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Transcript of Ernest Hemingway
Dressed in girls' clothing by his mother, as was the fashion. Ed Physician
Harsh to his children Grace Music teacher
Bullied her husband
Missed out on her dream (could have been an opera singer, but "had you children." High School (1913) He strove to be the center of attention; he would take any dare and laugh it off when he hurt himself. A poor athlete, so he would make up stories of his prowess on the field. This was the start of his literary career. First story was of a hunter who committed suicide. Post High School (1917) Got a job as a reporter for the Kansas City Star.
Reported on the crime beat.
Learned journalistic rules of style: short sentences, short paragraphs, vigorous language, positive--not negative World War I (1917) Rejected by the Army for bad vision
Volunteered for the Red Cross as an ambulance driver in Italy. During a delivery, troops were bombarded.
His leg was full of shrapnel.
Fell in love with Agnes, his nurse, during his recovery. Inspiration for A Farewell to Arms Discharged and returned home in 1919
A "war hero" who lied to newspapers about being a soldier in the Italian army and personally decorated by the king.
Agnes wrote to break up with him, because of their age difference.
Mother kicked him out of the house to "motivate" him. Chicago (1920) Wrote articles for the Chicago Star and worked odd jobs.
Met 29-year-old Hadley Richardson at a party, who loved him despite their 8 year age difference..
They married nine months later. Paris Author and friend, Sherwood Anderson encouraged Hemingway to move to Paris.
He got a job there as a reporter, and he and Hadley moved.
Met many influential expatriate writers and artists:
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Ezra Pound Called them the "Lost Generation" Idolized her husband, though she often came second to his writing. Once decided to pay him a surprise visit, bringing all of his writing on the train with her... She lost it all. Wrote about his "Lost Generation" in A Moveable Feast and The Sun Also Rises, which his mother criticized for being too vulgar. Developed his craft in Paris, with the help of Gertrude Stein and other artists. "I would stand and look out over the roofs of Paris and thought 'Don't worry; you have always written before, and you will write now. All you have to do is write one true sentence. Write the truest sentence that you know.'" (A Moveable Feast) Spain (1923) Loved the straightforward people and language.
Began to develop a reputation as a writer. Fascinated with bullfighting
Named son after a matador
Death in the Afternoon: book on bullfighting (considered the "Bible of bullfighting") John Hadley Nicanor Pauline (1927) Paulene Hadley Fell in love with Hadley's friend, Paulene, who moved in with them. While Hadley was becoming matronly, Paulene was more cosmopolitan.
Hadley agreed to a divorce after Ernest spent 100 days away from Paulene.
He gave Hadley the proceeds from The Sun Also Rises. Hadley would always be Ernest's first, truest love. He said she was "the truest, and loveliest person I have ever known." He said, "I'm trying in all my stories to get the feeling of the actual life across, not to just depict it or criticize it, but to actually make it alive. You can't do this without putting in the bad and the ugly as well as what is beautiful, because, if it is all beautiful, you can't believe it. Things aren't that way." This was an intensely difficult time. He wrote Paulene that if the problem were not solved after 100 days, he would kill himself. Key West, Florida (1928) Loved the warm weather
Loved fishing along the Cuban coast
Smuggled Cuban rum for a local bar
Built his own boat, hooked the biggest swordsfish on the coast, won fishing contests Rose daily at 5 AM to write
Writing was more important than anything
Began developing the "code hero" in his stories Once won $200 in a fishing contest, but the locals were angry that he had "taken their money."
He challenged them to a boxing match; they could have their money back if anyone could last three rounds in the ring.
He kept the money. Ernest converted to Catholicism to marry Pauline, but never truly believed in God. While Ernest was writing A Farewell to Arms,
he received news that his father had committed suicide. He blamed his mother for her constant bullying. Suicide is common in the Hemingway family:
he told Paulene's mother that he would probably go the same way. Jack Patrick Gregory While in Key West, Paulene gave birth to Hemingway's youngest two sons, Patrick and Gregory. The doctor told her she could not have any more children. Because she was a devout Catholic, this meant their sexual relationship was over. Paulene didn't really enjoy being a mother.
Ernest was very involved in their lives when he was around, taking them on adventures, but was completely absent when he was writing.
The three boys grew up craving their father's love and attention. Africa (1933) Ernest and Paulene traveled to Kenya for a 10-week safari Called death "that great whore, Death," and believed that the way a person faces death showed his true character. Like the bullfighters, wanted to test himself under pressure. Enjoyed the idea that a coward could be transformed into a courageous man during the hunt. Killed over 30 animals, including 3 lions, during this trip, and gathered a wealth of material for later literary work. Havana (1940) Had an affair with Jane Mason, a beautiful, emotionally unstable younger woman, who filled the void he felt with Paulene. Met Martha Gellhorn, a novelist and journalist, at Sloppy Joe's bar in Havana.
Martha moved in with Hemingway and Paulene. Martha was a serious and adventurous writer, and she and Hemingway left together as journalists to cover the Spanish Civil War. Upon returning from the war, Hemingway married Gellhorn weeks after his divorce from Paulene. Professional rivalry between Hemingway and Gellhorn Gregorio Fuentes Met Gregorio in Cuba
Eventually created the character of Santiago in The Old Man and the Sea off of Gregorio. Mary Welsh (1946) Divorced Gellhorn in 1945 and married Mary, another war correspondent, but who was much more submissive. "I wanted him to be the master, to be stronger and cleverer than I. To remember constantly how big he was and how small I was." Adriana Ivancich 19 year old daughter of an Italian aristocrat
He developed an intense crush on Adriana, writing his novel, Across the River, in which a middle-aged colonel and young Italian heiress make furtive love in a gondola.
The novel ruined Adriana's reputation, and embarrassed Hemingway. Critics said Hemingway's literary career was over. Hemingway responded, "The time to prove what you're made of is not when you're at the top of your form, but when you've been knocked on your ass and you have to get up off the canvas. The time has come for a counter-attack." The Old Man and the Sea His counter-attack was... About a Cuban fisherman who catches an enormous swordfish and fights it for days on the sea. Main character modeled after Gregorio Fuentes He finished the novel in only eight weeks.
Considered the defining work of Hemingway's career.
Revived his career. 1953: Won Pulitzer Prize
1954: Won Nobel Prize for Literature A Series of Tragedies Hemingway and Martha traveled to Africa for a safari in 1953-54.
While there, Hemingway was involved in two plane crashes, the second of which had newspapers reporting his death. He injured his brain while head-butting open the door of a flaming plane.
Also: ruptured spleen, kidney, liver, and first-degree burns. ALSO:
Shot himself in the foot when shark-hunting.
Clawed when playing with a lion.
Severely cut when a sky-light fell on his head.
Survived malaria, pneumonia, dysentry, anthrax, and skin cancer.
Contracted hepatitis, anemia, and diabetes.
Consumed a quart of whiskey a day.
Suffered severe depression and paranoia in part as a result of his brain injury. Underwent electroshock therapy for his depression. Attempted suicide by walking into an airplane propeller. He was prevented. He lost much of his memory, and was unable to write. Attempted suicide twice with guns which were kept loaded in his house. Took his own life with a shotgun in his home in 1957. Met Gregorio in Cuba, and he would later become the model for Hemingway's Santiago in The Old Man and the Sea.