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WWI - Context and Spark

Global 10 / FHS / Rachford-Stokes
by

Gayle Rachford

on 26 January 2015

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Transcript of WWI - Context and Spark

Germany and Britain became the military and economic centers of European power during the 19th century, while Austria and Russia fell behind.
The Congress of Vienna had established Europe's 5 great powers in 1815:
Britain
France
Prussia
Austria
Russia
Context and Spark
WWI
Rise of Nationalism
Militarism
Even though the Congress of Vienna divided Europe into 5 major powers following Napoleon's first period of exile, upon his return to France, Napoleon made war on the people of Europe until 1821. Following his final exile from France, Europeans were able to live in relative peace from 1843 to 1907.
1914 – Europe Before World War I
1914 – Europe Before World War I
Can you name these nations?
1914 – Europe Before World War I
1914 – Europe Before World War I
Royal 1st cousins…
George V of England – Victoria’s grandson
Germany
Russia
France
Spain
Italy
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Romania
Bulgaria
Serbia
Greece
Albania
Portugal
Britain
Denmark
Netherlands
Belgium
Luxembourg
Switzerland
Montenegro
Sweden
Norway
The Balkan Region - north of Greece and south of Austria-Hungary was an area of ethnic diversity. Over 10 different ethnic groups lived in the Balkans in 1914 and were fiercely loyal to their own kin and "nationalities".
The Balkans
POWDER KEG!
The Black Hand was a secret society of anarchists in the Balkans who had a goal to overthrow the Austrian Habsburg Dynasty and establish the state of "Yugoslavia".
Gavrilo Princip
Alliances...
Wilhelm II (WIlliam II)
Grandson of
Queen Victoria of England
Nicholas II
Tsar of Russia
Married to
Queen Victoria's
granddaughter,
Alexandra
1st cousin of George V,
King of England
Grandson of
Queen Victoria
1st cousin of George V,
King of England
Nicholas II
Telegram to Wilhelm II July 29, 1914, 1:00 A.M.

…Am glad you are back. In this most serious moment, I appeal to you to help me. An ignoble [despised] war has been declared upon a weak country [Serbia]. The indignation [resentment] in Russia, shared fully by me, is enormous. I foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure upon me, and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war. To try and avoid such a calamity [disaster] as a European war, I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far.

Nicky
1st cousins –
“Georgie” and "William"
1st cousins – “Georgie” and “Niky”
WWI Serbia - Part 1
WWI Serbia - Part 2
However, by 1871, Otto von Bismark, Chancellor of Germany, had unified the German states of northern Europe through his "blood and iron" policies and created the mega-power, Germany.
In 1870, Bismark instigated a war with France and not only took Napoleon III prisoner, he also annexed Alsace-Lorraine - a fertile region in north-east France along the banks of the Rhine River.
MILITARISM
By 1871, Bismark was satisfied with the unification of Germany. However, by 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II - King of Prussia - dismissed Bismark and began militarizing the German state.
Germany began to build their army and navy because they thought that France could attempt to take Alsace-Lorraine back in a surprise attack.
WWI Serbia - Part 3
By 1914, military technology was so advanced, conflict between states could take place at sea, on land, or in the air. Weapons were so destructive that entire legions of soldiers could die on the battle field in a single day.
Queen Victoria of England
Wilhelm II of Germany – Victoria’s grandson


Franz Joseph
Franz
Ferdinand
Sultan Mehmed V
Kaiser of Germany
King of Prussia
Triple Alliance = Central Powers
Germany + Ottomans + Austria-Hungary
George V King of England
ALLIANCE
TRIPLE ENTENTE
Diplomacy - avoiding conflict through
negotiations & agreements.
1st cousins –
Georgie, William, Alexandra
Alexandra of Russia –
Victoria’s grand daughter
Nicholas II of Russia –
Christian’s grandson
King Christian IX of Denmark
"Father-in-Law of Europe"
ALLIANCE
TRIPLE ENTENTE
"Everything about me must be BIG!"
Bismarck's Franco-Prussian War
Full transcript