

2 Pieces Pillow Block 1 1/8 280.00 560.00

2 Pieces Pillow Block 1 inch 190.00 380.00

2 Pieces Flat Bar 1/4x3x20 550.00 1,100.00

2 Pieces Flat Bar 1/4x2x20 460.00 920.00

1 Set BI Schedule 40 Pipe 1x20 (3 pcs.) 400.00 400.00

1 Piece BI Pipe 1/2x20 275.00 275.00

3 Meters 1 1/8 Shafting 400.00 1,200.00

1 Meter 3/4 Shafting 328.00 328.00 Wire Cutting and EDT 2,417.00

Mechanic and Machinist 15,000.00

Painter 2,000.00

LABOR

TOTAL: 67,710.00 Php

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Rice production is a major sector in agriculture greatly increase the production volume per time

reducing labor costs

efficiency compared to manual labor

Reduced body stresses on farmers while increasing area covered unit time Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount TOTAL 19,417.00 TOTAL 11,068.00 TOTAL 3,652.00 TOTAL 6,278.00 TOTAL 27,295.00 stainless steel due to the

nature of its operation RC50 and RC60 to produce desired

speed ratios

4:1 Idler 2 to Wheel

1:1 Gear Box to Seeder Unit

1:3 Idler 3 to Seeder Shaft 5.3 Recommendations Engine driven rice transplanting machine must only be used on wet low land terrain and must have a water depth range of 7.5-9 inches.

Improving the features of the engine-driven rice transplanting machine so as to add a variable speed mechanism and increase the seeder units.

Instead of using an oscillating motion on the seeder assembly, the group suggests to come up with a new design using rotating motion for the seeder unit. 5.1 Summary 5.2 Conclusion Fabricating an engine-driven rice transplanting machine is a time-consuming process requires in depth knowledge on machine elements, agricultural standards, material selection and overall machine design concepts Gear Material, AISI 4140 = 270,000 psi ultimate strength (Faires, 4th Ed)

Gear Ratio = 4:1

Power Transmitted = 2.16HP

Efficiency, n = 100%

Diametral Pitch, DP = 10 teeth/inch

Driver Number of Teeth = 22 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 2.2 inches

Shaft RPM = 480rpm

Face width, b = 0.75 inches

Driven Number of Teeth = 88 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 8.8 inches

Shaft RPM = 120rpm

Face Width, b = 0.75 inches

Base Stress Analysis on the Pinion (smaller gear)

Velocity= π(D)N= π(2.2")(480rpm)(1/12)(1/60) = 4.61 ft/sec = 276.5 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 4.61 ft/sec

Working Load=(Power(550))/Velocity= (2.16HP(550))/(4.61 fps)=258 lbf

Working Load, Fw = 258 lbf

Dynamic Load,Fd=Fw+ (0.05V(b+Fw))/(0.05V+√((b+Fw)))

= 258+ (0.05(276.5)(0.75+258))/(0.05(276.5)+√((0.75+258)))

Dynamic Load, Fd = 378 lbf

Strength of Teeth

Lewis Form Factor = 0.559 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Strength Reduction Factor, kf = 2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Fs= Sby/(k_f (DP))= (270,000psi(0.75in)(0.559))/(2 (10T/in) )= 5,660 lbf

Strength of teeth = 5,660 lbf

Strength of gear teeth is greater than dynamic load; hence, the gears could handle the load

Stress Analysis Idler 1 to Idler 2 Gear Gear Material, Steel = 80,000 psi ultimate strength

Efficiency, n = 97%

Gear Ratio = 1:1

Number of Teeth = 29 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 3.75 inches

Maximum RPM = 120rpm

Power Transmitted = 2.16HP

Face width, b = 0.75 inches

Diametral Pitch,DP=Teeth/(Pitch Diameter)= 29T/3.75=7.7T/in

DP = 7.7 Teeth/inch

Velocity= π(D)N= π(3.75")(120rpm)(1/12)(1/60) = 1.96 ft/sec = 117.8 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 1.96 ft/sec

Working Load=(Power(550))/Velocity= (2.16HP(550))/(1.96 fps)=605 lbf

Working Load, Fw = 605 lbf

Dynamic Load,Fd=Fw+ (0.05V(b+Fw))/(0.05V+√((b+Fw)))

