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An Exploration of
Transcript of An Exploration of
Rationale for Study
Theme 2: Personalization
Supervisors’ recognition of strengths and challenges of facilitating DDCS and their personal interactions with these experiences
Distance-delivered clinical supervision
Theme 1: Intentionality
Awareness of Strengths and Capabilities
Dominique Hammonds, MS LPCA, NCC
Multiple Quality Technologies
Supervisors’ awareness of and purposeful selection of factors associated with DDCS
“What comes to my mind is among the three roles like the counselor role, or the teacher role, and the consultant role. In the online environment, if you’re not careful you can just be so focused on the case and not provide enough process and develop rapport through that working alliance”.
Development and Maintenance of Rapport
“Being mindful of the relationship piece is so much more important. I cannot take that for granted. In person, you can work on that slowly [with] the student or supervisee and you can warm up pretty quick but in [the] online environment it’s not that easy. Or at least the perception of having established the working alliance, it doesn’t come that easily. So in a sense, looking at the theory or the component of online supervision, I think we have to place great emphasis on establishing working alliance in the first stage of the supervision relationship".
“Across the state of Ohio. . . there were three professional counselors in an area about three hours away from where our main office is and they [trainees] haven’t been able to work toward their independent licensure because it’s kind of a super supervisor-deprived area”.
Supervisors’ intentional selection of how to organize or facilitate DDCS sessions
Behavioral adjustments made on behalf of the supervisor in order to address identified challenges of DDCS
"What I did the second time around is extended it to two hours and I remember that when I did the face-to-face supervision…I remember feedback from students that they wanted, they appreciated if they had time in the beginning even 5-10 minutes for them, among themselves to touch base, catch up with each other to share some of the, like to vent together without me being there. So I tried to replicate that this semester…I was able to spend more time interacting one-on-one more personally in a more personable way. So what I have done this semester is, in the individual time, I don’t do triadic, I just do individual".
Supervisors’ awareness and ownership of the responsibility to manage technologies in a purposeful manner in order to meet the needs of supervisees
Need to be Available
Supervisors’ awareness of how to utilize technologies in order to better meet the needs of the supervisees
“If it’s for supervision, for new counselors that just graduated then there is no reason they can’t get a hold of me because they all have my cell phone number and...I always have that on me. So I mean they can, the lack of physical presence I don’t think is a barrier".
Intentional Modality Choice
Supervisors' thoughtful consideration of the characteristics of the in-person or technological means used to facilitate DDCS
"I don’t use text, I just primarily use e-mail to communicate with them if they have specific issues they could talk to me and then we could schedule a time to go into Adobe Connect™ and have that face-to-face time with them in real time”.
Intentional selection of the way in which supervisors respond to the needs of trainees. Supervisor role specifically highlights supervisors’ selection of the role counselor, teacher, or consultant
Supervisors’ recognition of their increased responsibility to attend to relational aspects of the supervisory relationship in DDCS
Supervisors’ recognition of external factors prompting their engagement in DDCS and the resulting way in which they chose to meet this need
Captures structural considerations related to supervisors’ translational strategies in organizing and preparing session content and logistical factors in DDCS
Personal Impact of Experience
Supervisors’ acknowledgment of negative factors associated with DDCS
Increased Supervisee Participation
Supervisors' beliefs about attributes of supervisee(s) that indicate their appropriateness for participation in DDCS
“I think that the supervisees that do best with online or distance supervision would be folks that are self starters that are pretty, I don’t want to say motivated, because I think a lot of people are motivated. I think some folks are more independent, they’re more comfortable”.
Negative aspects of the technology or electronic equipment used to facilitate DDCS
“In a group format…it’s not always easy to follow along, especially if...like if someone’s phone isn’t muted or if there is a lot of background noise [be]cause they’re driving or if they have kids at home or dogs or whatever. It can kind of disrupt the flow of the meeting”.
Negative aspects of DDCS related to the physical distance between supervisors and supervisee(s)
“It had become this big stinky dead elephant in the room. For them at the site when they were talking about group process and who would run the groups and she [a supervisee] really wanted to run the group because she loved group work but yet, she was like how can I run…this kind of group when I might trigger people. But you know, her face was full, but I would never had known that weight was an issue unless she had brought this up and so after bringing this up, she was more willing to push the computer further away so that we could see more of her”.
Supervisors’ recognition of benefits and positive experiences associated with facilitating DDCS
Helpful or positive results of engaging in DDCS
“It [DDCS] really preserves her time and allows her to…focus on her caseload and it also in another kind of way helps foster her autonomy.”
Supervisee experiences of increased participation and time commitment in supervision interventions due to the distance format as reported by the supervisor
“In the online environment with the discussion board I can respond to a learner, other learners will see my response and sometimes chime in and so that, then there’s kinda this back and forth that happens. So, that I actually think in terms of the follow-up learning, I think it’s higher in the Blackboard™ environment than it is in the face-to-face in the same room environment”.
“I was concerned when I first started thinking about doing it this way I was thinking that maybe the connection wouldn’t necessarily be there or my supervisees wouldn’t feel supported or that somehow it would seem less professional and there would be less of an investment in the professional process but…instead I’m not finding that”.
Similarities between supervisors’ experiences facilitating in-person and DDCS
Supervisors’ subjective descriptions of attitudes, emotional adjustment, and personal and professional development as a result of participation in DDCS
“I do like it a lot and professionally it pushes me to a different level and it required me to be more creative and to be more willing to go out of the box to do things and I have to develop a different bag of tricks so to speak and I can no longer rely on what my previous experiences have been. I think overall it’s a good thing too. I welcome the experience. It stretched me to new learning levels and domains and it’s been good for me”.
Love of technology
Interest in supervision
Organization and structure
Technology in education
Technology in counselor education
Technology in supervision
Problem and Purpose
Limited guidelines for use
Limited empirical data
Supervisee focused literature
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to qualitatively explore supervisors’ experiences of supervisory working alliance and session factors in distance-delivered clinical supervision (DDCS).
RQ1- What are supervisors’ perceptions of factors that impact supervisory working alliance in DDCS?
RQ2- What are supervisors’ beliefs about how delivering supervision online affects session factors?
RQ3- What are supervisors’ beliefs about how supervisory working alliance and session factors differ in DDCS versus in face-to-face supervision?
Use of independent analyst
RQ 1 - Factors that impact SWA in DDCS?
Supervisee characteristics, technological challenges, proximity, need to be available, intentional modality choice, session design, increased supervisee participation, parallel experiences, benefits, multiple quality technologies, development and maintance of rapport, and enhanced supervisor role
RQ 2 - Impact of DDCS on session factors?
Session type (group vs. individual), meeting time, duration of session, supervisor time investment, mode of service delivery, and supervisor style
RQ 3 - Differences between DDCS and in-person supervision?
DDCS required increased supervisor: time commitment, effort toward developing and maintaining rapport, preparation time, organization and structure, need to be available, use of translational strategies.
Limited diversity of work environment and racial background
Balance styles (direction and support)
Intentional selection of roles (supervisee focused vs. task orientation)
Suggested for more advanced trainees
Use of small supervision groups
Use of individual DDCS
In-person + DDCS
Recognition of Translational Strategies
Attend to the supervisory working alliance and session factors as part of preparation for supervision.
For Future Research
Supervisor rapport role
Diversity focus in DDCS
Supervisor training and outcome research