= 605+ (0.05(117.8)(0.75+605))/(0.05(117.8)+√((0.75+605)))

Dynamic Load, Fd = 722 lbf

Strength of Teeth

Lewis Form Factor = 0.597 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Strength Reduction Factor, kf = 2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Fs= Sby/(k_f (DP))= (80,000psi(0.75in)(0.597))/(2 (7.7T/in) )= 2,326 lbf

Strength of teeth = 2,326 lbf

Strength of gear teeth is greater than dynamic load; hence, the gears could handle the load

Gear Material, Steel = 80,000 psi ultimate strength

Efficiency, n = 100%

Gear Ratio = 12:7

Power Transmitted = 2.16HP

Diametral Pitch, DP = 20 teeth/inch

Driver Number of Teeth = 28 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 1.4 inches

Shaft RPM = 360rpm

Face width, b = 0.75 inches

Driven Number of Teeth = 48 teeth

Pitch Diameter = 2.4 inches

Shaft RPM = 210rpm

Face Width, b = 0.75 inches

Base Stress Analysis on the Pinion (smaller gear)

Velocity= π(D)N= π(1.4")(360rpm)(1/12)(1/60) = 2.2 ft/sec = 131.9 fpm

Pitch Velocity = 2.2 ft/sec

Working Load=(Power(550))/Velocity= (2.16HP(550))/(2.2 fps)=540 lbf

Working Load, Fw = 540 lbf

Dynamic Load,Fd=Fw+ (0.05V(b+Fw))/(0.05V+√((b+Fw)))

= 540+ (0.05(131.9)(0.75+540))/(0.05(131.9)+√((0.75+540)))

Dynamic Load, Fd = 659 lbf

Strength of Teeth

Lewis Form Factor = 0.597 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Strength Reduction Factor, kf = 2 (Faires, 4th Ed.)

Fs= Sby/(k_f (DP))= (80,000psi(0.75in)(0.597))/(2 (20T/in) )= 895.lbf

Strength of teeth = 895 lbf

Strength of gear teeth is greater than dynamic load; hence, the gears could handle the load

Design RPM = 480rpm

Material = Mild Steel

Yield Strength, Sy = 61, 886 psi

Diameter = 1 inch solid

Allowable torque,Ta=Sy(π)(D^3 )/16= (61,886psi(π)1inch^3)/16=12,151 lb*in

Ta = 12,151 lb*in

Induced Torque,Ti=P/N= (2.16HP(550 ((ft*lb)/s)/HP)(12in/ft))/480rpm(1/60)(2π/rev) = 284 lb*in

Ti = 284 lb*in

Allowable torque is greater than the induced torque; hence, the shaft could handle the load

Design RPM = 120rpm

Material = Mild Steel

Yield Strength, Sy = 61, 886 psi

Diameter = 1 inch solid

Allowable torque,Ta=Sy(π)(D^3 )/16= (61,886psi(π)1inch^3)/16=12,151 lb*in

Ta = 12,151 lb*in

Induced Torque,Ti=P/N= (2.16HP(550 ((ft*lb)/s)/HP)(12in/ft))/120rpm(1/60)(2π/rev) = 1,134 lb*in

Ti = 1,134 lb*in

Allowable torque is greater than the induced torque; hence, the shaft could handle the load

Design RPM = 120rpm

Material = Mild Steel

Yield Strength, Sy = 61, 886 psi

Diameter = 1 inch solid

Allowable torque,Ta=Sy(π)(D^3 )/16= (61,886psi(π)(1/2 inch)^3)/16=1,519 lb*in

Ta = 1,519 lb*in

Induced Torque,Ti=P/N= (2.16HP(0.97)(550 ((ft*lb)/s)/HP)(12in/ft))/120rpm(1/60)(2π/rev) = 1,100 lb*in

Ti = 1,100 lb*in

Allowable torque is greater than the induced torque; hence, the shaft could handle the load

Idler 2 to Idler 3 Gear Seeder Shaft to Cylindrical Cam Gear Idler 1 Shaft Torsion Idler 2 Shaft Torsion Idler 3 Shaft Torsion